Reaping the benefits Science and the sustainable intensification of global agriculture

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1 Reaping the benefits Science and the sustainable intensification of global agriculture

2 Reaping the benefits: Headlines I major challenge because a substantial (50+%) increase in food production. Biological science (linked with chemistry, engineering, computing) has greater potential now than ever before to deliver new technology Science-based technology offers part of the solution. Urgent action is required because the lag between scientific discovery and technological innovation is many years Tuesday, April 27,

3 the role of agronomy and crop management Crop genetics has contributed more in recent years than crop management. This may be because crop management has not been explored. Yield increase is slowing Ian Mackay NIAB Tuesday, April 27,

4 Reaping the benefits: Headlines II sustainable intensification. increase yields, decrease environmental damage, on the same land. both genetic improvements in crops and developments in crop management (agronomy, agroecology). make the best of all technologies, approaches and farming methods. apply technology with an awareness of needs in targetted regions and of consequences of change (environmental, social and economic). Tuesday, April 27,

5 Reaping the benefits: Headlines III 2 billion Grand Challenge for the UK government over ten years. Research into genetic methods to improve crops and methods to develop their management. Capacity reconstruction in institutes and universities so that developments in advanced research can be linked with applications in the field Connection and communication between research providers including government departments (International Development, Environment Food and Rural Affairs, Business Innovation and Skills, Research Councils, Technology Strategy Board) Connection and communication between research providers and end users of research. Separate translation strategies for industrialised and less developed regions Tuesday, April 27,

6 optimisation of pest and disease control measures Tuesday, April 27,

7 natural product crop protection technology Nigel Paul, Jason Moore, Michael Roberts, and Jane Taylor (Lancaster University) Patricia Croft of Stockbridge Technology Centre 24h treatment with 1.5 or 3.0mM JA at 4 C rinse surface JA and germinate expose to insect pest after 7 weeks tomato seeds reduced egg production by two spotted spider mite other examples with various insect pests in tomato, pepper, wheat.

8 water use efficiency Partial root drying and deficit irrigation to restrict unnecessary shoot growth doi: /rstb Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B , J.I.L Morison, N.R Baker, P.M Mullineaux and W.J Davies Improving water use in crop production Tuesday, April 27,

9 crop genetic improvement Hybridisation conventional breeding GM Targeted mutations new technology Tuesday, April 27,

10 next generation sequencing De novo sequencing of crop and crop pathogen genomes Sequencing of varieties and related species Expression profiling Characterisation of non coding RNAs and epigenetic modifications Tuesday, April 27,

11 genome sequence facilitates conventional breeding Genome sequence allows function to be linked to a particular DNA sequence DNA sequences can be used as markers for complex traits DNA marker assisted selection adds greatly to the power and potential of conventional plant breeding Tuesday, April 27,

12 genome sequence allows a new type of genetic manipulation isolated genes can be used in genetic manipulation transfer of plant genes between plants Gene RB cloned from Solanum bulbocastanum confers broad spectrum resistance to potato late blight Junqi Song*, James M. Bradeen, S. Kristine Naess, John A. Raasch, Susan M. Wielgus*, Geraldine T. Haberlach, Jia Liu, Hanhui Kuang, Sandra Austin- Phillips, C. Robin Buell, John P. Helgeson **, and Jiming Jiang*,** Tuesday, April 27,

13 targeted gene modification : Plant biotechnology: Zinc fingers on target Matthew H. Porteus Nature 459, (21 May 2009) doi: /459337a Tuesday, April 27,

14 crop genetic improvement Abiotic stress: conventional breeding and genetic modification (e.g. salinity tolerance and water-use efficiency) Biotic stress: resistance genes, defence pathway genes, parasite derived resistance, non-host resistance Mineral nutrition: genetic variation in root architecture, engineering nitrogen fixation in non-legume crops. Nutritional quality: vitamins, trace elements, essential fatty acids; removal of antinutritional factors Tuesday, April 27,

15 long term grand challenges for plant science: maximising the potential of hybrids Harnessing heterosis and transgressive segregation Increasing the efficiency of photosynthesis by bypassing photorespiration

16 scientific grand challenges in crop production enhanced photosynthesis perennial crops so that soil erosion prevented, better retention and uptake of water and nutrients from the soil, no need to rebuild root system each year Nitrogen fixation vegetative seed production (ie seed produced without pollination) Harnessing of hybrid vigour New species as crops Revolutionary new/old cropping systems Tuesday, April 27,

17 Could this be the future??? Main Crop Trap Crop Attract natural enemies Attract moths Moths are pushed away N2 fixing legume intercrop

18 big questions what would be the consequences if we do not face up to the challenge????? what are our options????? what are the consequences if we do not go down the GM route? Tuesday, April 27,

19 Reaping the benefits: Headlines Major problems ahead Need a substantial (50+%) increase in food production. Science-based technology offers part of the solution. Report calls for 2 billion Grand Challenge. Improve crops and their management. Sustainable intensification. Increase yields, decrease environmental damage, on the same land. Both improvements in crops and improvements in agro-ecological management. Make the best of all technologies, approaches and farming methods. Tuesday, April 27,

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