b) Describe the concept of ERROR CHAIN in aviation.

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1 1. Crew Resource Management (CRM) was celebrated as the convergence ofa concept, an attitude and a practical approach to pilot training. a) What is the CRM all about and how this program could improve the air crew performance in flight? Explain the cognitive skills and interpersonal skills required in general. b) Describe the concept of ERROR CHAIN in aviation. 2. Changes in the nature of CRM training in commercial aviation are very drastic, including its shift from Cockpit to Crew Resource Management. a) Why aviation crews need CRM training? Explain the CONCEPT of CRM since 1st generation until 6th generation 3. The communication is an art of making you understood. a) How you could communicate without creating a conflict b) What is the barrier of communication? 4. Studying the communication process is important because you coach, coordinate, counsel, evaluate, and supervise throughout this process. The objective of the communication is to ensure the process of transferring information is successful a) Explain the importance of communication IN AVIATION industry b) Explain four factors of non verbal communication in order to achieve effective communication. 5. The barrier of communication can act like filters and can impact on the process of sending and receiving messages a) Define the communication in the general term (1 Mark) b) How to overcome the barriers in communication? c) Describe THREE levels of communications? 6. "It's not what you say, but how you say it" shows the importance of nonverbal communication. Of all communication modes, nonverbal is the most important because it shows the communicator's credibility. a) Explain what are you understand about the statement above? b) What are the importances of the non-verbal communication? 7. Studying the communication process is important because you coach, coordinate, counsel, evaluate, and supervise throughout this process. In fact the communication is an art of making you understood a) Explain 4 elements in the communication process? b) Explain the types of barrier in the communication c) In your opinion, how to get the effective communication? 8. In communication,both sender and listener have their responsibilities to ensure the

2 successful of communication process occurs. a) Explain briefly the sender and receiver responsibilities to achieve successful communication process (7 Marks) b) Explain the 3 level of communication 9. By understanding and practicing various teamwork skills in flight would result in effective teamwork. The aircrews also need to be aware of challenges that would lead to breakdown of teamwork. a) Explain the 3 leadership and managerial skills that required in the flight b) What is the assertiveness? How to be assertive in flight? 10. Successful teamwork is produced by a process of interaction between crew members, whereby each of individual is encouraged in the most effective way to the overall task of the team. a) Explain 2 challenges in teamwork that would face by aircrew b) Explain the advantages of effective teamwork in the flight 11. Effective leadership and managerial skill is needed to achieve joint task completion within a motivated, fully functioning team through co-ordination and persuasiveness. a) How the crew members can accept their leader? b) Define followership and leadership. c) Describe the followership skills that must be adopted by aircrew in flight 12. Effective leadership and managerial skill is needed to achieve joint task completion within a motivated, fully functioning team through co-ordination and persuasiveness. a) Define the authority? (1 Mark) b) Give 3 example of good and bad practice respectively in the team of captain and their crew members that could lead to breakdown in the teamwork and affect the safety of the flight? c) In your opinion, how captain can influence his crew members towards mission success? 13. An understanding of the decision making process provides a flight crew with a foundation for developing decision making skills. a) How the air crew would create good decisions to overcome the problem using step-by-step of decision making process? b) Give three (3) factors that lead to poor decision making 14. An understanding of decision-making process provides a flight crew with a foundation for developing decision-making skills. The common contributing factors of aircraft accident are human factor. a) Name five (5) human factors in aviation and explain how they can cause poor CRM?

3 b) In your opinion what the factor which can promote to good decision making? 15. A United Air Lines DC-10 crashed at Sioux City, Iowa after an engine explosion caused the total loss of all hydraulics at FL370. The crew was able to control the plane only with engine throttle settings. Miraculously, 187 of 298 aboard survived. (July 19, 1989). a) Explain how the air crew would create good decisions to overcome the problem using step-by-step of decision making process? 16. The aircraft is flying to towards a thunderstorm and you could see a big red dot in the aircraft weather radar. But your captain doesn't want to avoid the thunderstorm as he wants to fly home quickly. a) What a danger would you face if your aircraft fly through a thunderstorm? b) What can you do at that time? 17. Workload is the amount of work assigned to a worker in a specified time period. Amount of workload and length of time given to complete the tasks determined the level of workload. a) Explain these THREE levels of workload and how they might affect air crew performance. b) How to overcome workload in air crew performance c) How the air crew could manage their workload? 18. During flying in the thunderstorms, cockpit crews will face with the overload situation. It will be very hazardous if they could not cope with the situation very well. a) Explain 3 effects of overload to the Pilot in this situation that can lead to the accident. b) In your opinion how the pilot could reduce their workload in this situation? c) How to recognize the aircrew that is currently in overload condition? 19. In order to perform efficiently and effectively to ensure the safety of flight, all the aircrew should have knowledge and understand well about the situational Awareness. a) Define the Situational Awareness b) Explain PERCEPTIVE PROCESS and describe what means by accurate mental mode c) Provide the FACTORS that can degrade accurate mental model 20. Situational awareness is a critical factor in our ability to respond effectively to a situation. The aircrews should keep aware what is going on around them at all times. a) What to be aware by the aircrew during flight? Give examples of good practice to maintain high level of awareness. b) What the aircrew should do if they no longer perceive accurately the situation in the flight? 21. Know what is going on around you at all times is important in flight. The aircrews need to

4 fully aware with the situation around them especially the factor that might affect the safety of the flight. a) How to PREPARE the aircrew to be good for situational awareness before begin the flight journey. I M SAFE checklist: (7 Marks) b) Explain THREE causes or factor that could lead to loss of Situational Awareness in flight 22. A high level of situational awareness will better prepare crews to respond to unexpected situations and situational awareness should be gain and maintained along flight journey. a) Explain 2 ways for the air crew to MAINTAIN situational awareness in flight b) Describe Five (5) causes that could lead to loss of Situational Awareness in flight 23. Aircraft accidents always occur in a sequence of mistakes. Stress is one of the first contributing factors lead into the rest causing the effect. a) Define the stress from the human viewpoint b) How stress can affect the aircrew performance? c) Explain the major cause of stress that can happen to aircrew. 24. In aviation, at all phases of flight, pilots are subjected to different amounts of stress; how they react when subjected to stress will ultimately make or break whether the outcome is a safe and successful flight. a) How the pilot s stress might be varied in each phase on flight? (7 Marks) b) In your opinion, is it all the stress are bad to aircrew? Why? 25. In aviation, accidents almost always occur in a sequence of mistakes. Stress is one of the first contributing factors lead into the rest causing the effect. a) How the pilot can manage his stress in the flight? b) How the temperature can lead to stress and affect the aircrew performance level in flight? c) Explain the Psychological stressors 26. There are many documented accidents happened due to pilot fatigue as the leading cause. One of them occurred in June 1999 fatal runway accident of American Airlines Flight 1420 in which a McDonnell Douglas MD-82 overran the end of the runway, and impacted approach light structures after landing at the Adams Field Airport in Little Rock, Arkansas a) How the aircrew can solve the fatigue problem? b) Explain 3 sign/symptoms of fatigue c) Describe what is the acute fatigue 27. One of the major causes of aircraft accident is crew fatigue. a) Define the fatigue. (1 Mark) b) Why fatigue can cause an accident in aviation industry? c) How an airline can overcome this problem amongst its crew members?

5 28. In order to perform efficiently and effectively to ensure the safety of flight, all the aircrew should have knowledge and understand well on their job scope and responsibilities. a) Explain the solution by FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) 29. Stress is may effect the individual performance and emotion as well, so it is important to a person to well manage his or her stress in order not to the chronic level. a) What is stress? Based on your overview. b) What are the flights stress management that can be practicing in that aviation industry? (8 Marks) 30. In aviation, at all phases of flight, pilots are subjected to different amount of stress, how they react when subjected to different amounts of stress, how they react to the stress that will ultimately make or break whether the outcome is a safe and successful flight. a) what is means by stress in aviation, elucidate your understanding b) What are the major causes of stress that happen in the aviation industry? (8 Marks)

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