1 Foldable Creation Let s create a chemistry book. The book will serve as a major score and an awesome study guide. (40 days of chemistry) Take five sheets of paper lined paper and one sheet of construction paper and fold them in half and staple along the spine (each class will have a unique color) Write your name and class period on the bottom right side of the front cover of the book. Leave space on the front cover of your book for a title. (title it now or later)
2 Table of Contents I. Basic definition of an atom II. The Parts of an Atom & Structure III. A.P.E. M.A.N. IV. Bohr Models V. The periodic table VI. The periodic table and atoms VII. Counting Atoms
3 Basic Definition of an Atom An Atom is the smallest representation of an element that has the same chemical properties as the element. Some examples of what an atom looks like
4 The Parts of An Atom Protons: A positively(+) charged particle found in the nucleus of an atom. Mass 1 A.M.U. Neutrons: A neutral (0) charged particle found in the nucleus of an atom. Mass 1 A.M.U.
5 The structure of an atom Sketch a picture of the atom on your foldable
6 The Parts of An Atom (cont.) Nucleus: The positively charged center of an atom that contains protons (+) and neutrons (0). 99% of the total mass of an atom is found in the nucleus. Electrons: A negatively (-)charged particle that orbits around the nucleus of an atom. Mass 0 A.M.U.
7 Brain Pop Your Task: View Atomic Model and complete the quiz User Name: Hodgesbend Pass Word: BrainPop
8 Draw and Complete the Table Name of Subatomic Particle Location within the atom Electrical Charge Relative Mass Inside the nucleus 1 atomic mass unit (a.m.u.) Neutral 1/1836 amu Basically no mass Nucleus 99% of the mass of the atom
9 Atomic Structure, Mass, and Charge Directions: Draw an atom that has four protons, five neutrons, and four electrons. Complete a key to identify the three major subatomic particles Questions: (1) What is the mass of the atom? (2) What is the electrical charge of the atom in the model? 1,2,3,4,5,6
11 Atomic Structure, Mass, and Charge Directions: Draw an atom that has five protons, six neutrons, and five electrons. Complete a key to identify the three major subatomic particles Questions: (1) What is the mass of the atom? (2) What is the electrical charge of the atom in the model? 7
12 Atomic Structure, Mass, and Charge Directions: Draw an atom that has seven protons, seven neutrons, and seven electrons. Complete a key to identify the three major subatomic particles Questions: (1) What is the mass of the atom? (2) What is the electrical charge of the atom in the model?
13 A.P.E. M.A.N. Atomic #= the # of Protons = the # of Electrons In other words, once you know the atomic number you know how many protons you have and how many electrons you have.
14 M.A.N. (Mass #) (Atomic #) = (# of Neutrons) To calculate the number of neutrons that an atom of an element has subtract the atomic number (smaller number) from the atomic mass or atomic weight (larger number).
15 Element Information on Table Atomic Symbol (usually one capitol letter or one capital letter and one lower case letter).
16 Element Information on Table Atomic Number (the # that does not have a decimal). Note: Each element has a unique Atomic Number
17 Element Information on Table Atomic Mass Number (AKA the mass number is the # that does have a decimal). You must round this number to the nearest whole number.
18 After the Practice Topic: Atoms and Login: Hodgesbend Pass Word: Brainpop
19 A.P.E. M.A.N. Practice 79 Determine the following; Au # of Protons # of Neutrons # of Electrons Element Name
20 A.P.E. M.A.N. Quiz 78 Determine the following; Pt # of Protons # of Neutrons # of Electrons Element Name
21 A.P.E. M.A.N. Quiz 2 Elements Name Chemical Symbol # of protons # of electrons a) Be b) 4 c) Boron d) 5 5 e) Oxygen f) 8 g) h) i) Ne J) # of neutrons
22 Drawing Bohr Models A Bohr model is one way to represent an atom. To draw a Bohr atom; 1 st Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons the atom has remember (A.P.E.M.A.N.) 2 nd Place the neutrons (neutral) and protons (+) in the nucleus of the atom 3 rd Place the correct # of electrons around the nucleus in the correct electron orbital/energy level
23 Energy Levels/Orbitals An electron orbital is a region in an atom, outside of the nucleus, where there is a high probability (chance) of finding electrons.
24 Electron Distribution Rule The electrons are distributed to electron orbitals starting with the most inner orbital 1st. Each orbital can only take a certain number of electrons. After the orbital has received its capacity start filling the next orbital. The electron distribution formula is 2n 2. N is the given orbital
25 Electron Obitals Electron Orbital Formula # of electrons 1 2(n) (n) (n) 2 18
26 Electron Energy The closer the electron is to the nucleus the less energy it has. The further the electron is from the nucleus the more energy it has. The most outer shell is referred to as the valence shell.
27 Warm Up 2/11/13 What does A.P.E. M.A.N. stand for? How many electrons can the 1 st orbital take? How many electrons can the 3 rd orbital take?
28 Let s Practice 7 Protons: N Neutrons: Electrons: Bohr Model
29 Reactivity Reactivity is defined as the tendency of an atom of an element to undergo chemical reactions and to release energy. An element s reactivity is based on the element s outer shell electrons
30 The Octet Rule The octet rule says that atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have a complete valence shell. Atoms that are closest to having a complete outer shell or them most reactive.
31 Questions: Of the atoms drawn List the elements that you think are the most reactive based upon atomic structure? List the elements that you think are the least reactive based upon atomic structure? Video
32 Questions: Of the atoms drawn Where are the most reactive elements located on the periodic table? Where are the least reactive elements located on the periodic table?
33 Warm Up An element has a nucleus that contains 9 protons, 10 neutrons, and 9 electrons. This is an atom of? An element has a nucleus that contains 12 protons, 12 neutrons, and 12 electrons. This is an atom of? Locate and review your colored periodic table (it was homework)
34 Warm Up An element has a nucleus that contains 9 protons, 10 neutrons, and 9 electrons. This is an atom of? An element has a nucleus that contains 12 protons, 12 neutrons, and 12 electrons. This is an atom of? Locate and review your colored periodic table (it was homework)
35 Warm Up: Complete the chart Element Atomic # Mass # # Protons # Neutron s # Electron s Symbol 10 7
36 VENN DIAGRAMS Due Today! Create a VENN diagram that lists at least three things that are unique and three things that are common for each of the following: Groups vs. Periods (think about atomic structure) Valence Shell e-s vs. Inner Shell e-s (see notes and textbook) Group 1A Elements Reactivity vs. Group 8A Reactivity (see notes) Anions vs. Cations (see notes and textbook)
37 Family Quiz Directions: Match the given groups with their proper family Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Halogens Noble Gases 7A 2A 8A 1A
38 Answers Groups are the vertical columns of the periodic table. Groups run up and down. There are groups with A coding and Groups with B coding Periods are the horizontal rows found on the periodic table. Periods run left to right. There are 7 periods.
39 Warm Up Draw Atom Draw atoms for the elements with atomic numbers (3,11)(6,14)(9,17) (10 and 18). (Be sure to place the neutrons, electrons, and protons) Questions What is the relationship between the valence shell electrons and the group? What is the relationship between the period and the number of orbitals? What happens to the size of the atom as you go down a group?
40 The Period and the e- orbital The number of orbitals that a neutral atom of a given element has is equal to the period in which the element is located.
41 Isotope An isotope is a atom of a given element that has a different number of neutrons
42 Mole A mole is a quantity much like a dozen is a quantity. One mole has 6.02 x atoms in it x is known as Avagodro s Number
43 Groups and Valence Shell e- s The number of electrons found in the most outer shell, the valence shell, is equal to the group in which the element is found.
44 Periodic Table Warm-Up Draw a Bohr model of an atom for an element from each of the 7 groups. Be sure that the element has an atomic mass of 1-20
45 The Periodic Table The periodic table has 18 groups if you where to count from the left to the right and include all possible groups. If you were to exclude the transition metals there are 8 groups that are typically numbered using roman numerals and the letter a
46 Homework: Color code the following groups on your periodic table. Group 1A 2A Family Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals 3B-2B (d-block) Transition Elements 3A 7A 8A Metalloids Halogens Noble Gases
47 Class Assignment Use a Venn Diagram to differentiate at least three of the following; Group 1A Elements vs. Group 8A Elements (Atomic Structure and Reactivity) Groups vs. Period and Atomic Structure
48 Warm Up Identify the given elements: The element located in period 3 and group 4 The element located in period 2 and in the Halogen family The element located in period 2 and the Noble Gas family
49 The Octet Rule The octet rule says that atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have eight electrons in their outer electron shell. All atoms want to have a complete outer shell.
50 Warm Up Draw a Bohr Model of an atom for an element with the atomic number (1-20) found in group 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, and 8A
51 Ionization Ionization is the process of an atom gaining or losing outer shell electrons in an attempt to satisfy the octet rule
52 Ionization Ionization is the process of an atom gaining or losing electrons from its valence shell. If an atom gains electrons in its valence shell the atom becomes an anion and carries an overall negative charge. If an atom loses electrons from its outer shell it becomes a cation and carries an overall positive charge.
53 Types of Ions Cation: Results from an atom losing electrons the resulting atom will have a (+) charge Anion: Results from an atom gaining electrons the resulting atom will have a (-)charge
54 Ionization State To determine the oxidation number for a given atom of a element follow the listed rules 1. For groups 1A-4A their oxidation numbers are the same as their group numbers 2. For groups 5A-8A subtract 8 from the group number. (see board for example).
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