# Exam #2 BSC Fall. NAME Key answers in bold

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2 a. TH and th b. T, H, t, and h c. T and H d. Th, and th e. th and Th 9. If the frequency of crossing-over between these loci is 20%, the expected frequency of gametes produced by an individual with the genotype TH//th is a. 10% TH, 10% th, 40% th, and 40% Th b. 20% TH and 80% th c. 10% th, 10% Th, 40% TH, and 40% th d. 20% Th and 80% th e. 20% TH, 80% th, 20% Th, and 80% th 10. If the frequency of crossing-over between these loci is 20%, what fraction of the offspring from the cross TH//th x th//th would be expected to be short and have thorns a. 5% b. 10% c. 20% d. 40% e. 80% 11. The gametes produced by an individual with the genotype ab//ab are 43% ab, 47% Ab, 4% ab, and 6% AB. What is the map distance between these two loci? a. 5 map units b. 10 map units c. 20 map units d. 47 map units e. 90 map units 12. In the cross AaBBCCDd x aabbccdd, what is the expected frequency of offspring with the genotype aabbccdd? a. 0 b. 1/4 c. 1/2 d. 3/4 e. 1/ In the cross AABbccDd x aabbccdd, what is the expected frequency of offspring that are homozygous at the C locus? a. 0 b. 1/4 c. 1/2 d. 3/4 e. 1/ Six children of the same parents have the ABO blood types AB (two have this type), A (two have this type), B, and O. What are the genotypes of the parents? a. I A I A and I A I B b. I A I B and I A I B c. ii and I A I B d. I A i and I B i 15. Which of the following is true about meiosis? a. centromeres divide in the first meiotic division b. synapsis occurs during the second meiotic division c. no new DNA is synthesized between the first and second meiotic divisions d. cells produced by meiosis are identical to the parent cell e. none of these is true 16. An individual that carries 2 different alleles at the locus for a given trait is 2

3 a. homologous for the trait b. heterozygous for the trait c. hemizygous for the trait d. homozygous for the trait e. homogametic for the trait 17. Which of the following is not true of crossing over a. each cross-over event results in 2 recombinant gametes b. the greater the map distance between loci the less likely is crossing over between them c. the probability of crossing over between some loci is different than the probability of crossing over between other loci d. chiasmata are physical evidence of the occurrence of crossing over e. all of these are true 18. The ability of genes at one locus to mask the expression of alleles at a different locus is called a. pleiotropy b. dominance c. incomplete penetrance d. incomplete dominance 19. Non-disjunction during meiosis causes a. translocation b. linkage between traits c. autosomal recessive mutations d. aneuploid gametes 20. Which of the following human cell types would contain 22 pairs of autosomes and 2 X chromosomes a. an unfertilized egg cell b. a sperm cell c. a male somatic cell d. a female somatic cell e. both a and d 21. Recombinant gametes are the result of a. mutation b. crossing over c. non-disjunction d. phenotypic plasticity e. aneuploidy 22. Which is not part of Mendel s theory of inheritance that differs from previous theories a. traits are passed between generations by an indirect mechanism b. it is possible to predict the expected frequencies of offspring phenotypes c. offspring traits are not a blend of parental traits d. the factors that determine traits are not changed as they are passed between generations e. all describe ways that Mendel s theory was different 23. Which of the following is NOT true of sex chromosomes 3

4 a. sex chromosomes of the same species can be of different sizes b. one sex may have fewer sex chromosomes than the other c. different sexes may be the heterogametic sex in different species d. some loci on the sex chromosomes may not contribute to determining sex e. all are true of sex chromosomes 24. Which of the following occurs during the second meiotic division a. pairing of homologous chromosomes b. separation of sister chromatids c. separation of homologous chromosomes d. reduction of chromosome number e. production of identical daughter cells 25.Which of the following is not true for traits determined by X-linked loci in species with XY sex determination a. more phenotypes may be possible in females than males b. males with a recessive allele will always express it c. phenotypes due to recessive mutations will be more common in males d. males inherit genes for these traits only from their mother e. all of these are true 26. Which is true of traits for which more than 2 alleles are possible at a locus a. it is usually not possible to predict offspring phenotype and genotype ratios for these traits b. there are more possible phenotypes than if there were only 2 alleles c. the traits will have a continuous distribution d. some individuals will be hemizygous for these traits e. dominance at these loci will be incomplete 27. Linkage is different from pleiotropy because a. pleiotropy is due to the effects of genes located on different chromosomes b. traits affected by pleiotropy undergo recombination c. the effects of linkage are due to a single gene product d. effects of linkage can be broken up by crossing over 28. Which of the following describes a non-chromosomal mechanism of sex determination a. in some species, haploid individuals are all male b. in some species the ratio of autosomes to X chromosomes determine sex c. in some species, reproduction is parthenogenetic d. in some species, both sexes are heterogametic e. in some species, low nest temperature produces males 29. Which of the following does not describe a way that sexual reproduction promotes genetic variation a. fusion of egg and sperm nuclei from different parents to form a zygote b. exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes c. potential for different arrangements of homologous chromosome pairs during meiosis 4

5 d. linkage caused by genes for different traits being located on the same chromosome e. all describe how sexual reproduction promotes genetic variation 30. Which of the following types of mutation is most likely to be deleterious a. an insertion in a non-coding region of the genome b. a substitution in a non-coding region of the genome c. an insertion in a coding region of the genome d. a substitution in a non-coding region of the genome e. a deletion in a non-coding region of the genome 31. Which of the following occurs in both mitosis and meiosis a. separation of sister chromatids b. synapsis c. production of haploid cell products d. crossing over 32. Polygenic inheritance describes the inheritance of a. traits for which heterozygotes have the same phenotype as one homozygote b. multiple traits influenced by a single locus c. multiple traits whose genes interact d. traits influenced by more than one locus e. None of the above 33. Which of the following techniques would be most useful for determining with certainty that a particular individual has the genotype XYY a. a pedigree analysis b. a karyotype analysis c. analysis of sex chromatin (Barr bodies) d. a and c would be equally useful e. b and c would be equally useful 5

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