Unit 8 Lesson 7 Later Islamic Empires

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1 Unit 8 Lesson 7 Later Islamic Empires

2 Lesson 7 Later Islamic Empires Write the term or person in your notebook, and then write the description that best matches it. 1. Mehmed II a. The First caliph 2. Abu Bakr b. Leader who ruled during the height of the Ottoman Empire 3. Shia c. Group that believed that caliphs had to be descendants of Muhammad 4. Sunni d. Leader of the Ottomans who used huge cannons to conquer Constantinople 5. Suleyman I e. Group that did not believe that caliphs had to be related to Muhammad

3 Generalization: Contact, conflict and conquest often result in cultural diffusion Big Idea After the early spread of Islam, three large Islamic empires formed the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal.

4 - explain How did Akbar s policies help unify the Mughal Empire? His policy of tolerance helped unite the empire and make it peaceful - contrast How did Sunni and Shia beliefs about caliphs differ? Sunnis didn t think caliphs had to be related to Muhammad. The Shia thought caliphs had to be members of Muhammad s family - evaluate in your opinion, was conquest or trade more effective in spreading Islam? Why?

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7 The Ottoman Empire - expanded - Eastern Europe - North Africa and Arabia analyzing how did the Ottomans gain land for their empire? - systematically taking lands from the Byzantine Empire - key to expansion their army - Janissaries - Christian boys taken as slaves and trained to be Islamic warriors The Ottomans trained Christian boys from conquered towns to be fierce soldiers and take territory form the Byzantine Empire; they used new gunpowder weapons and huge cannons

8 - Constantinople fell to Mehmed II in he made it his new capital - changed the name to Istanbul - converted Hagia Sophia to a mosque - total replacement of Greco-Roman culture with Islamic - Suleiman I (Suleiman the Magnificent) - empire at its height under his reign - took control of the Eastern Mediterranean - pushed into Eastern Europe - stopped by Vlad Tepes - Empire lasted until the end of World War I - analyze how did the conquest of Constantinople help the Ottoman Empire expand? Its location made expanding into Europe much easier.

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10 Captured Constantinople in changed name to Istanbul age 21

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13 His navy was stopped by a chain carried his ships overland

14 Took Yugoslavia and Albania - went against Venice and other Italian city-states - Occupied Syria, Israel, Egypt and Algeria

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18 Fought Prince Vald of Wallachia

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20 The Safavid Empire - Muslim empire in Persia - in conflict with other Muslim groups - Islam had spilt in the 600s over who should be caliph - Shia thought only Muhammad s descendants could be caliphs - Safavid were Shia - Sunni caliphs did not have to be related to Muhammad - Ottomans were Sunnis Esma il Abbas - conquered Persia in took the old Persian title of shah - made Shiism the official religion of the empire - wars to expand Shiism - won against the Uzbeks, but lost to the Ottomans - strengthened the military used gunpowder weapons - used slave soldiers - defeated the Uzbeks and took back land from the Ottomans - blended Persian and Muslim cultures - empire lasted until the mid-1700s

21 - identify what two cultural traditions did the Safavid Empire blend? Persian and Muslim - analyze why did the Safavids come into conflict with the Ottomans? Because of a conflict concerning how to decide who should become caliph - define how do the Sunnis and Shia differ? The Shia thought that only Muhammad s descendants could be caliph. The Sunni did not think caliphs had to be related to Muhammad

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23 Muslim rule of India 700s to 1200s - repeated invasion by Muslim invaders - southern India - The Deccan stayed Hindu - taken by the Muslims in the 1300s

24 The Delhi Sultanate 1200s - Turkish Muslims had conquered large parts of Northern India - capital at Delhi - treated Hindu's harshly, but could not force them to convert - two religions lived side by side some diffusion, but not mixed

25 The Mughal Empire - Turkish/Mongol Muslim empire in northern India - founded by Babur in Akbar - expanded the empire - policy of religious tolerant - Shah Jahan - Taj Mahal - finding main idea how did peace and unity in the Mughal empire lead to rich culture? Various groups, such as the Muslims and Hindus, lived together and over time elements of Persian, Islamic and Hindu cultures blended

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29 Founded by Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur - decedent of Timur [great-great grandson] - conquered Delhi in 1526 founded a new kingdom - defeated last Delhi Sultan Ibrahim shah Lodi at the First Battle of Painpat - his death led to civil war

30 Followed by his son Humayun - lost the empire and had to flee to Persia, but eventually got it back (with Persian help) and then expanded it - died coming down stairs with books, call to prayer tripped on his robe and f ell down the stairs - died 3 days later

31 1556 his son Akbar took power - continued to expand the empire capital Delhi - 13 when he took the throne - patron of the arts and architecture - allowed freedom of religion - tried to end conflict between Muslim and Hindu - appointed Hindus to the government and took Hindu wives, held religious discussion among groups, gave money to build not only Muslim Mosques, but also Hindu temples and Christian churches - died of dysentery

32 Followed by his son Jahangir (Persian conqueror of the world) - wife Nur Jahan real power behind the throne - ruled with an iron fist during her husbands alcohol and opium addiction - this would eventually kill him

33 Shah Johan (Persian king of the world) born Shahzada Khurram - descended from both Genghis Khan and Charlemagne - when he took power, executed his chief rivals and imprisoned Nur Jahan - considered a golden age expanded empire with his sons as generals

34 At 15, married Persian Ajumand Banu Begun called Mumtaz Mahal (Jewel of the Palace) - traveled with her husband constant companion and trusted confidant - considered perfect wife with no aspiration to political power - built the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wife who died giving birth to their 14 th child

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36 Became ill in oldest son, Dara took role as regent angered his other brothers - Shuja and Murad Baksh marched on Agra - 3 rd son, Aurangzeb took command of the army and defeated Dara at the Battle of Samugarh - Shah Jahan recovered by Aurangzeb declared him incompetent and imprisoned him - died of dysentery in 1666

37 Aurangzeb Alamgir took over in considered the last great Moghul king - ruled India, Pakistan, Bangladest and most of Afghanistan - prohibited all religions except Islam - dismissed Hindus from government - raised taxes on Hindus - destroyed Hindu temples - started war against Hindu Kingdoms in Southern India - failed to conqueror them died in 1707

38 Empire weakened - civil wars between Muslim nobility - law and order broke down - corrupt government - religious persecution - Delhi invaded by Persians in Europeans began to control trade French and British - eventually the British took control from the Mogul Empire

39 a. Abu Bakr 1. Chosen as leader of Islam after the death of Muhammad b. Baghdad 2. Title that Muslims use for highest leader c. caliph 3.Ruled Spain for over 700 years d. Islam 4.Slave soldiers, converted to Islam and became fierce warriors e. Janissaries 5. Capital of Islamic Empire in 762 f. Mehmed II 6. Led Ottomans to conquer Constantinople in 1453 g. Moors 7. Muslims who thought only descendants of Muhammad could become caliphs h. Mughals 8. Group that thinks caliphs do not have to be related to Muhammad i. Shia 9. Turkish Muslims from Central Asia j. Suleyman I 10. A tomb built between 1631 and 1647 by Emperor Shah Jahan k. Sunni l. Taj Mahal m. temple

40 True or false move to final lesson - Janissaries converted to Islam and became fierce warriors in the Ottoman army. T - The Sunni believed that only a descendant of Muhammad could become the highest leader of Islam. F Shia Determinining the Context of Statements 1. Muhammad a. I have conquered Constantinople. 2. Mehmen II b. I want to build a new palace, the finest ever built in India. 3. Avicenna c. I want to conquer more Muslim lands and convert the people within them to Shisim. 4. Esma il d. I hope my medical encyclopedia helps others to use what I have learned about treating diseases. 5. Abu Bakr e. I have decided to accept the invitation to move north to Medina. 6. A Mughal emperor f. Being chosen as the first caliph is a high honor for me.

41 1. Tolerance a. The landmass that includes Europe and Asia 2. Charlemagne b. The Muslims title for the highest leader of Islam 3. topography c. The man who brought Islam to Arabia 4. Jihad d. To struggle, or to make an effort; also holy war. 5. Charlemagne e. The shape and elevation of land in a region 6. Eurasia f. The king who built up a huge empire in Europe in the late 700s/ 7. Caliph g. A religion based on the messages Muhammad received from Allah 8. Islam h. The Middle Ages is also called the period. 9. Medieval i. Acceptance

42 Word Bank Sufism Five Pillars of Islam The Qur an states that Muslims must make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in their lifetime if they can. A movement called Shiism influenced many poets. Reviewing Themes Religion economics geography politics Technology and innovation 1. Trade, markets, goods 2. A monastery is a community of men who devote their lives to prayer, work and meditation 3. Arabian Peninsula, oasis, sand dunes 4. A missionary is a person who tries to convert others to their faith 5. The Five Pillars of Islam, prayers, mosque

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