# Simulation & Synthesis Using VHDL

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1 Floating Point Multipliers: Simulation & Synthesis Using VHDL By: Raj Kumar Singh - B.E. (Hons.) Electrical & Electronics Shivananda Reddy - B.E. (Hons.) Electrical & Electronics BITS, PILANI

2 Outline Introduction - Multipliers - VHDL & Design Flow Various Architectures (Multipliers) -Simulation -Synthesis -Analysis Conclusion

3 Real Numbers Numbers with fractions 3/5, 4/7 Pure binary = =9.625 Fixed point Very limited Moving or floating point (almost universal) Widely used in computations

4 Which base do we use? Decimal: great for humans, especially when doing arithmetic Hex: if human looking at long strings of binary numbers, its much easier to convert to hex and look 4 bits/symbol Not good for arithmetic on paper Binary: what computers use; computers do +, -, *, / using this only To a computer, numbers always binary Regardless of how number is written: 32 ten == == 0x20 == == 0b100000

5 Floating Point :Overview Floating point representation Normalization Overflow, underflow Rounding Floating point addition Floating point multiply

6 Floating Point (IEEE-754) use a fixed number of bits Sign bit S, exponent E, significand F Value: (-1) S x F x 2 E IEEE 754 standard S E F Size Exponent Significand Range Single precision 32b 8b 23b 2x10 +/-38 Double precision 64b 11b 52b 2x10 +/-308

7 Normalization FP numbers are usually normalized i.e. exponent is adjusted so that leading bit (MSB) of mantissa is 1 Example - Scientific notation where numbers are normalized to give a single digit before the decimal point e.g x 10 3 Because it is always 1, there is no need to store it

8 FP Overflow / Underflow FP Overflow Analogous to integer overflow Result is too big to represent FP Overflow Result is too small to represent Means exponent is too small (too negative) Both raise Problems, thus need extra Care on their Occurrences in IEEE754

9 FP Rounding Rounding is important Small errors can save the huge storage FP rounding hardware helps Finally, keep sticky bit that is set whenever 1 bits are lost to the right Differentiates between 0.5 and So the rounding can save a huge Memory, of course the price is Accuracy, But that can be paid

10 Base 2 : Representation Number Base B B symbols per digit: Base 10 (Decimal): 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Base 2 (Binary): 0, 1 Number representation: d 31 d d 1 d 0 is a 32 digit number value = d 31 B 31 + d 30 B d 1 B 1 + d 0 B 0 Binary: 0,1 (In binary digits called bits ) 0b11010 = = #s often written = 26 0b Here 5 digit binary # turns into a 2 digit decimal #

11 And in Conclusion... We represent things in computers as particular bit patterns: N bits 2 N 1 s complement - mostly abandoned 2 s complement - universal in computing: Overflow:... numbers are ; computers having finite storage locations, so errors!

12 VHDL Language Hardware Description Language (HDL) High-level language for to model, simulate, and synthesize digital circuits and systems. History 1980: US Department of Defense Very High Speed Integrated Circuit program (VHSIC) 1987: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ratifies IEEE Standard 1076 (VHDL 87) 1993: VHDL language was revised and updated Verilog is the other major HDL Syntax similar to C language

13

14 Design Cycle: Simulation Functional simulation: simulate independent of FPGA type no timing Timing simulation: simulate after place and routing also (backannotation part) detailed timing Design Entry Simulation Synthesis Place & Route Simulation Program device & test

15 Terminology Behavioral modeling Describes the functionality of a component/system For the purpose of simulation and synthesis Structural modeling A component is described by the interconnection of lower level components/primitives For the purpose of synthesis and simulation Synthesis: Translating the HDL code into a circuit, which is then optimized Register Transfer Level (RTL): Type of behavioral model used for instance for synthesis

16 RTL Synthesis Input is RTL code Compilation & translation Generates technology independent netlist RTL schematic (HDL code analysis) Technology mapping Mapping to technology specific structures: Look-up tables (LUT) Registers RAM/ROM DSP blocks Other device specific components/features Logic optimization Implementation analysis (technology view) Design Entry Simulation Synthesis Place & Route Simulation Program device & test

17 Digital Circuits and VHDL Primitives Most digital systems can be described based on a few basic circuit elements: Combinational Logic Gates: NOT, OR, AND Flip Flop Latch Tri-state Buffer Each circuit primitive can be described in VHDL and used as the basis for describing more complex circuits.

18 What is an SOC? System-on-a-chip, System LSI, Systemon-Silicon, - Hardware Analog: ADC, DAC, PLL, Tx, Rx, RF Devices Digital: Processor, Memory, Interface, Accelerator, Software Multiplier, Adder etc OS Application What are the differences from an ASIC?

19 Traditional ASIC Design Flow Specification Development RTL Code Development Functional Verification (Simulation) Floor-planning, Synthesis, DFT Fault Coverage Analysis Timing Verification Floor-planning, Placement and Route Prototyping, Testing, and Characterization

20 Functional Verification Models Levels Functional Behavioral RTL Logic Gate Switch Circuit

21 Example: ALU Register A Register B Add Sub Add/Subtract Unit Accumulator CCR Condition Code Register Normally, the accumulator has logical and arithmetic shift capability, both left and right

22 Symbol for ALU ALU operation a b ALU Zero Result Overflow CarryOut

23 FP Arithmetic x / (Steps) Check for zero, operands Add/subtract exponents Multiply/divide significands watch sign Normalize Round Double length intermediate results

24 FP Multiplication: Steps Compute sign, exponent, significand Normalize Shift left, right by 1 Check for overflow, underflow Round Normalize again (if necessary)

25 FP Multiplication: operations Sign: P s = A s xor B s Exponent: P E = A E + B E Due to bias/excess, must subtract bias e = e1 + e2 E = e = e1 + e E = (E1 1023) + (E2 1023) E = E1 + E Significand: P F = A F x B F Standard integer multiply (23b or 52b + g/r/s bits) Use Wallace tree of CSAs to sum partial products

26 Efficient Multiplier Design Radix-4 Booth Encoding Used to generate all partial products. Sign Extension Prevention To prevent sign extension while doing signed number addition (Padding of 1 s). Optimized Wallace Addition Tree To sum up all operands to 2 vectors (sum, carry).

27 Start Multiplier flowchart Product0 = 1 1. Test Product0 Product0 = 0 1a. Add multiplicand to the left half of the product and place the result in the left half of the Product register x Shift the Product register right 1 bit No: < 32 repetitions 32nd repetition? Yes: 32 repetitions Done

28 Step By Step Analysis

29

30 MULTIPLY (unsigned) Paper and pencil example (unsigned): Multiplicand Multiplier Product m bits x n bits = m+n bit product Binary makes it easy: 0 => place 0 ( 0 x multiplicand) 1 => place a copy ( 1 x multiplicand) successive refinement

31 1. Simultaneous Multiplication X2 X1 X0 Y2 Y1 Y0 X2*Y0 X1*Y0 X0*Y0 X2*Y1 X1*Y1 X0*Y1 X2*Y2 X1*Y2 X0*Y2 P4 P3 P2 P1 P0

32 Multiplier Schematic : Hardware How would we develop this logic?

33 Multiplying Negative Numbers This does not work when numbers are negative, then for Solution Convert to positive if required Multiply as above If signs were different, negate answer Use Booth s algorithm

34 Booth s Algorithm Designed to improve speed by using fewer adds Works best on strings of 1 s Example premise 7 = = (3 adds vs 1 add 1 sub) Algorithm modified to allow for multiplication with negative numbers

35 Booth s Encoding Really just a new way to encode numbers Normally positionally weighted as 2 n With Booth, each position has a sign bit Can be extended to multiple bits 0-> Binary bit Booth bit Booth

36 Booth s Algorithm Current bit Bit to right Explanation Example Operation 1 0 Begins run of Subtract 1 1 Middle of run of Nothing 0 1 End of a run of Add 0 0 Middle of a run of Nothing

37 Comparison between various Architectures S. No Algorithms Performance/Parameter s Serial Multiplier (Sequential) Booth Multiplier Combination al Multiplier Wallace Tree Multiplier 1. Optimum Area 110 LUTs 134 LUTs 4 LUTs 16 LUTs 2. Optimum Delay 9 ns 11 ns 9 ns 9 ns 3. Sequential Elements 105 DFFs 103 DFFs Input/Output Ports 67 / / 49 4 / 4 24 / CLB Slices(%) 57(7.42%) 71(36.98%) 2(1.04%) 8(4.17%) 6. Function Generators 114(7.42%) 141(36.72 %) 7. Data Required Time/ Arrival Time 8. Optimum Clock (MHz) 9.54 ns 8.66 ns 9.54 ns 9.36 ns 4(1.04%) 16(4.17% ) NA ns 8.52 ns NA Slack 0.89 ns 0.19 ns Unconstraine d path 1.48 ns

38 Observations on Multiplication Can speed up algorithm by doing 2 bits at a time, instead of just one Using Booth encoding strategy (in more depth) Multiplication algorithm Sequential version are more efficient than combinational in terms of Hardware, Synchronization, speed Can use carry save adders instead of ripple adder A Wallace tree structure to combine the partial products is another excellent enhancement in Architecture

39 Multiplication Using Recursive Subtraction Suppose there are two numbers M, N. We have to find A=M*N, lets assume the M & N both are B base number And also M<N. A = MN (M*B - N*(M-1)) Next step: Subtract the M*B from MN, Where MN can be found by just writing both the numbers into a large register, And M*B is also easy to generate. It is just shifting towards left of operand with zero padding. Again we will restore the number (M-1) in place of M by just decrementing. The continuous iteration will decrement the M and finally it will reach to 1.

40 Q and A

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