1 Defining Research Issues for Single Pilot Operations in Transport Aircraft: Why Should We Care About Crew Resource Management (CRM)? NASA Ames Single Pilot Operations Technical Interchange Meeting April 2012 Rob Koteskey San Jose State University Research Foundation, NASA Ames Research Center
2 Introduction: Research Associate with the SJSURF at NASA Ames Pilot for a major U.S. Flag Carrier with extensive domestic and international experience (type-rated in B-737, 747, 757/ 767, 777, L-188) Former Navy Instructor Pilot, P-3 CRM course manager Recent work has been related to the study of NextGen procedures and technology
3 Goal and Overview Briefing Goal When I m done I d like you to have a clearer understanding of an airline pilot s duties, responsibilities, and tasks so you are better prepared for your later discussion of SPO (Single Pilot Operations) for transport aircraft.
4 Goal and Overview Overview 1. Some history and CRM (Crew Resource Management) background A little history A notional graphic description of CRM and technology effects CRM history, definition, and concepts
5 Goal and Overview Overview 2. Discussion of cognitive functions that pilots must perform on every flight (as opposed to machine interface tasks) From: Crew Resource Management 2 nd ed. Kanki, Helmreich, Anca (Eds.), 2010, pg 22, Figure 1.4
6 Goal and Overview From: Crew Resource Management 2 nd ed. Kanki, Helmreich, Anca (Eds.), 2010, pg 22, Figure 1.4
7 Some History and CRM Basics A Little History
8 Some History and CRM Basics In The Beginning:
9 Some History and CRM Basics In The Beginning: SPO was the only way to go!
10 Some History and CRM Basics The Evolution of the Big Crew: SPO Aviators Must Now Work Together
11 Some History and CRM Basics The Evolution of the Big Crew: SPO Aviators Must Now Work Together Navigator Radio Operator Flight Engineer
12 Some History and CRM Basics The Modern Era: Technology Reduces Crew Size Again
13 Some History and CRM Basics The Modern Era: Technology Reduces Crew Size Again Flight Engineer
14 Some History and CRM Basics The Modern Era: Technology Reduces Crew Size Again Flight Engineer Navigator
15 Some History and CRM Basics The Modern Era: Technology Reduces Crew Size Again Flight Engineer Navigator Radio Operator
16 Some History and CRM Basics The Modern Era: Technology Reduces Crew Size Again?? Why aren t we using SPO now? Is it feasible? How is CRM relevant?
17 Goal and Overview A Notional Graphic Description of CRM and Technology Effects (Why did CRM happen and what does it mean for SPO?)
18 Many Distribution of Flight Events Events That Require an Action or Decision Few No Average High
19 Many Distribution of Flight Events 1930 s Events That Require an Action or Decision Few No Average High
20 Many A Model of Varying Crew Functionality Events That Require an Action or Decision Few No Average High
21 Many A Model of Varying Crew Functionality Events That Require an Action or Decision Few No Average High
22 Many Events That Require an Action or Decision A Model of Varying Crew Functionality Possible Accident or Incident Few No Safe Flight Average High
23 Many Events That Require an Action or Decision A Model of Varying Crew Functionality Possible Accident or Incident Few No Safe Flight Average High
24 Many Events That Require an Action or Decision A Model of Varying Crew Functionality Possible Accident or Incident Few No Safe Flight Average High
25 Many CRM Considerations for Transport SPO Distribution of Events with Crew Functionality Events That Require an Action or Decision Few No Average High
26 Many The Effect of Technology 1930 s Events That Require an Action or Decision Few No Average High
27 Many The Effect of Technology Events That Require an Action or Decision Modern Era Few No Average High
28 Many The Effect of Crew Dysfunction Events That Require an Action or Decision Few No Average High
29 Many The Effect of Crew Dysfunction Events That Require an Action or Decision Few No Average High
30 Many The Effect of CRM on Crew Functionality Events That Require an Action or Decision Few No Average High
31 Many The Effect of CRM on Crew Functionality Events That Require an Action or Decision Few No Average High
32 Many The Effect of CRM on Crew Functionality Events That Require an Action or Decision Few No Average High
33 Some History and CRM Basics CRM History, Definition, and Concepts
34 Some History and CRM Basics Crew Errors Become a Safety Emphasis In the mid and late seventies, attention was focused on accidents involving major air carriers where the primary causal factors were seemingly inexplicable errors and lapses of judgment on the part of presumably highly trained and proficient flight crews. EAL 401 Miami, Florida, 1972 UAL 173 Portland, Oregon, 1978
35 Some History and CRM Basics Research was conducted which recommended the following : Airline pilots of the 1970 s and 80 s, hired and trained based on old SPO values (i.e. rugged individuals), needed new training on how to successfully operate in human teams in order to improve crew performance and thus safety.
36 Some History and CRM Basics Evolution of CRM Training Initial training was by seminar ( Charm School ) Now CRM is fully seamless and integrated with all line and training events Evaluated during realistic line oriented scenarios CRM skills are observed and de-briefed CRM as a concept has disappeared into the group of skills that all pilots use (e.g. learning to fly on instruments, or weather radar operation)
37 Some History and CRM Basics CRM Success Stories UAL 232 Sioux City, Iowa, 1989 UAL 811 Honolulu, Hawaii, 1989 US 1549 Miracle on the Hudson, 2009
38 Some History and CRM Basics CRM Success Stories
39 Some History and CRM Basics OK, CRM sounds good! What is it?
40 Some History and CRM Basics CRM Definition Use all available resources - information, equipment, and people - to achieve safe and efficient flight operations Both internal and external to the aircraft. (i.e. Dispatch, ATC, NWS, flight automation, etc.) This is where CRM may apply to SPO J. Lauber, quoted in Crew Resource Management 2 nd ed. Kanki, Helmreich, Anca (Eds.), 2010, p. 5
41 Some History and CRM Basics The Basics: Commonly Trained CRM Skills Threat and Error Management
42 Some History and CRM Basics Commonly Trained CRM Skills Decision making Adaptability / Flexibility Mission Analysis Monitoring and Correcting Communication Leadership Assertiveness Situation Awareness
43 Some History and CRM Basics Commonly Trained CRM Skills Decision making Adaptability / Flexibility Mission Analysis Monitoring and Correcting Communication Leadership Assertiveness Situation Awareness Why might these things still be important when there is only one pilot?
44 Some History and CRM Basics Threat and Error Management Constant observation to identify and prepare for threats to the operation Any unusual circumstance that could affect the aircraft or crew (fatigue, maintenance issues, weather, unusual airport configuration, etc.) Constant monitoring of self and crew actions to identify, repair, and minimize errors
45 Some History and CRM Basics Threat and Error Management Safe Condition Threats Errors Unsafe State Incident or Accident
46 Some History and CRM Basics A Thought Concerning Collaboration: What is it that allows these concepts to work? An effective leader making decisions in collaboration with equally capable team members. How can we ensure that automation which may replace a human will have good CRM skills?
47 Some History and CRM Basics Discussion of Pilot Cognitive Functions
48 Some History and CRM Basics The duties and responsibilities of managing the project of getting an airline flight safely planned, flown, and recovered, are most of what pilots do every day. They do this as part of, and in concert with, a complex web of teams.
49 Some History and CRM Basics CRM research and training has embraced this philosophy and may provide some rich insight as we begin to explore SPO for transport aircraft.
55 Airline pilot duties, responsibilities and tasks From: Crew Resource Management 2 nd ed. Kanki, Helmreich, Anca (Eds.), 2010, pg 22, Figure 1.4
56 Pilot Cognitive Functions So by considering CRM concepts, we have two broad areas into which the pilot s duties responsibilities and tasks can be placed: Machine Interface Tasks Flight control, navigation, planning, checklists, etc. Interpersonal/Cognitive Functions Decision Making, Communication, Leadership, Monitoring/Correcting, etc.
58 Conclusion In Conclusion, I believe we should: Retain safety benefits reaped from CRM while designing SPO Use CRM concepts to define the duties and responsibilities of not just the pilot but the web of teams and automation that will exist in SPO Enable a single pilot to adequately coordinate with all resources to produce sound decisions at high levels of performance and safety
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