Packet 4: Bonding. Play song: (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Packet 4: Bonding. Play song: (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs)"

Transcription

1 Most atoms are not Packet 4: Bonding Atoms will, or share electrons in order to achieve a stable. Octet means that the atom has in its level. If an atom achieves a stable octet it will have the same electron configuration as. A is formed when atoms transfer or share electrons. They are forces that hold atoms together. Play song: (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs) There are two main types of chemical bonds: : bond formed when by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another. : bond formed when atoms share electrons. Energy and Bonding When a chemical bond is formed the product (resulting compound) has energy than the substances it was formed from. Because: energy is always when a bond is formed. It is an process. Ex: Cl + Cl Cl 2 + energy Compounds have than the atoms by themselves (they are more stable) When a chemical bond is the products have energy than the compound. Because: energy is always when bonds are broken. It is an process. Ex: Cl 2 + energy Cl + Cl The atoms by themselves have than the compounds (they are less stable)

2 Ionic Bonding When atoms gain or lose electrons they become. Metals form ions when they electrons. Nonmetals form ions when they electrons. Ex: Na and Cl Two types of ions: : (+) positive ions Anions: ( ) Na is the Cl is the Metals with, and electrons will lose electrons. Nonmetals with, and electrons wills gain electrons. The resulting compound is held together by charges of the ions through static electrical attraction. The overall charge of the compound is electrically because the number of electrons is EQUAL to the number of electrons. Ex: Li and F Click here for another enjoyable song:

3 Ionic Compounds are solid substances formed by ionic bonding. Characteristics of ionic solids: at room temperature, forming a lattice. melting and boiling points because of the strong attraction of ions. They conduct ONLY in liquid or aqueous form. This is due to the of the ions. They do not conduct in solid form. Check this out: (melting point of NaCl 1,474 F or 801 C) They in water. Lewis Electron Dot Structures for Ionic Bonding When drawing the electron dot structure for an ionic compound: Write electron dots symbols for both elements. Element on left loses. Element on right gains. Ex: After the metal loses its electrons it will have charge. The value of the charge is equivalent to the number of electrons lost by the metal atom (valence electrons). The nonmetal is written with dots and includes a charge. The value of the charge is equivalent to the number of electrons gained by the nonmetal atom. are generally placed around the negative ion, but are not mandatory. Ex: Practice Problems Draw Electron Dot Diagrams for the following ionic compounds: K 2 S Na 2 O MgS

4 CaBr 2 Al 2 O 3 KF Covalent Bonding Covalent bonds are formed when two atoms (both nonmetals) electrons. There is no transfer of electrons. Watch video and draw 2 examples: Electron sharing always occurs in pairs. Two atoms may share 1, 2, or 3 pairs of electrons forming: Single covalent bond: shared pair of electrons Ex: Double covalent bond: shared pairs of electrons Ex: Triple covalent bond: shared pairs of electrons Ex: The combination of atoms bound together by a covalent bond is called a. Molecules are electrically neutral. Ex:

5 Molecular Substances Molecular substances have the following characteristics: They can exist as solid liquid They are soft. They are conductors of heat and electricity because they do not have ions or moving electrons. They have melting and boiling points because of weak attraction between molecules. Ex: H 2 O, C 6 H 12 O 6, ( ), O 2 ( ) Types of Covalent Bonds: Covalent: when electrons are shared between atoms of the same element, the electrons are shared. Ex: all diatomic molecules (Say: BrINClHOF!) H 2 O 2 Polar : when electrons are shared between atoms of elements. The term polar means They are shared. The element with the higher will attract the electrons more strongly causing atom to have a partial negative charge Ex: HCl (H behaves like a group 17 element) H 2 O Electronegativity can be used to predict what types of bonds will form. Rule: 1. Go to Table S 2. Look up electronegativities for each element in compound

6 3. Take the DIFFERENCE between the two values. (subtract small number from big number: no negative numbers) 4. Determine whether it is ionic, polar or nonpolar covalent using the chart below Electronegativity Difference Bond Type 0.3 Nonpolar Covalent Between 0.4 and 1.9 Polar Covalent 2.0 Ionic The type of bond that is most polar is the bond. The smallest difference is the polar and the largest difference is the most polar. Sample Regents Problems using electronegativities: Which of the following bonds is the most polar in nature? (1) O 2 (2) HCl (3) NH 3 (4) HBr Work out: 2. In water, the bond between hydrogen and oxygen is (1) ionic, (2) polar covalent, (3) nonpolar covalent, (4) nonpolar noncovalent. 3. Which of the following is an example of a substance with a nonpolar covalent bond? (1) HCl (2) Cl 2 (3) HClO 2 (4) NaCl 4. The electronegativity of sulfur is (1) 16, (2) 239, (3) 2.6, (4) Which of the following bonds is most polar in nature? (1) Cl 2 (2) HI (3) HBr (4) NaCl 6. Which element has an atom with the greatest tendency to attract electrons in a chemical bond? (1) carbon (2) chlorine (3) silicon (4) sulfur Network Solids Network solids have covalent bonds between atoms linked into a giant network or one big.

7 Covalent bonds extend from one atom to another in continuous patterns, with no distinct molecules. Examples include, asbestos, graphite silicon carbide, silicon dioxide Propertites: They are They are conductors of heat and electricity They have (unlike covalently bonded substances) Coordinate Covalent Bonds In cases a coordinate covalent bond is formed when one donates electrons that are Ex: ammonium ion NH 4 + hydronium ion H 3 O + This is how most polyatomic ions are formed. See Reference Table E: Select Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic ions The atoms within a polyatomic ion are held together by bonds When polyatomic ions bond with metals, they form bonds Therefore, compounds containing polyatomic ions have both and bonds!

8 Ex: NaOH Ex: OH- Purple book page 40 Non-Chemical Bonds (or other ways stuff could be held together): Metallic Bonding Intermolecular Forces 1. Dipoles Polar Bonds Symmetrical Molecules Asymmetrical Molecules 2. Hydrogen Bonds 3. Dispersion Forces 4. Molecule-Ion Attraction Metallic Bonding Occurs in Ex: Cu, Consists of ions surrounded by a of mobile electrons Electrons belong to any atom in particular.

9 Properties of metallic bonding account for properties of metals: Good conductors of and as solids and liquid: because of electrons hard and ductile High and points (higher than nonmetals) see Table S Intermolecular Forces/Attractions Intermolecular attractions - forces of between that are not Dipoles Dipole - a molecule, or a molecule with an asymmetric, or unequal distribution of causing one end of the molecule to be while the other is negative dipole-dipole attraction - force of attraction between the positive end of one dipole and the end of another Polar Bonds/Molecules: Asymmetrical molecules (no symmetry): polar bonds and asymmetrical shape the molecule is POLAR Ex: H 2 O Ex: NH 3 Ex: HCl Overall charge is uneven making molecule POLAR. Symmetrical molecules with polar bonds are overall NONPOLAR : Ex: CO 2 Ex:CH 4 Overall charge is even making molecule NONPOLAR

10 Hydrogen bonding: Intermolecular force linking that is covalently bonded to a small electronegative element such as, or fluorine, to another electronegative element of the same or another molecule. This is the type of force that holds together!! Accounts for the relatively high boiling point of water. Ex: H 2 O much higher than H 2 S. Other compounds with hydrogen bonding: and HF Dispersion Forces: Very force between molecules and gases such as diatomic (say: BrINClHOF) and gases. Force increases with increase atomic/molecular size. Therefore, boiling point with increase in size of element or molecule. As you go down Group 17 or 18 boiling point.

11 Molecule-Ion Attraction: Attraction between of an ionic compound (such as salt) of and molecules. Common formulas that contain molecule-ion attraction: Practice Regents Questions 1. Which substance exists as a metallic crystals (1) Ar (3) SiO 2 (2) Au (4) CO 2 2. Mobile electrons are a distinguishing characteristic of (1) an ionic bond (2) a metallic bond (3) an electrovalent bond (4) a covalent bond 3. Which kinds of bonds are found in a sample of H2O(s)? (1) hydrogen bonds, only (2) covalent bonds, only (3) both ionic and hydrogen bonds (4)both covalent and hydrogen bonds 4. Which substance is made up of molecules that are dipoles? (1) N 2 (3) CH 4 (2) H 2 O (4) CO Which element consists of positive ions immersed in a "sea" of mobile electrons? (1) sulfur (2) calcium (2) nitrogen (4) chlorine Intermolecular Forces and Vapor Pressure See Reference Table H Low vapor pressure is due to holding the molecule together. High vapor pressure is due to molecules can easily become a gas or vapor. High vapor pressure= intermolecular force.

12 Sample questions: The vapor pressure of water at 100ºC is. Ethanoic acid has vapor pressure of at 50 ºC. The substance with the weakest intermolecular force is More vapor pressure questions: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1yk4w8sepr_xoikskgunkia15nhuei6lieotrw1jsxea/edit

13

Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

More information

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent Bonding in Elements and Compounds Structure of solids, liquids and gases Types of bonding between atoms and molecules Ionic Covalent Metallic Many compounds between metals & nonmetals (salts), e.g. Na,

More information

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Problems to try at end of chapter: Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7b,9b,15,17,23,25,29,31,33,45,49,51,53,61 13.1 Properties of Liquids 1. Liquids take the shape of their container,

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Modified by Dr. Daniela R. Radu Why This Chapter? Description of basic ways chemists account for chemical

More information

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules INTRODUCTION Lewis dot structures are our first tier in drawing molecules and representing bonds between the atoms. The method was first published

More information

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts Bonds hapter 8 Bonding: General oncepts Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy Bond Length It is the energy required to break a bond. The distance where

More information

Non-Covalent Bonds (Weak Bond)

Non-Covalent Bonds (Weak Bond) Non-Covalent Bonds (Weak Bond) Weak bonds are those forces of attraction that, in biological situations, do not take a large amount of energy to break. For example, hydrogen bonds are broken by energies

More information

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES INTERMOLECULAR FORCES Intermolecular forces- forces of attraction and repulsion between molecules that hold molecules, ions, and atoms together. Intramolecular - forces of chemical bonds within a molecule

More information

Candidate Style Answer

Candidate Style Answer Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching

More information

Reading Preview. Key Terms covalent bond molecule double bond triple bond molecular compound polar bond nonpolar bond

Reading Preview. Key Terms covalent bond molecule double bond triple bond molecular compound polar bond nonpolar bond Section 4 4 bjectives After this lesson, students will be able to L.1.4.1 State what holds covalently bonded s together. L.1.4.2 Identify the properties of molecular compounds. L.1.4.3 Explain how unequal

More information

Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons.

Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons. The Nature of Molecules Chapter 2 Energy and Metabolism Chapter 6 Chemical Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms held together in a stable association. Compounds are molecules containing more than one type

More information

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion GS106 Chemical Bonds and Chemistry of Water c:wou:gs106:sp2002:chem.wpd I. Introduction A. Hierarchy of chemical substances 1. atoms of elements - smallest particles of matter with unique physical and

More information

Section 3.3: Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules

Section 3.3: Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules Section 3.3: Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules Mini Investigation: Evidence for Polar Molecules, page 103 A. The polar liquids will all exhibit some type of bending toward charged materials. The nonpolar

More information

Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids

Chapter 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 11, Liquids, and Solids States of Matter The fundamental difference between states of

More information

Test Review Periodic Trends and The Mole

Test Review Periodic Trends and The Mole Test Review Periodic Trends and The Mole The Mole SHOW ALL WORK ON YOUR OWN PAPER FOR CREDIT!! 1 2 (NH42SO2 %N 24.1 %H 6.9 %S 27.6 %O 41.3 % Al %C 35.3 %H 4.4 %O 47.1 Al(C2H3O23 13.2 3 How many moles are

More information

Study Guide For Chapter 7

Study Guide For Chapter 7 Name: Class: Date: ID: A Study Guide For Chapter 7 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The number of atoms in a mole of any pure substance

More information

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds ATOMS AND BONDS Atoms of elements are the simplest units of organization in the natural world. Atoms consist of protons (positive charge), neutrons (neutral charge) and electrons (negative charge). The

More information

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

More information

Chemistry Final Study Guide

Chemistry Final Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Chemistry Final Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond

More information

Unit 11 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Unit 11 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Unit 11 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Crystalline solids. A) have their particles arranged randomly B) have

More information

Getting the most from this book...4 About this book...5

Getting the most from this book...4 About this book...5 Contents Getting the most from this book...4 About this book....5 Content Guidance Topic 1 Atomic structure and the periodic table...8 Topic 2 Bonding and structure...14 Topic 2A Bonding....14 Topic 2B

More information

Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids

Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids 1 Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids * 10.1 Polar Covalent Bonds & Dipole Moments - van der Waals constant for water (a = 5.28 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) vs O 2 (a = 1.36 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) -- water is polar (draw diagram)

More information

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part.

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. Part B 2 Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. 51 [1] Allow 1 credit for 3 Mg(s) N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s). Allow credit even if the coefficient 1 is

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

602X10 21 602,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000 6.02X10 23. Pre- AP Chemistry Chemical Quan44es: The Mole. Diatomic Elements

602X10 21 602,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000 6.02X10 23. Pre- AP Chemistry Chemical Quan44es: The Mole. Diatomic Elements Pre- AP Chemistry Chemical Quan44es: The Mole Mole SI unit of measurement that measures the amount of substance. A substance exists as representa9ve par9cles. Representa9ve par9cles can be atoms, molecules,

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2) Which one of the following exhibits dipole-dipole attraction between molecules? A) XeF 4 B) AsH 3 C) CO 2 D) BCl 3 E) Cl 2

Name: Class: Date: 2) Which one of the following exhibits dipole-dipole attraction between molecules? A) XeF 4 B) AsH 3 C) CO 2 D) BCl 3 E) Cl 2 Name: Class: Date: IM Bonding 1) In liquids, the attractive intermolecular forces are. A) very weak compared with kinetic energies of the molecules B) strong enough to hold molecules relatively close together

More information

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

Chemical Composition Review Mole Calculations Percent Composition. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 1

Chemical Composition Review Mole Calculations Percent Composition. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 1 Chemical Composition Review Mole Calculations Percent Composition Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 1 QUESTION Suppose you work in a hardware store and a customer wants to purchase 500

More information

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases Chapter 6 Solution, Acids and Bases Mixtures Two or more substances Heterogeneous- different from place to place Types of heterogeneous mixtures Suspensions- Large particles that eventually settle out

More information

Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole

Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole Chapter 4 Chemical Composition Chapter 4 Topics 1. Mole Quantities 2. Moles, Masses, and Particles 3. Determining Empirical Formulas 4. Chemical Composition of Solutions Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

5s Solubility & Conductivity

5s Solubility & Conductivity 5s Solubility & Conductivity OBJECTIVES To explore the relationship between the structures of common household substances and the kinds of solvents in which they dissolve. To demonstrate the ionic nature

More information

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.

More information

Mole Notes.notebook. October 29, 2014

Mole Notes.notebook. October 29, 2014 1 2 How do chemists count atoms/formula units/molecules? How do we go from the atomic scale to the scale of everyday measurements (macroscopic scale)? The gateway is the mole! But before we get to the

More information

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z Mass spectrum for the ionization of acetone MS of Acetone + Relative Abundance CH 3 H 3 C O + M 15 (loss of methyl) + O H 3 C CH 3 43 58 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z It is difficult to identify the ions

More information

Forensic Science Standards and Benchmarks

Forensic Science Standards and Benchmarks Forensic Science Standards and Standard 1: Understands and applies principles of scientific inquiry Power : Identifies questions and concepts that guide science investigations Uses technology and mathematics

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds Lab 11 Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds TN Standard 2.1: The student will investigate chemical bonding. Have you ever accidentally used salt instead of sugar? D rinking tea that has been sweetened

More information

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Student: 1. An atom of bromine has a mass about four times greater than that of an atom of neon. Which choice makes the correct comparison of the relative

More information

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? 7. How many carbon atoms are contained in an ethyl group? 1 3 2 4 2. In the alkane series, each molecule

More information

How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique.

How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique. How much does a single atom weigh? Different elements weigh different amounts related to what makes them unique. What units do we use to define the weight of an atom? amu units of atomic weight. (atomic

More information

Summer Holidays Questions

Summer Holidays Questions Summer Holidays Questions Chapter 1 1) Barium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid. The initial concentration of the 1 st solution its 0.1M and the volume is 100ml. The initial concentration of the

More information

Composition of nucleus. Priority Vocabulary: Electron, Proton, Neutron, Nucleus, Isotopes, Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, Element, Electron Shell,

Composition of nucleus. Priority Vocabulary: Electron, Proton, Neutron, Nucleus, Isotopes, Atomic Number, Atomic Mass, Element, Electron Shell, Lake County, Lakeview, 9 th grade, Physical Science, Brent Starr Standard: H1P1 Explain how atomic structure is related to the properties of elements and their position in the Periodic Table. Explain how

More information

Secondary School Students Misconceptions of Covalent Bonding

Secondary School Students Misconceptions of Covalent Bonding TÜRK FEN EĞİTİMİ DERGİSİ Yıl 7, Sayı 2, Haziran 2010 N Journal of TURKISH SCIENCE EDUCATION Volume 7, Issue 2, June 2010 http://www.tused.org Secondary School Students Misconceptions of Covalent Bonding

More information

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7 Alcohols, Ethers and More 1 What do you do when you are in Pain? What do you do when you are in a lot of pain? 2 Functional Groups A functional group is an atom, groups

More information

STUDENT COURSE INFORMATION

STUDENT COURSE INFORMATION STUDENT COURSE INFORMATION FANSHAWE COLLEGE OF APPLIED ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY HEALTH SCIENCES JANUARY 2010 CHEM-1004 -- CHEMISTRY I Duration: 45 total course hours Credit Units: 3.00 *NOTE: The hours may

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

CHEM 110 A Chemistry I

CHEM 110 A Chemistry I Columbia College Online Campus P a g e 1 CHEM 110 A Chemistry I Early Fall Session (15-51) Monday, August 17 Saturday, October 10, 2015 Course Description Fundamental course in the principles of chemistry.

More information

a. pure substance b. composed of combinations of atoms c. held together by chemical bonds d. substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units

a. pure substance b. composed of combinations of atoms c. held together by chemical bonds d. substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units Chemical Bonds 1. Which of the following is NOT a true compound? a. pure substance b. composed of combinations of atoms c. held together by chemical bonds d. substance that cannot be broken down into simpler

More information

Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq)

Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq) Lesson Objectives Students will: Create a physical representation of the autoionization of water using the water kit. Describe and produce a physical representation of the dissociation of a strong acid

More information

Stoichiometry. Lecture Examples Answer Key

Stoichiometry. Lecture Examples Answer Key Stoichiometry Lecture Examples Answer Key Ex. 1 Balance the following chemical equations: 3 NaBr + 1 H 3 PO 4 3 HBr + 1 Na 3 PO 4 2 C 3 H 5 N 3 O 9 6 CO 2 + 3 N 2 + 5 H 2 O + 9 O 2 2 Ca(OH) 2 + 2 SO 2

More information

Lecture 5, The Mole. What is a mole?

Lecture 5, The Mole. What is a mole? Lecture 5, The Mole What is a mole? Moles Atomic mass unit and the mole amu definition: 12 C = 12 amu. The atomic mass unit is defined this way. 1 amu = 1.6605 x 10-24 g How many 12 C atoms weigh 12 g?

More information

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State State the term that applies to each of the following changes of physical state: (a) Snow changes from a solid to a liquid. (b) Gasoline changes from a liquid

More information

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm

Amount of Substance. http://www.avogadro.co.uk/definitions/elemcompmix.htm Page 1 of 14 Amount of Substance Key terms in this chapter are: Element Compound Mixture Atom Molecule Ion Relative Atomic Mass Avogadro constant Mole Isotope Relative Isotopic Mass Relative Molecular

More information

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key 1) How many are there in 24 grams of FeF 3? 1.28 x 10 23 2) How many are there in 450 grams of Na 2 SO 4? 1.91 x 10 24 3) How many grams are there in 2.3

More information

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points) CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

More information

Contaminant Behavior in the Environment: Basic Principles 41. To predict if a molecule is polar, we need to answer two questions:

Contaminant Behavior in the Environment: Basic Principles 41. To predict if a molecule is polar, we need to answer two questions: ontaminant Behavior in the Environment: Basic Principles 41 opyright 2008. R Press All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except Depending on its

More information

Soil Chemistry Ch. 2. Chemical Principles As Applied to Soils

Soil Chemistry Ch. 2. Chemical Principles As Applied to Soils Chemical Principles As Applied to Soils I. Chemical units a. Moles and Avogadro s number The numbers of atoms, ions or molecules are important in chemical reactions because the number, rather than mass

More information

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

More information

Unit 12 Practice Test

Unit 12 Practice Test Name: Class: Date: ID: A Unit 12 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A solid has a very high melting point, great hardness, and

More information

CHEM 120 Online: Chapter 6 Sample problems Date: 2. Which of the following compounds has the largest formula mass? A) H2O B) NH3 C) CO D) BeH2

CHEM 120 Online: Chapter 6 Sample problems Date: 2. Which of the following compounds has the largest formula mass? A) H2O B) NH3 C) CO D) BeH2 CHEM 120 Online: Chapter 6 Sample problems Date: 1. To determine the formula mass of a compound you should A) add up the atomic masses of all the atoms present. B) add up the atomic masses of all the atoms

More information

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to:

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to: Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including

More information

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue

More information

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS 35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION. 37 74 20 40 60 80 m/e

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION. 37 74 20 40 60 80 m/e CHM111(M)/Page 1 of 5 INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION SECTION A Answer ALL EIGHT questions. (52 marks) 1. The following is the mass spectrum

More information

Prentice Hall. Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition. High School. High School

Prentice Hall. Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition. High School. High School Prentice Hall Chemistry (Wilbraham) 2008, National Student Edition - South Carolina Teacher s Edition High School C O R R E L A T E D T O High School C-1.1 Apply established rules for significant digits,

More information

RELEASED. Student Booklet. Chemistry. Fall 2014 NC Final Exam. Released Items

RELEASED. Student Booklet. Chemistry. Fall 2014 NC Final Exam. Released Items Released Items Public Schools of North arolina State oard of Education epartment of Public Instruction Raleigh, North arolina 27699-6314 Fall 2014 N Final Exam hemistry Student ooklet opyright 2014 by

More information

Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry

Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry The Southeastern Dual Enrollment Chemistry Program is a program whereby high school students are given the opportunity to take college

More information

The Mole. Chapter 10. Dimensional Analysis. The Mole. How much mass is in one atom of carbon-12? Molar Mass of Atoms 3/1/2015

The Mole. Chapter 10. Dimensional Analysis. The Mole. How much mass is in one atom of carbon-12? Molar Mass of Atoms 3/1/2015 The Mole Chapter 10 1 Objectives Use the mole and molar mass to make conversions among moles, mass, and number of particles Determine the percent composition of the components of a compound Calculate empirical

More information

THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY

THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY 1 THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY ***A mole is 6.0 x 10 items.*** 1 mole = 6.0 x 10 items 1 mole = 60, 00, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000 items Analogy #1 1 dozen = 1 items 18 eggs = 1.5 dz. - to convert

More information

Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass = sum of the Atomic Masses in a molecule

Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass = sum of the Atomic Masses in a molecule CHAPTER THREE: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance A. Molecular Mass and Formula Mass. (Section 3.1) 1. Just as we can talk about mass of one atom of

More information

STOICHIOMETRY UNIT 1 LEARNING OUTCOMES. At the end of this unit students will be expected to:

STOICHIOMETRY UNIT 1 LEARNING OUTCOMES. At the end of this unit students will be expected to: STOICHIOMETRY LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of this unit students will be expected to: UNIT 1 THE MOLE AND MOLAR MASS define molar mass and perform mole-mass inter-conversions for pure substances explain

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Chapter 7 Answers and Solutions 7 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 7.1 A mole is the amount of a substance that contains 6.02 x 10 23 items. For example, one mole of water contains 6.02 10 23 molecules

More information

Chem 106 Thursday Feb. 3, 2011

Chem 106 Thursday Feb. 3, 2011 Chem 106 Thursday Feb. 3, 2011 Chapter 13: -The Chemistry of Solids -Phase Diagrams - (no Born-Haber cycle) 2/3/2011 1 Approx surface area (Å 2 ) 253 258 Which C 5 H 12 alkane do you think has the highest

More information

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification

More information

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES An introduction Water Water is a liquid. Water is made of water molecules (formula H 2 O). All natural waters contain some foreign substances, usually in small amounts. The water

More information

AS1 MOLES. oxygen molecules have the formula O 2 the relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 so the molar mass will be 32g mol -1

AS1 MOLES. oxygen molecules have the formula O 2 the relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 so the molar mass will be 32g mol -1 Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (L) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.023 x 10 23 mol -1. Example

More information

MOLECULAR MASS AND FORMULA MASS

MOLECULAR MASS AND FORMULA MASS 1 MOLECULAR MASS AND FORMULA MASS Molecular mass = sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in the molecule. Formula mass = sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in the formula unit. 2 MOLECULAR MASS AND

More information

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS REVIEW 8B Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS 8B READINESS Use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample TEKS_TXT of material. Vocabulary

More information

Energy and Matter CHAPTER OUTLINE CHAPTER GOALS

Energy and Matter CHAPTER OUTLINE CHAPTER GOALS 4 When sweat evaporates, it cools the skin by absorbing heat from the body. Energy and Matter CAPTER OUTLINE 4.1 Energy 4.2 The Three States of Matter 4.3 Intermolecular Forces 4.4 Boiling Point and Melting

More information

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Chapter 16 The Arrhenius Model An acid is any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +, in an aqueous solution. Example: when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water, the following

More information

Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu)

Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) Micro World atoms & molecules Laboratory scale measurements Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) By definition: 1 atom 12 C weighs 12 amu On this scale 1 H = 1.008 amu 16 O = 16.00

More information

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe: Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

More information

Mole Calculations Multiple Choice Review PSI Chemistry

Mole Calculations Multiple Choice Review PSI Chemistry Mole Calculations Multiple Choice Review PSI Chemistry Name The Mole and Avogadro's Number 1)What is the SI unit for measurement of number of particles in a substance? A) kilogram B) ampere C) candela

More information

Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296)

Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) 10 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) This section defines the mole and explains how the mole is used to measure matter. It also teaches you how to calculate

More information

Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole. The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects.

Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole. The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects. Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Mole-Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects. SI def.: the amount of

More information

Chapter 14 Solutions

Chapter 14 Solutions Chapter 14 Solutions 1 14.1 General properties of solutions solution a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance two components in a solution: solute

More information

The Mole. Chapter 2. Solutions for Practice Problems

The Mole. Chapter 2. Solutions for Practice Problems Chapter 2 The Mole Note to teacher: You will notice that there are two different formats for the Sample Problems in the student textbook. Where appropriate, the Sample Problem contains the full set of

More information

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions. Collection Terms. 5.1 The Mole. A Mole of a Compound. A Mole of Atoms.

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions. Collection Terms. 5.1 The Mole. A Mole of a Compound. A Mole of Atoms. Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions 5.1 The Mole Collection Terms A collection term states a specific number of items. 1 dozen donuts = 12 donuts 1 ream of paper = 500 sheets 1 case = 24 cans 1

More information

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise Example Exercise 9.1 Atomic Mass and Avogadro s Number Refer to the atomic masses in the periodic table inside the front cover of this textbook. State the mass of Avogadro s number of atoms for each of

More information

Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines

Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines AP Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines 2014 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Visit the College

More information

Chemical Bonds and Groups - Part 1

Chemical Bonds and Groups - Part 1 hemical Bonds and Groups - Part 1 ARB SKELETS arbon has a unique role in the cell because of its ability to form strong covalent bonds with other carbon atoms. Thus carbon atoms can join to form chains.

More information

Woods Chem-1 Lec-02 10-1 Atoms, Ions, Mole (std) Page 1 ATOMIC THEORY, MOLECULES, & IONS

Woods Chem-1 Lec-02 10-1 Atoms, Ions, Mole (std) Page 1 ATOMIC THEORY, MOLECULES, & IONS Woods Chem-1 Lec-02 10-1 Atoms, Ions, Mole (std) Page 1 ATOMIC THEORY, MOLECULES, & IONS Proton: A positively charged particle in the nucleus Atomic Number: We differentiate all elements by their number

More information

Name: Class: Date: 3) The bond angles marked a, b, and c in the molecule below are about,, and, respectively.

Name: Class: Date: 3) The bond angles marked a, b, and c in the molecule below are about,, and, respectively. Name: Class: Date: Unit 9 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The basis of the VSEPR model of molecular bonding is. A) regions of

More information

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V 44 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING SOLUTIONS INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Many chemical reactions take place in aqueous (water) solution. Quantities of such solutions are measured as volumes, while the amounts

More information

Chapter 4, Lesson 4: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding

Chapter 4, Lesson 4: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding Chapter 4, Lesson 4: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Covalent Bonding Key Concepts The electrons on the outermost energy level of the atom are called valence electrons. The valence electrons are involved

More information

P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST

P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A line spectrum is produced when an electron moves from one energy

More information