Long Term Challenges for Tidal Estuaries

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1 A view from a former tidal river manager expert with experience from 6 decades living at, with and from the Tidal River Elbe chairman of the European Interreg Project TIDE (Tidal River Development)

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3 Land reclamation and dykes

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8 Background: Learning from History Ex-Seaport Bruges

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10 Tools and Strategies are needed for an integrated management of estuaries taking in account different uses Source:Elliott 2012

11 Challenges for science & management There is only one big idea in marine environmental management - to protect and enhance ecological functioning and ecosystem services while at the same time delivering societal benefits Recovery/coping with historical legacy Endangered coastal and marine ecosystem functions Legal & adminstrative framework Economic prosperity and delivery of societal benefits Coping with climate change & moving baselines Source: Elliott 2012

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13 The supply The ES are delivered by habitats (and species), the Service Providing Units Demand side Source: Meire 2012

14 Understanding TIDE Estuary understanding Tools for governance and communication Recommendations, examples for solutions and best practises

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17 Estuaries need a new strategie to meet sea level rise and flood defense

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21 To be prepared for the long term period over more than a century there is a need for research starting today

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25 Tidal River Elbe in 200 years Recomended Scenario to be researched by Glindemann

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36 Thanks to my collegues at Thanks to the audience for listening for the presentation material.

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43 CATEGO RY PROVISI ONING SERVICE S Inventory ESD TIDE NR SERVICES BENEFITS Short description 1.1 Food: Plants Food 1.2 Food: Animals Food Estuaries 1.3 Water for household use drinking water 1.4 Water for industrial use improved industrial production 1.5 Water for agricultural use improved agricultural production 1.6 Water for energy use renewable energy production 1.7 Water for navigation Shipping 1.8 Raw materials: Renewable soil materials: sand Raw materials: Renewable Which services do estuaries produce? building material presence and use of edible plants, including agricultural production for direct food consumption presence and use of edible animals, including livestock growth and fodder production provision and use of water for household use meeting the quality standards for drinking water provision and use of water for e.g. cooling water, rinsing water, water for chemical reactions provision and use of water for e.g. irrigation water, freezing prevention for fruit trees, drinking water for cattle,.. provision and use of water for tidal or dam water turbines presence and use of water for shipping purposes provision and use of sand from dynamic environments which are renewed within a few generations (100 y) provision and use of clay from dynamic environments which are

44 CATEGOR Y REGULA TING SERVIC ES Which services do estuaries produce? N SERVICES BENEFITS Short description R influence of evaporation and 2. Air quality regulation: Airwater Air quality exchange regulation: human health evapotranspiration, condensation 2 2. on respiration air quality and photosynthesis, Biogeochemical reactions human health exudation of chemicals by 3 human health, avoided costs due to activity of organisms degradation buffering carbon reactions, stock in living 2. Climate regulation: Carbon caused by extreme events or vegetation, burial of organic matter 4 sequestration and burial disturbance, ensured human health, avoided costs in soils provisioning services cooling effect of vegetation, uptake 2. Climate regulation: Water caused by extreme events or of solar energy for photosynthesis 5 thermodynamic regulation disturbance, ensured human health, avoided costs and evapotranspiration, provisioning services effect of direct reflection, storage, 2. Climate regulation: Heat caused by extreme events or transport, radiation of solar heat by 6 exchange regulation disturbance, ensured human health, avoided costs various soil and water bodies Regulation extreme events provisioning services storage of storm or extreme spring 2. caused by extreme events or or disturbance: Flood water tides in natural or flood control 7 disturbance, ensured storage human health, avoided costs habitats Regulation extreme events provisioning services 2. caused by extreme events or storage of peak discharge floods in or disturbance: Peak 8 disturbance, ensured natural or flood control habitats discharge buffering human health, avoided costs Regulation extreme events provisioning services 2. caused by extreme events or reduction of water current by or disturbance: Water 9 disturbance, ensured physical features or vegetation current reduction human health, avoided costs 2. Regulation extreme events provisioning services caused by extreme events or reduction of wave height by 1 or disturbance: Wave disturbance, ensured physical features or vegetation 0 reduction Regulation extreme events 2. provisioning services reduction of noise disturbance by or disturbance: Sound human health presence of natural buffers buffering Water quantity regulation: ensured platform, food, water drainage of the catchment by the 1 drainage of river water other provisioning services river 2 2. Water quantity regulation: various ensured provisioning countering of saline tidal wave by 1 prevention of saline services 3 2. fresh water discharge intrusion Water quantity regulation: various ensured provisioning buffering of average flood and 1 dissipation of tidal and river services, avoided maintenance 4 2. discharge variations in the river bed energy Water quantity regulation: costs formation and maintenance of 1 various ensured services landscape maintenance typical landscapes and hydrology 5

45 CATEGOR Y REGUL ATING SERVIC ES HABITAT 3.1 "Biodiversity" SERVICES CULTURA L & AMENITY SERVICES Which services do estuaries produce? NR SERVICES Water quality regulation: BENEFITS Short description 2.1 improved water quality, various transport of pollutants from source, transport of pollutants and 7 Water quality regulation: ensured services dilution excess nutrients 2.1 reduction of excess loads improved water quality, various binding of N, P in sediments and 8 coming from the ensured services pelagic food web Erosion and avoided damage or sediment trapping and gully erosion 2.1 catchment sedimentation regulation maintenance costs, various by variable water currents and 9 by Erosion water and bodies ensured avoided damage 2.2 provisioning or services topography sediment trapping and erosion sedimentation regulation maintenance costs, various prevention by vegetation, effects of 0 by Biological biological regulation mediation of 2.2 ensured provisioning services bioturbation soil microbial activities important for various ensured provisioning soil processes and soil agriculture or water quality 1 services formation Prevention of 2.2 regulation presence of processes, resilient natural various ensured provisioning bioturbation establishment of harmful populations presence of able resilient to withstand 2 services invasive species invasion equilibrated natural populations 2.2 Reduced spread of various ensured provisioning avoiding excessive population 3 diseases services, human health growth of disease-carrying vector species, presence importance of pollinators for and human 2.2 various ensured provisioning Pollination health importance agriculture for agricultural 4 services 2.2 production presence of predators for various ensured provisioning Pest control problematic pest species impacting 5 services total amount of abiotic and biotic agricultural production diversity at all levels (genelandscape), regardless of rarity or insurance of all services vulnerability appreciation of beauty of 4.1 Aesthetic information Wellbeing organisms, landscapes, Opportunities for opportunities and exploitation for 4.2 Wellbeing recreation & tourism recreation appreciation & tourism of organisms, Inspiration for culture, art 4.3 Wellbeing landscapes, as inspiration for and design culture, appreciation art and of organisms, design 4.4 Spiritual experience Wellbeing landscapes, on a spiritual level Information for cognitive use of organisms, landscapes for 4.5 Wellbeing development (self-) educational purposes

46 Selection of 20 How essential are the services produced? Important Ecosystem Services in TIDE estuaries Category important ES Provisionin for Food: Animals g Water for industrial use TIDE Provisionin g Water for navigation Provisionin g Climate regulation: Carbon sequestration and burial Regulating Regulation extreme events or disturbance: Flood water storage Regulating Regulation extreme events or disturbance: Water current reduction Regulating Regulation extreme events or disturbance: Wave reduction Regulating Water quantity regulation: drainage of river water Regulating Water quantity regulation: dissipation of tidal and river energy Regulating Water quantity regulation: landscape maintenance Regulating Water quantity regulation: transportation Regulating Water quality regulation: transport of pollutants and excess nutrients Regulating Water quality regulation: reduction of excess loads coming from the catchment Regulating Erosion and sedimentation regulation by water bodies Regulating Erosion and sedimentation regulation by biological mediation Regulating

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