# 2008 SOL Test. Name: Score: 50 / 50 points (100%)

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1 Name: Score: 50 / 50 points (100%) 2008 SOL Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. C 1. Trial Concentration M M M M M A student performed a series of titrations to find the concentration of an unknown acid. The results of the titrations are shown in the data table. What is the mean of this set of data? a M c M b M d M C Take the average of the numbers (add all numbers and divide by 5) D 2. Iodine 131 is a radioactive isotope with a half life of 8 days. How many grams of a 64 g sample of iodine 131 will remain at the end of 24 days? a. 56 g c. 32 g b. 48 g d. 8 g D 24/8 = 3 So, divide 64 by 2 three times (64/2/2/2) = 8 B 3. Which of the following is the correct name for the compound MnF 3? a. Manganese fluoride(iii) c. Manganese(I) fluoride(iii) b. Manganese(III) fluoride d. Manganese(III) fluoride(iii) B It has to be b because you don t use roman numerals for the second part of the name (name should never end with a roman numeral) file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 1/17

2 A 4. The name of the salt formed by the neutralization of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide is a. sodium chloride c. sodium chlorite b. sodium chlorate d. sodium hypochlorite A HCl + NaOH > NaCl + H 2 O and NaCl is sodium chloride (no polyatomic ion in this compound) C 5. If the quantity of heat lost or gained is ( H) = mass x xhange in T x specific heat, what is the amount of heat required to raise g of water from 22.00C to 100.0C? Specific heat of water is a joules c. 65,210 joules b. 6,521 joules d. 652,100 joules C = mass Change in T = = 78 specific heat = So, 200 x 78 x = B 6. The coefficients necessary to balance the equation correctly are a. a = 2, b = 1, c = 1, d = 2 c. a = 1, b = 1, c = 1, d = 1 b. a = 1, b = 2, c = 1, d = 2 d. a = 2, b = 2, c = 1, d = 1 A B By using these coefficients, we would have 1 Mg, 2 O, 4 H, and 2 Cl on both sides 7. A balloon is filled with 3.8 L of helium gas at STP. Approximately how many moles of helium are contained in the balloon? a mol c. 72 mol b mol d. 85 mol file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 2/17

3 A 3.8 L x = 0.17mol B C 8. Which of these elements has the smallest atomic radius? a. Beryllium (Be) c. Sodium (Na) b. Oxygen (O) d. Sulfur (S) B size decreases to top right side of periodic table while they increase to bottom left 9. If ml of a 0.96 M solution of acetic acid (C 2 H 4 O 2 ) are diluted to ml, what will be the approximate molarity of the final solution? a M c M b M d M C Dilution Problem (M 1 V 1 =M 2 V 2 ) (0.96)(250)=(M)(800) M=0.30M B 10. An atom contains 70 protons, 70 electrons, and 99 neutrons. What is the mass number? a. 239 c. 140 b. 169 d. 70 B Mass = Protons + Neutrons = =169 C 11. Which set of equipment would be mostuseful to determine the density of a liquid? a. Balance and periodic table c. Balance and graduated cylinder b. Periodic table and thermometer d. Graduated cylinder and thermometer C file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 3/17

4 Density = mass/volume, so balance for mass and graduated cylinder for volume D 12. Sodium chloride conducts electricity when dissolved in water. What type of bond is present in NaCl? a. Nonpolar covalent c. Hydrogen b. Polar covalent d. Ionic D ionic compounds are good electrolytes in water D 13. The picture shows a filtration process. Which of these is least likely to pass into the test tube? a. Dissolved gases c. Liquid solvents b. Dissolved salts d. Solid particles D solid particles (that aren t dissolved) will get trapped in the filter and will not pass through. A 14. Which of the following represents the Lewis dot diagram of ammonia (NH 3 )? file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 4/17

5 a. c. b. d. A correct too many H s pair of dots H only need 1 pair of dots H only need 1 D 15. After 1911, most scientists accepted the theory that the nucleus of an atom was very dense and very small and had a positive charge. What led scientists to accept this theory? a. Dalton s theory of the atom was over 100 years old. b. Scientists before 1911 used the scientific method of inquiry improperly. c. A new model proved that the quantum theory of the atom was inaccurate. d. Rutherford did an experiment firing alpha particles at a thin piece of gold foil. D a theories are not thrown out based on age; only if new ideas are better and prove old ideas wrong b the followed a similar model of what we use today c the quantum theory is more recent than 1911 (its the most modern one that we talked about) d Rutherford used the gold foil experiment and discovered the nucleus and that the atom is mostly empty space. B 16. A sodium atom has an electron configuration of. If the sodium atom becomes ionized, its new electron configuration will be the same as which element? a. Lithium c. Magnesium b. Neon d. Potassium file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 5/17

6 B It will lose an electron and become like a noble gas, Neon. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 B 17. Which reaction is correctly balanced? a. c. b. d. B Fe not balanced correct SO 4 not balanced Cu not balanced D 18. Which of the following particles has a positive one (+1) charge? a. Alpha c. Neutron b. Electron d. Proton D alpha is a Helium Nucleus (+2) electron is 1 neutron is neutral C 19. What is the mass of one mole of CO 2? a. 24 g c. 44 g b. 28 g d. 56 g C this means what is the molar mass: C = 12x1=12 O = 16x2=32 44 file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 6/17

7 C 20. According to the periodic table, Mg will most likely react with elements in which of these groups? a. 1 c. 17 b. 3 d. 18 D 21. C Mg is a metal and would have to react with a nonmetal and group 18 (noble gases) don t react. A sample of a gas is in a cylinder as shown. If the temperature is kept constant and the piston moves down to decrease the volume, the pressure increases because the gas particles a. expand b. lose velocity within the container c. become smaller d. collide more frequently with the container D pressure = collisions, less space means they will hit the walls more often A 22. Which of the following shows the correct number of atoms of each element in the formula Mg(NO 3 ) 2? a. 1 magnesium atom, 2 nitrogen atoms, and 6 oxygen atoms b. 1 magnesium atom, 2 nitrogen atoms, and 5 oxygen atoms c. 1 magnesium atom, 1 nitrogen atom, and 6 oxygen atoms d. 1 magnesium atom, 1 nitrogen atom, and 5 oxygen atoms A Like in math, the 2 gets distributed and multiplied through file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 7/17

8 D 23. A student is given a container of potassium nitrate crystals. In order to determine the exact mass of the potassium nitrate using a triple beam balance, he must know the a. mass of the filled container and the chemical formula for potassium nitrate b. mass of the filled container and the density of potassium nitrate c. volume of the filled container and the volume of the potassium nitrate d. mass of the empty container and the mass of the filled container D If you know the mass of the full and empty container, you can subtract the two numbers and the result would be the mass of the potassium nitrate. C 24. C 12 and C 13 are naturally occurring isotopes of the element carbon. C 12 occurs 98.89% of the time and C 13 occurs 1.108% of the time. What calculation should be used to determine the atomic mass of this element? a. c. b. d. C To determine the atomic mass of an isotope, you need to mutliply the mass given (number after symbol) by the decimal form of the percentage B 25. The general equation shown is a reaction that is an a. exothermic decomposition c. endothermic synthesis b. endothermic decomposition d. exothermic synthesis B energy on left means energy was added endothermic AB broke down decomposition file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 8/17

9 A 26. Examine the graph of the temperature of a compound versus heat added to the compound. Which of the following most likely happens as the compound is heated from point x to point y? a. The phase of the compound changes. b. The mass of the compound is increasing. c. The molecules of the compound lose potential energy. d. The molecules of the compound are breaking apart into atoms. A When a temperature verses heat graph flat lines, it means a phase change is occuring A 27. In order to determine the identity of a substance, a student listed the following properties. Which of the following is a chemical property? a. Oxidizes in air c. Attraction to a magnet b. Conducts an electric current d. Dissolves in water A oxidation will change the chemical make up of the substance D 28. The following results of a scientific study on water were found in a chemistry handbook. file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 9/17

10 What is the independent variable in the study? a. Molar mass c. Vapor pressure b. Melting point d. Temperature D the independent variable is graphed on the x axis and the dependent is graphed on the y, so as x changes, y changes as a function of x. A 29. Which of the following is a solid/solid solution? a. An alloy of gold and copper c. A strongly electrolytic acid b. A mixture of argon and krypton d. A neutralized base A alloys are a mixture of solids, plus gold and copper are solids D 30. Which of these compounds is most likely to contain an ionic bond? a. H 2 c. CH 4 b. SO 2 d. CaCl 2 D To be ionic, you need a metal and nonmetal file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 10/17

11 B 31. The composition of dry air is approximately 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other gases. What is the partial pressure of nitrogen at standard atmospheric pressure (101.3 kpa)? a kpa c kpa b kpa d kpa B What is 78% of x 0.78 = C 32. A gas has a volume of ml at a pressure of mm Hg. If the temperature is held constant, what is the volume of the gas at a pressure of mm Hg? a ml c ml b ml d ml C Either use P 1 V 1 =P 2 V 2 or the V chart P T V ? A 33. Which of the following solutions will have the greatest concentration? a. 2 moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution b. 0.3 mole of solute dissolved in 0.6 liter of solution c. 2 moles of solute dissolved in 10 liters of solution d. 0.1 mole of solute dissolved in 0.5 liter of solution A concentration = mol/l a = 2 b = 0.5 c = 0.2 d = 0.2 A 34. The chemical equation shown is an example of a a. single replacement reaction c. decomposition reaction file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 11/17

12 b. synthesis reaction d. double replacement reaction A Cu replaced Ag, only one element was replaced D 35. Which element is a noble gas? a. Fluorine (F) c. Nitrogen (N) b. Hydrogen (H) d. Xenon (Xe) D noble gases are in column 18 D 36. To determine if a reaction is exothermic, a student should use a a. ph probe c. pressure sensor b. motion sensor d. temperature probe D exothermic deals with heat being released and heat can be calculated if the temperature change is known A 37. What is the name of NH 4 OH? a. Ammonium hydroxide c. Nitrogen hydroxide b. Nitrogen oxygen hydride d. Ammonium oxygen hydride A This compound is made of two polyatomic ions, NH 4 + is ammonium and OH is hydroxide (plus most names we look at only have two words) B 38. A student hypothesizes that the solubility of a particular solute in water is nearly constant as temperature varies. The student can best test the hypothesis by doing which of the following? a. Researching the chemical properties of many different solutes b. Measuring the solubility of the solute at five different temperatures c. Drawing diagrams of the molecular structures of water and of the solute d. Measuring the solubility of several different solutes at a fixed temperature file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 12/17

13 B Make the temperature your independent variable; change the temperature and measure the solublity. B 39. Which set of coefficients will balance this equation? a. 3, 1, 1 c. 3, 2, 3 b. 2, 3, 2 d. 2, 6, 2 B choice b would give 2 P and 6 Br on each side A 40. The table shows the measurements of the volume and the pressure of a portion of a gas at constant temperature. After graphing, the data reveals that the volume is a. inversely proportional to pressure b. directly proportional to pressure c. inversely proportional to pressure squared d. directly proportional to pressure squared A As volume increases, pressure decreases; this is a classic inverse file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 13/17

14 relationship (plus Boyle s Law tells us that it is inverse) D 41. What is the correct name for the compound P 4 O 6? a. Phosphoric acid c. Phosphorus(IV) oxide b. Phosphorus oxide d. Tetraphosphorus hexoxide D two nonmetals that don t start with H, use prefixes A 42. To which category does this reaction belong? a. Synthesis c. Single replacement b. Decomposition d. Double replacement A Two combined into 1 sythesis C 43. As heat is added to a substance undergoing a phase change, the temperature remains constant because the energy is being used to a. break covalent bonds c. overcome intermolecular forces b. lower the specific heat capacity d. oppose electron cloud repulsions C The energy is used to break the forces holding the molecules together. The forces between molecules are intermolecular (within are intramolecular) B 44. How many moles of hydrogen gas are produced when mole of sodium is completely reacted? a mol H 2 c mol H 2 b mol H 2 d mol H 2 B Stoichiometry mole to mole use mole ratio file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 14/17

15 0.066 mol Na x = B 45. The accepted value for the specific heat of aluminum is Which of the following sets of specific heat values for aluminum, calculated from a prior experiment, has the greatest accuracy and precision? a. b. c. d. B We are looking for the numbers that are close to each other (precise) and close to (accurate) B 46. A 1.0 M aqueous solution of which substance would have the lowest ph? a. NH 3 c. Ba(OH) 2 b. HCl d. NaF B The lowest ph would be caused by the substance that is most acidic, and HCl is the most obvious substance that is an acid (starts with H). D 47. What is the chemical formula for iron(ii) phosphide? a. Fe 2 P c. FeP 2 b. Fe 2 P 3 d. Fe 3 P 2 D file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 15/17

16 The (II) meanss that Fe has a +2 charge and from periodic table we see that P has a 3 charge, so after switchy switchy Fe +2 P 3 becomes Fe 3 P 2 B 48. In a mixture of oxygen (O 2 ) and nitrogen gas (N 2 ), 80.0 percent of the total gas pressure is exerted by the nitrogen. If the total pressure is 2.0 atm, what pressure does the oxygen exert? a atm c atm b atm d. 1.6 atm B The two gases added together should equal 2.0 atm. Since nitrogen makes up 80%, that means nitrogen would be 2 x 0.80 = 1.6 atm. Therefore, oxygen is =0.4 atm C 49. Phosphoric acid, H3 PO 4, is neutralized by magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH) 2, according to the equation shown. How many moles of water will be produced from the neutralization of 0.24 mole of H 3 PO 4? a mol c mol b mol d mol C stoichiometry moles to moles mole ratio 0.24 mol H 3 PO 4 x = 0.72 A 50. Which of the following is a balanced equation? a. H 2 + Br 2 > 2HBr c. H 2 + 2Br 2 > 2HBr b. H 2 + Br 2 > HBr d. 2H 2 + Br 2 > HBr A This one would result in 2 H and 2 Br on each side file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 16/17

17 file:///f:/sol%20review%20topics/2008%20sol%20exam/2008_sol_exam.htm 17/17

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