# Nonparametric tests, Bootstrapping

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1 Nonparametric tests, Bootstrapping Hypothesis testing review 2 competing theories regarding a population parameter: NULL hypothesis H ( straw man ) ALTERNATIVEhypothesis A ( claim, or theory you wish to test) H: NO DIFFERENCE any observed deviation from what we expect to see is due to chance variability A: THE DIFFERENCE IS REAL 1

2 Test statistic Measure how far the observed data are from what is expected assuming the NULL H by computing the value of a test statistic (TS) from the data The particular TS computed depends on the parameter For example, to test the population mean, the TS is the sample mean (or standardized sample mean) Testing a population mean We have already learned how to test the mean of a population for a variable with a normal distribution when the sample size is small and the population SD is unknown What test is this?? 2

3 t-test assumption of normality The t-test was developed for samples that have normally distributed values This is an example of a parametric test a (parametric) form of the distribution is assumed (here, a normal distribution) The t-test is fairly robust against departures from normality if the sample size is not too small BUT if the values are extremely non-normal, it might be better to use a procedure which does not make this assumption Nonparametric hypothesis tests Nonparametric (or distribution-free) hypothesis tests do not make assumptions about the form of the distribution of the data values These tests are usually based on the ranks of the values, rather than the actual values themselves There are nonparametric analogues of many parametric test procedures 3

4 One-sample Wilcoxon test Nonparametric alternative to the t-test Tests value of the center of a distribution Based on sum of the (positive or negative) ranks of the differences between observed and expected center Test statistic corresponds to selecting each number from 1 to n with probability ½ and calculating the sum In R: wilcox.test() Two-sample Wilcoxon test Nonparametric alternative to the 2-sample t-test Tests for differences in location (center) of 2 distributions Based on replacing the data values by their ranks (without regard to grouping) and calculating the sum of the ranks in a group Corresponds to sampling n 1 values without replacement from 1 to n 1 + n 2 In R: wilcox.test() 4

5 Matched-pairs Wilcoxon Nonparametric alternative to the paired t-test Analogous to paired t-test, same as onesample Wilcoxon but on the differences between paired values In R: wilcox.test() ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis test Nonparametric alternative to one-way ANOVA Mechanics similar to 2-sample Wilcoxon test Based on between group sum of squares calculated from the average ranks In R: kruskal.test() 5

6 Issues in nonparametric testing Some (mistakenly) assume that using a nonparametric test means that you don t make any assumptions at all THIS IS NOT TRUE!! In fact, there is really only one assumption that you are relaxing, and that is of the form that the distribution of sample values takes A major reason that nonparametric tests are avoided if possible is their relative lack of power compared to (appropriate) parametric tests Parameter estimation Have an unknown population parameter of interest Want to use a sample to make a guess (estimate) for the value of the parameter Point estimation : Choose a single value (a point ) to estimate the parameter value Methods of point estimation include: ML, MOM, Least squares, Bayesian methods... (Confidence) Interval estimation : Use the data to find a range of values (an interval) that seems likely to contain the true parameter value 6

7 CI mechanics When the CLT applies, a CI for the population mean looks like sample mean +/- z* σ/ n, where z is a number from the standard normal chosen so the confidence level is a specified size (e.g. 95%, 90%, etc.) For small samples from a normal distribution, use CI based on t-distribution sample mean +/- t* s/ n Example To set a standard for what is to be considered a normal calcium reading, a random sample of 100 apparently healthy adults is obtained. A blood sample is drawn from each adult. The variable studied is X = number of mg of calcium per dl of blood. sample mean = 9.5 sample SD = 0.5 Find an approximate 95% CI for the (population) average number of mg of calcium per dl of blood... 7

8 Russian dolls analogy* Père Noël dolls... Outermost is doll 0, next is doll 1, etc. We are not allowed to observe doll 0, which represents the population in a sampling scheme) Want to estimate some characteristic of doll 0 (e.g. number of points on the beard) Key assumption : the relationship (e.g. ratio) between dolls 1 and 2 is the same as that between dolls 0 and 1 * from The Bootstrap and Edgeworth Expansion, by Peter Hall, Springer 1992 From dolls to statistics Say you want to estimate some function of a population distribution e.g. the population mean It makes sense, when possible, to use the same function of the sample distribution We can do this same thing for many other types of functions A common example is that we might wish to obtain the sampling distribution of an estimator in order to make a CI, say, in cases where large sample approximations might not hold 8

9 An idea Where exact calculations are difficult to obtain, they may be approximated by resampling from the observed distribution of sample values That is, pretend that the sample is the population The bootstrap procedure is to draw some number (R ) of samples with replacement from the bootstrap population (i.e. the original sample values) You need a computer to do this! Bootstrap procedure For each bootstrap sample, compute the value of the desired statistic At the end, you will have R values of the statistic You can use standard data summary procedures to summarize or explore the distribution of the statistic (histogram, QQ plot, compute the mean, SD, etc.) For example, to make a bootstrap CI for the sample mean based on the normal distribution, you could use the bootstrap SD (instead of the sample SD)... 9

10 Versions of the bootstrap Nonparametric Bootstrap : as just described, draw bootstrap samples from the original data Parametric Bootstrap : assume that your original data came from some particular distribution (for example, a normal distribution, or exponential, etc.) In this case, samples are simulated from that assumed distribution Distribution parameters (for example, the mean and SD for the normal) are estimated from the original sample R: bootstrap demo You will have some practice with this in the TP Let s go to the demo... 10

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