Emirates - Nicklas Dahlstrom

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1 CRM in Airline Operations CRM in Airline Operations Dr. Nicklas Dahlstrom Human Factors Manager Content Background and Regulations Working with CRM in practice The story of a CRM course in practice Some advice and where to find information Safety Human Factors Understanding safety? The machine metaphor Reliability and Resilience Does CRM save lives? Crew Resource Management CRM is the effective utilisation of all available resources (e.g. crew members, aeroplane, systems and supporting facilities) to achieve safe and efficient operation. Tenerife, 1977 Portland, 1978 Potomac River, 1982 Copyright Emirates Group. All Rights Reserved. Emirates - Nicklas Dahlstrom 1

2 Does CRM save lives? Know Thy Regulations! Dryden, 1989 Kegworth, 1989 Athens, 2005 Copyright Emirates Group. All Rights Reserved. Regulations regarding CRM EU-OPS 1: Recurrent training (e) CRM. An operator shall ensure that: 1. elements of CRM are integrated into all appropriate phases of the recurrent training, and; 2. each flight crew member undergoes specific modular CRM training. All major topics of CRM training shall be covered over a period not exceeding three years; EU-OPS 1: Recurrent training (iv) crew resource management (CRM): (A) integration of CRM elements into all the phases of the recurrent training by all the personnel conducting recurrent training. The operator shall ensure that all personnel conducting recurrent training are suitably qualified to integrate elements of CRM into this training; (B) modular CRM training by at least one CRM trainer acceptable to the Authority who may be assisted by experts in order to address specific areas; Regulations on HF and CRM (iii) Operators shall establish procedures to update their CRM recurrent training programme. Revision of the Programme shall be conducted over a period not exceeding three years. The revision of the programme shall take into account the de-identified results of the CRM assessments of crews, and information identified by the accident prevention and flight safety programme. Emirates - Nicklas Dahlstrom 2

3 EU-OPS 1: Recurrent training 4. recurrent checking is conducted by the following personnel: (i) operator proficiency checks by a type rating examiner (TRE), class rating examiner (CRE) or, if the check is conducted in a STD, a TRE, CRE or a synthetic flight examiner (SFE), trained in CRM concepts and the assessment of CRM skills; Regulations and Huh? 7.1 Operators should, as far as is practicable, provide combined training for flight crew and cabin crew including briefing and debriefing. 3. It is recommended that, whenever possible, initial CRM training be conducted in a group session outside the company premises so that the opportunity is provided for flight crew members to interact and communicate away from the pressures of their usual working environment. Working with CRM in practice Situation Flight Training Human Factors Office HF represented also in Engineering HF not represented in other parts of organisation Some further needs for HF has been identified There is likely an increasing need for HF in a growing and increasingly complex organisation There is no organisational strategy for how to recognise, identify and meet this need Human Factors Office: Primary areas of responsibility Development and delivery of CRM (for Flight and Cabin Crew - as is regulatory mandated) CRMIs, Course material, Planning and administration Delivery of HF/CRM for Flight Training Development training Human Factors Sessions Cooperation and consultancy within the company Targets for 2011 Development and delivery of CRM Follow up with new Recurrent CRM courses (Based on increased cooperation with Flight Safety) Revision of courses (material, instructor notes etc.) Finalise full suite of CRM for Flight and Cabin Crew Review regulations and manuals and revise Coordination of HF/CRM within Emirates Emirates - Nicklas Dahlstrom 3

4 Beyond 2011 Getting the data for CRM training Development and delivery of CRM Continuous development of knowledge and material Revision of courses (material, instructor notes etc.) Development of methodology of delivery Identify and meet organisational needs for HF Follow up and assess impact and effect of HF/CRM in training and in the organisation Threat and Error Management (TEM) Normal Operations Monitoring (NOM) Threat Error Undesired Aircraft State (UAS) SOPs PPC NOM Reality? Avoid Trap Mitigate Systematic collection of data from operations Desired (safe) Aircraft State Line Operational Safety Audit (LOSA) is a method for this which has been used extensively by airlines Sharing and Using Safety Information CRM Assessment Factors to consider: How can we get it? How can we understand it? How can we tell it? Numbers or stories? Over-data and under-analysis? Emirates - Nicklas Dahlstrom 4

5 Regulations on CRM Assessment 3. Line checks; (ii) The flight crew must be assessed on their crew resource management CRM skills in accordance with a methodology acceptable to the Authority and published in the Operations Manual. The purpose of such assessment is to: (A) provide feedback to the crew collectively and individually and serve to identify retraining; and (B) be used to improve the CRM training system. After failures or other events HF-discussion Advice / support HF Sessions Report for records I ain t nothing but a hound dog and I keep crying all the time. Other tasks Training for others Contacts/Coordination Presentations Consultations Analyses Confessions from a CRMT 3 rd party training A way into the field Good experience, good learning... Can be combined with other intentions or directions CRM Instructor, CRM Trainer, CRM Facilitator? To be a CRMT or not to be a CRMT The start of a CRM-course The Task - We need some CRM - When? - Yesterday!!! / Now! / In the autumn - And what do you want to achieve with the training? - Eh... - Do you have you anything particular you want to train or any safety-related events that could be useful for the training? - We ll need to think about that Teach? Train? Instruct? Authority: Follow regulations Operator: Update licenses Crew: Emirates - Nicklas Dahlstrom 5

6 Combined or separate? Size of group Crew from different bases Different experience Different interest in CRM (Trivialize or Academize?) And more The Group Where? When? Facilities? Planning and Preparation Knowledge about operator, crew and other things? Syllabus? (What to do?) Material? (What to do???) Presentations Cases Practices Video Reading material? (Articles, books ) What to bring home? Material How to start? The Performance Presentation methods to use? Balance of practices/cases /theory? Balance of seriousness and entertainment? Summarizing and getting to the point? Evaluation Quality Development Well, I guess we should but time What to ask? What answers can you expect? Analysis of answers? Authority no explicit demands on this? Emirates - Nicklas Dahlstrom 6

7 So what to do? Put gentle pressure on the operator (Educate the customer ) Ensure adequate facilities Mix groups - but plan for separate sessions over time Get info on the operator and then plan and prepare Evaluate in any way! And then evaluate your evaluations Cooperation with authorities is necessary! Cooperation between CRM:ers? Emirates - Nicklas Dahlstrom 7

8 ERROR: undefined OFFENDING COMMAND: ~ STACK:

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