Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training

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1 Humidtropics Kiboga/Kyankwanzi Soybean production training Makerere University and Humidtropics collaboration Soybean Seed production Training of Kiboga-Kyankwanzi platform members in Soybean Seed Production (11 th 13 th September, 2014) Authors: Tonny Obua, Mercy Namara and Perez Muchunguzi Kampala, Uganda Humidtropics, a CGIAR Research Program led by IITA, seeks to transform the lives of the rural poor in tropical America, Asia and Africa. Research organizations involved in core partnership with Humidtropics are AVRDC, Bioversity International, CIAT, CIP, FARA, icipe, ICRAF, ILRI, IITA, IWMI and WUR. humidtropics.cgiar.org Published by Humidtropics September, This document is licensed for use under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License

2 Table of Contents 1.1 Introduction Mission of the partnership Objectives of the partnership Objectives of the training activity Soybean production Varietal selection Land Preparation of the seed bed Planting... 5 Plant Spacing... 5 Seed rate and plant population Bird Scaring Weed management Harvesting Threshing Drying Cleaning Seed production Seed Vs. Grain Why seed? Seed requirements Demonstrations Photo Gallery

3 1.1 Introduction The training followed a collaborative effort between Makerere University and IITA (Humidtropics Program). The collaboration seeks to increase soybean production, productivity and utilization amongst farmers in 2 districts of Uganda and for at least one improved soybean variety (Maksoy 1N, Maksoy 2N, Maksoy 3N, Maksoy 4N and Maksoy 5N), adopt Good Agronomic Practices (GAPs) and be able to process soybean grains into different products that can be consumed and sold for income generation at household level. All these are envisaged to result into increased consumption of highly nutritious soybean products by farmers in these two districts and ultimately lead to reduced malnutrition and poverty. 1.2 Mission of the collaboration The Soybean Breeding and Seed Systems Program of Makerere University, is the legal owner of the technologies in form of six improved soybean varieties, and seeks to extensively disseminate the same to positively contribute to improved nutrition and poverty reduction at both household and community levels. This mission mirrors that the Humidtropics program and so inspired the collaborative effort. The Humidtropics program highlights the importance of integrating soybean (legume) in the maize (cereal) production system of Kiboga and Kyankwanzi districts. One of the objectives of introducing soybean apart from income and nutrition is a long term strategy to improve the soil fertility that has been exhausted by maize production in these two districts. This partnership therefore facilitates the collaborative work on initiatives that will aim at dissemination of the six soybean varieties through increased availability and accessibility of the seeds, supporting the crop s production and productivity as well utilization and marketing to achieve the two parties respective goals. 1.3 Objectives of the Collaboration In the areas of operation, the following outcomes are expected i. Increased awareness of soybean s high nutrition content and market value. ii. Increased availability and accessibility of seed of at least one improved variety within each area of operation iii. Adoption of recommended agronomic practices in soybean production iv. Adoption of the improved soybean varieties in the areas of operation v. Increased soybean production within the areas of operation vi. Increased soybean processing and utilization at household level 3

4 vii. Increased income for participating households accruing from soybean grain/seed or product marketing It is in line with this partnership that trainings in soybean best field production practices / good agronomic practices and seed production were organized for Humid Tropics supported farmers in Kiboga and Kyankwanzi districts. 1.4 Objectives of the training activity This training was meant to equip selected Humid Tropics supported farmers in Kiboga and Kyankwanzi Districts with skills in soybean production (good agronomic practices) and seed production. One of the biggest challenges in soybean production in these two districts is lack of quality soybean seed in adequate quantities. The training was therefore responding to a pertinent need for the farmers to have access to good quality seed in adequate quantities and at an affordable price. Therefore, the project of seed multiplication was kick-started with establishment of three acres of multiplication fields of Maksoy 3N variety in the two districts hosted by three different groups. It is expected to result into increased quantities of improved soybean variety (Maksoy 3N) seed to the different members within the Kiboga-Kyankwanzi field site. 2.0 Soybean production The farmers were trained ii different aspects of soybean production. These included the following good agronomic practices; 2.1 Varietal selection After asking the farmers about the different varieties of soybean that they are aware of, it was clear that the farmers did not know of any soybean variety in Uganda. The participants were therefore taken through the different soybean varieties that were developed and being promoted by the Soybean Breeding and Seed Systems Program. This was through the use of a poster that shows all the plant and seed attributes of these four soybean varieties (Namsoy 4M, Maksoy 1N, Maksoy 2N and Maksoy 3N). Maksoy 3N that is being promoted is also in the poster. The factors to be considered in selecting a soybean variety that were clearly explained to the participants included; Yield Nutritional composition (Protein and Oil contents) Maturity period Resistance to pod shuttering Seed appearance 4

5 Resistance to pests and diseases Therefore Maksoy 3N soybean variety was chosen because of its high yield, resistance to pod shuttering and soybean rust disease, large and beautiful seed with the highest oil content. 2.2 Land Preparation of the seed bed The participants were also taken through the land preparation procedures. This included 1 st and 2 nd ploughing that has to be done early enough before the on sets of the rains. A well prepared seed bed will enhance germination and reduce on the weed pressure. 2.3 Planting This has to be done early enough at the on set of rains. This should be observed during both seasons of the year. However due to climatic variability, it has generally become difficult for smallholder farmers to predict the suitable weather condition to plant. It is therefore recommend that planting soybeans should be done as early as possible. In Uganda, recommended planting dates for soybean are: February March for the first season and August September for second season. Farmers should plant soybean the moment the rains are stable. In fields where inoculated soybean has never been grown, seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium japonicum which can be purchased from Makerere University, School of Agricultural Sciences. Plant Spacing The participants were advised to use a spacing of 60-cm between rows and 5-cm between plants. The trainers clearly explained the advantages of this spacing; High plant population therefore increased yield One of the ways suppressing weeds especially later in the season Easy operation like weeding and harvesting Seed rate and plant population Depending on seed size, seed rate may vary between Kg/ha for a recommended plant population of 300,000 plants / ha. Lower plant population may contribute to erratic stand, excessive branching and reduced yield. In contrast, high population may cause competition for resources, shading and lodging. 2.4 Bird Scaring In the first week of germination sometimes soybean plants are eaten up by birds. 5

6 2.5 Weed management Weeds are a major threat to production of most crops, because they deprive plants of essential growth resources like water, nutrients and light. Besides, seeds from certain weed species not only interfere with harvest operations but also reduce quality and price of grains. In soybean, annual and perennial weeds are problematic at early vegetative stage. Weed control is very important because it reduces competition for nutrients, water, and light and prevents mixing of weed and soybean seed during harvesting. The participants were advised to do weeding two to three times in a season; at 2 and 5 weeks after planting respectively. A third weeding can be done if the field has more weeds. 2.6 Harvesting Harvesting is the last important operation to be considered for the production of good quality soybean grain. Depending on variety most soybean varieties are harvested within a period of days after planting. Hand harvesting usually involves cutting or pulling of the soybean plants whose seed has moisture content between 18 and 20%. Timely harvesting of seed minimizes seed deterioration in the field, infestation by insects and losses from physical damage. Delayed harvesting may cause the pods to start shattering in susceptible varieties leading to yield loss. The participants were then advised to harvest at the right time to avoid seed deterioration and loss. 2.7 Threshing At threshing, the seed should have a moisture content of 14-15%. It is important that seed of different varieties are threshed on different days to avoid admixing of the varieties. The seed should be dried on clean tarpaulins to avoid soiling and contamination. This can be done manually using sticks. 2.8 Drying Seed should be dry before storage so that its viability can be maintained during the storage period. Soybean should be stored at a moisture content of 10% or less. Seed is sufficiently dry when it cannot be dented with the teeth or fingernails. The instructor then demonstrated to the participants how to test if the seed is dry using a teeth bite. 2.9 Cleaning After threshing, the seed should be thoroughly cleaned by removing all impurities; including inert matter (soil, plant residue) and weed seeds. 6

7 3.0 Seed production 3.1 Seed Vs. Grain The trainer clearly explained the difference between seed and grain Seed: Used for purposes of reproduction. It may be true seed, clone or spores such as in mushrooms Grain: Used for other purposes such as food and industrial raw materials etc (not for planting) This definition of seed and grain is very important because most smallholder farmers use grain that very poor quality for planting. Most of these farmers don t have access to good quality seed. That is the reason why they had to clearly understand the difference between seed and grain. 3.2 Why seed? The participants were advised to produce their own seed because of the following reasons; Seed from seed companies are; More expensive Sometimes of poor quality Are less accessible by smallholder farmers NB: We organised groups, the farmers can even be used as seed multipliers for seed companies within the region. 3.3 Seed requirements The participants were also taken through High Quality traits of seed and their associated advantages as outlined below; High Viability (germination capacity) to have maximum plant population hence increased yields Higher Genetic purity (True to type) for uniformity hence higher market Physical Purity (No other materials) high price Pathogen free ( No diseases) 7

8 4.0 Demonstrations The participants were taken through practical sessions on how to dig the furrows and plant soybeans. This involved use of pegs, hand hoe and sisal strings. 5.0 Photo Gallery 8

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