# Similarity Between the Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets

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1 Commun. Math. Phys. 134, (1990) Communications ΪΠ Mathematical Physics Springer-Verlag 1990 Similarity Between the Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets TAN Lei* Institut fur Dynamische Systeme, Universitat Bremen, W-2800 Bremen 33, Federal Republic of Germany Received July 10, 1989 Abstract. The Mandelbrot set M is "self-similar" about any Misiurewicz point c in the sense that if we examine a neighborhood of c in M with a very powerful microscope, and then increase the magnification by a carefully chosen factor, the picture will be unchanged except for a rotation. The corresponding Julia set J c is also "self-similar" in the same sense, with the same magnification factor. Moreover, the two sets M and J c are "similar" in the sense that if we use a very powerful microscope to look at M and J c, both focused at c, the structures we see look like very much the same. 1. Introduction For a quadratic polynomial f c : z\-*z 2 + c, the filled-in Julia set K c oϊf c is the set of non-escaping points under iteration: where f c n K c = {z e <C I (f c n(z)) ne^ is bounded}, denotes the n ih iteration f c f c...of c off. The Julia set of f c is J c = dk c. The Mandelbrot set is One can generate easily the pictures of Julia sets and the Mandelbrot set by computers. Figure 1 is a picture of M, Fig. 3a-3d are pictures of J c for various values of c. Globally, J c and M have completely different shapes. However, their local structures are sometimes very similar. Figure 2 consists of three successive enlargements of M in a neighborhood of L A remarkable resemblance with the Julia set for c = i (Fig. 3a) appears. In fact, this kind of similarity happens for every value of c which is a Misiurewicz point, that is, for which the point 0 under f c is not *- Present address: Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 Allee dίtalie, F Lyon, France

2 588 TAN Lei Fig. 1 ί *W Fig. 2. Three successive magnifications of M as indicated by the inserted frames. Center: ί. Width of the first picture: ^0.1 x4]/2. Magnification factor: 4j/2 Fig.3a-d. The Julia set J c. a c = i. Center: 0, width: 3.0. b c = Ϊ. Center: 0, width: 3.0. c= Center: 0, width: 3.6. d c= i. Center: 0, width: 3.0 periodic but falls eventually into a periodic orbit. The main topic of this paper is to analyse this similarity. The point c = i is one of the simplest examples of Misiurewicz points: for ft: zm>z i, the orbit of 0 is: Oι-»ih-»i-1 H-> - ih-π-1. We have f i (0)=f i 2(Q). The point c = 2 is another one: for /_ 2: zt->z 2 2, the orbit of 0 is: OH-> 2ι >2n->2. In

4 590 TAN Lei The next definition is for comparing two closed subsets of C within a bounded region. Definition 2. For r a positive real number, we denote by D r the disc centered at 0 of radius r. For any closed set Ac<C, we define a compact set A r = (AnB,)vdD r. (1) (It is for a technical reason that we add dd r to AnD r.) Or, in order to analyse the local behavior of A near a point a ea, we use the translation τ_ α :zh->z α to translate a to the origin and define For A, B two closed sets in C, we have A r, B r e 3F. We can then define the Hausdorff-Chabauty distance of A, B in the window of D r to be (Fig. 4) Definitions. Assume ρ = \ρ\e ίθ, ρ >l, 0^ 1. A closed subset B of C is ρ-self-similar about 0 if there is r>0 such that B r. (2) B is also considered to be self-similar about 0 with the scale ρ. This says that under the magnification with the factor ρ together with the rotation of angle θ the set B remains unchanged within D r. 2. A closed subset A of (C is asymptotically ρ-self-similar about a point x e A if there is r>0 and a closed set B such that (ρ n τ_ x A) r -+B r while n-»oo (3) for the Hausdorff distance. The set B is automatically ρ-self-similar about 0, it is called the limit model of A at x. 3. Two closed sets A and B are asymptotically similar about 0 if there is r > 0 such that lim d r (ta,tb) = Q. (4) ίe,ί-»oo Fig. 4. A and A r

5 Similarity Between the Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets 591 Remark. The property of similarity does not depend really on the value of r. In fact if (2), (3), or (4) hold for some value r > 0, then they hold for any 0 < τ' ^ τ, and (4) holds for every r > 0, since ί-» oo. Moreover, if B satisfies (2) for some value r > 0, we can set nen Then B'nD f = BnD r and (ρf) 5 = B' s for any 5 > 0. If A, B satisfy (3) for some value r>0, then by replacing B by B', the equality (3) will hold for every value s>0 instead of r (since \ρ\ n -+ao while n-»oo). (5) Examples 1. The disc D r itself is trivially self-similar. A line, a segment are self-similar. A curve with a tangent is asymptotically similar to its tangent. 2. The spiral S(λ) = {e λx xer} is e Λ -self-similar about 0 if \e λ \>\ (Fig. 5). 3. The Cantor set C. C is self-similar about any rational point, and is not selfsimilar about any irrational point xec. Let x = 0.t i t 2 t 3... be the expansion of x 6 C in base three. Then each t t is either 0 or 2. x is rational if and only if this expansion is eventually periodic, i.e. there are / and p such that t n = t n+p for each n ^ /. The minimal p is the eventual period of x. Hence C is 3 p -self-similar at x e C if and only if x is rational and the eventual period of x divides p. Lemma 2.1. Assume A, B closed. Fix r>0. We have 1. For every aeand r) d(a,b r )<Zd(a,B)^d(a,BnD r ). 2. δ(a r,b r )^ sup d(a,b) d(and n BnD r ). aear\d r Proof. Left to the reader. Π Proposition For A, B closed subsets of (C, if there are r>0, ρ, ρ >l such that lim d r (ρ n A,ρ n B) = Q (6) then lim d r (ta,tb) = Q, f-»oo,fe<c i.e. A and B are asymptotically similar about 0. (7) Fig. 5. a g( 1 β 1 2+ί "/ 4 )*; b

6 592 TAN Lei 2. Any asymptotically self-similar set is asymptotically similar to its limit model. Proof. 1. For each β > 0, there is N > 0 such that if n > N then δ((ρ n A\, (ρ n B) r ) <_ε. If \t\ > T = \ρ\ N then ρ /I g ί < ρ π + 1 for some n>n. Hence for each xε(ta}r\d r we have x = ta = (t/ρ n )ρ n a with a e A and Hence ρ n a e (ρ"a)nd r. From we get Since f Ξg ρ ", we have d(ρ n a,(ρ n B) r )<s. hence So hence According to the above lemma, d(x,(tb) r ) = d(ta,(tb) r )<\ρ\ε.,(tb) r )ί sup d(x,(tb) r )<\ρ\ε. xe(ta)r\d r This proves δ((ta) r,(tb) r )-+Q while ί->oo. A similar analysis will give also δ((tb\,(ta) r )-*Q while ί->oo. 2. Let ^4 be asymptotically ρ-self-similar about 0 with the limit model B. Fixe r > 0, with (ρb) r = B r. Then (ρ^^β, and and lim ^(ρmuρ^h Mm δ((ρ n A) r,b r ) = Q w-^oo «-»oo lim δ((ρ n B) r,(ρm) r )= lim δ(b r, (ρ n A) r ) = 0. w~* oo w~* c» A, 5 verify (6) and then (7) by part 1. Π

7 Similarity Between the Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets 593 Proposition 2.3. Suppose that U, V are two neighborhoods of 0 in R 2 and F:U^V is a ^diffeomorphism with F(0) = 0 and with the derivative T 0 F=T non-singular. Then for any closed set A C U the two sets TA and F(A) are asymptotically similar about 0, i.e. for some r>0 (in fact for every r>0) lim D r (tf(a),tta) = Q. ίe,ί-» oo Proof. Fix r >0. For all ε>0, then exists δ>0 such that if < \\x\\ <δ then \\F(x)-Tx\\ \\x\\ For each yettand,, there is xea such that y = ttx with \\x\\ \t~ l \ \\T~~ *\\r = C/\t\, where C = T~ 1 r is a constant. So for \t\>n = C/δ and any y = ttxe(tta)r\d r, yφo we have 0< \\x\\ <δ and <KtTx,tF(A)) \t\ \\F(x)-Tx\\^ ί Then by Lemma 2.1 ~ " ' "' ')) r )^ SU P A similar analysis will give δ((tf(a)) r9 (tta) r )->0. If F(A) is asymptotically self-similar then TA is so too. If in addition T commutes with the similarity scale, A should be also asymptotically self-similar. More precisely, Proposition 2.4. Assume that F is as in Proposition 2.3. Suppose that A is a closed set such that F(A) is asymptotically ρ-self-similar about 0 with the limit model B. If T is fa-linear, then A is asymptotically ρ-self-similar about x, and the limit model is T~ V B, i.e. there is r'>0 such that Π lim d r,(ρ n (τ_ x A\T-^B) = Q. n-» oo Proof. By the above proposition, TA and F(A) are similar about 0. Choose r > 0 such that and Then lim d t (Q n TA 9 ρ n F(A)) = 0 n-*oo lim d r (ρ"f(a),b) = Q. n > oo lim d r (ρ"ta,b) = 0. n~+ oo Since Tis C-linear, we have ρ"ta = Tρ"A. For r'>0 such that D r.ct' ί D r, lim d r.(ρ"a,t- 1 B) = 0. D

8 594 TAN Lei This proposition will be our essential tool in the next section to prove the selfsimilarity of Julia sets. The next proposition gives another way to produce new self-similar sets: Proposition 2.5. Suppose that X is a (asymptotically) ς>-self-similar set about 0. Then the set Y={zE<E\z d EX} is also (asymptotically) ρ-self-similar about 0. In fact for any ρ' such that ρ fd = ρ, the set Y is (asymptotically) ρ'-self-similar about 0. Proof. We will only deal with the self-similar case. Choose r>0 such that (ρx) r d=x r d. Remark at first z e ynd r/ β / <=> z d E XnD r d /(ρ 'd <=> ρz d e XnD rd <=> (ρ'z) d e Xr\D fd <s> Q'Z E YnD r. Hence (ρ'y)nd r = 7nD r and then (ρ'y) r = Γ r G 3. Self-similarity of Julia Sets In this section we discuss the self-similarity of the Julia set of rational maps. And we apply the result to the case of Misiurewicz points. Definition and known results (cf. [D] and [DH1]). 1. Let /: <D-*(C be a rational map. A point x e <C is periodic of period p if p is the minimal number such that f p (x) = x. The value ρ = (f p )'(x) is called the eigenvalue of the orbit of x, it does not depend on x, but only on the orbit of x. A periodic point x is said to be (a) repulsive if ρ > 1, (b) attractive if 0< ρ <l, (c) superattractive if ρ=0, (d) rational indifferent if ρ = e 2πiθ, with θ rational, (e) irrational indifferent if ρ = e 2πiθ, with θ irrational. 2. A point x e C is eventually periodic if there are integers / ^ 0 and p ^ 1 such that f p (f l (x))=f l (x)- We say that x is eventually repulsive (attractive,..., etc.) periodic if f\x) is repulsive (attractive,..., etc.). 3. A closed set A is said to be completely invariant under / if f(a) = f ~ ί (A) = A. If A is completely invariant under / it is completely invariant under f k as well. 4. The Julia set J f of/ is the closure of the set of repulsive periodic points of/ We know that J f is completely invariant by/ 5. For P a monic complex polynomial, the filled-in Julia set K P of P is Kp = {z E CI P"(z), n e N, is bounded}. We have J P = dk P and K P is completely invariant under P.

9 Similarity Between the Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets 595 Remark. There are several equivalent definitions of the Julia set. The reason that we choose this one is that repulsive periodic points play the central role in the study of asymptotic similarity. Concerning Misiurewicz points, we recall Definition. 1. The family of quadratic polynomials can be parametrized by (up to affine conjugacy) K c denotes the filled-in Julia set of f c and J c the Julia set. 2. The Mandelbrot set is M = {ce(c\qek c }. 3. A point cem is a Misiurewicz point if 0 is eventually periodic for f c but not periodic. A classical result of Douady and Hubbard shows: Proportion 3.1 [DH1]. For c a Misiurewicz point, 1. 0 and then c is eventually repulsive periodic; 2. K C = J C, i.e. K c has no interior. Here comes the main theorem of this section: Theorem 3.2. Let f be a rational map and A be a completely invariant closed set under f. Assume that x is an eventually repulsive periodic point for f. Then A is asymptotically self-similar about x, with the scale ρ equal to the eigenvalue of the eventual periodic orbit of x. There is a conformal mapping φ defined in a neighborhood U of x such that.... φ(anu) is the limit model of A at x. Moreover, if x is φ(x) periodic, we can choose φ such that φ'(x) = \; if x is eventually periodic with f p (f\x))=f l (x) and if in addition, (f l )'(χ)ή=q, then the limit models of A at x and at f l (x) are the same, up to a multiplication by (f l )'(x). Hence not only A is asymptotically self-similar about x, but its limit model can be realized locally (via a conformal mapping) instead of just asymptotically. In the case where c is a Misiurewicz point, we can apply this theorem immediately to A = J c about x = c and claim that J c is asymptotically self-similar about c, since the point c is eventually repulsive under f c. Corollary 3.5 below will give the precise formulas. To prove Theorem 3.2, we need at first a classical lemma (see, for example, [D]): Lemma Suppose that U, V are neighborhoods of x in C and g: U-^V is a holomorphic function with g(x) = x and \g'(x) \ φ 0, 1. Set ρ = g'(x). Then g is locally conjugate to its linear part z\-+ρz. Mote precisely, there is a conformal mapping φ defined in a neighborhood of x with φ(x) = 0, φ'(x)= 1,

10 596 TAN Lei The explicit form of φ is given by φ(z)= lim ρkg-'πz)-*), H-+00 where g' 1 is the unique inverse mapping of g defined in a neighborhood of x. The mapping φ is called the linearization mapping of g about x. 2. Suppose that U, V are neighborhoods of x, j; in <C respectively and g: U-+V is holomorphic with g(x) = y and g'(x) = g"(x) =...=g (d ~ l \χ) = 0 and g (d \x) φ 0. Then there are U X CU, V y cv neighborhoods of x, y respectively, s > 0, such that for each conformal mapping φ y :V y -*D sd there is (with d choices) a conformal mapping φ x :U x -+D s satisfying 9y g 9x\z) = Z d. Lemma 3.4. Assume that A is a completely invariant set of f. Then for any U" C (D, we have Proof. f(an U) C f(a)nf(u) = Anf(U). On the other hand, y e Ar\f(U) => y e A and y = f(x) for some x e U. Since / ~ l (A) = A we have x e A and hence y ε f(una). So we have also Ar\f(U)Cf(AnU), Proof (of Theorem 3.2). a) Assume at first that x is periodic. Let p be the period of x and ρ = (f p )'(x) be the eigenvalue of the orbit of x. By the assumption, ρ >l. So f p arises to a homeomorphism in a neighborhood of x. Remark that x is a fixed point of f p. According to Lemma 3.3 we can find a neighborhood F of x, a neighborhood F 0 of 0, a conformal mapping φ : F-» F 0 such that φ(x) = 0, φ'(x) = l and D Take r>0 such that D,cV 0. Set U = φ~ 1 (D r/β ) and B = φ(anu). We have ff(u) = φ-!( ),.) c V and U C f(u). Since A is completely invariant under f, from Lemma 3.4, we have ΐ p (AnU) = Anf(U). Hence Then φ(f(an C7)n U) = φ(arλ U). Since φ is bijective, we have φ(f>(an U))nφ(U) = φ(a)nφ(u), ρ(φ(anu))nd r/β = φ(a)nd r/β,

11 Similarity Between the Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets 597 This proves (ρj5) r/ρ = r/ρ. Hence B is ρ-self-similar about 0. Apply Proposition 2.4 to φ:v-+v 0, AnU->B; we conclude that A is asymptotically ρ-self-similar about x, and the limit model is exactly φ'(x) = B = φ(ac\ό). b) Assume now that x is eventually periodic. Let /, p be minimal such that f p (f l (x))=f\x). Set α = / f (x) and ρ = (/ p )'(α). By the assumption, ρ > 1. Applying the part a) to α, we can find a neighborhood l/ α of α, a conformal mapping φ such that φ(α) = 0, (p'(α) = l, the set X = φ(anu Λ ) is ρ-self-similar and lim d r >(ρ n τ- Λ A,X) = Q for some r'>0. bl) Assume at first that the set (x,/(x),...,/*(x)} does not contain any critical point of /, in other words, (f l )'(x) φ_0. Then f l maps a neighborhood_ί7 x of x homeomorphically to a neighborhood F α c U a of α, and f \Ar\U^ = Ac\V a. Apply Proposition 2.4 to f l : U X -*V Λ ' 9 we get lim d r for some r >0. The theorem is then done by setting φ = φ f l. b2) Suppose now (/')'(*) = (/')"(*)=... =(/! f-d( x )=0 and (/') (<ί> (x) φ 0. Then by Lemma 3.3 there are U x, φ x, s, 0<s<r 1/d such that 1 (8) Set We have Y=φ x (AnU x ), since X = φo/'( y 4nt7, c ) = (φ, e (^n{7 Λ.))' ί. According to Proposition 2.5 the set Y is also ρ-self-similar about 0. The theorem is then given by the next formula with φ = φ x : lim Proof of (9). Fix s>0. We prove first,--y =0. φ x (χ) (9) For zeρ n (τ-. x A)nD s, we have z = ρ n (y x) with take n large enough such that yeanu x. Then and j; x ^s/ ρ w. We can

12 598 TAN Lei while tt~κx). A similar analysis will give and then (9). Π We are ready now to look at Misiurewicz points: Corollary 3.5. Assume that cisa Misiurewicz point. Let /, p be the minimal integers such that Seί «=/»,<?=(//)'(«). Then ί. ρ >l. 2. There is a conformal mapping φ defined in a neighborhood of α, with φ(α) = 0, φ'(α) = l and where φ is given by lim «-> oo with f~ p the local inverse of f/ in a neighborhood of α. 3. (/ C ')'( 4. There are r>q,a neighborhood Vofa,a neighborhood U of c, such that f c l (U) = V and lim d r ρ"(τ_λ), 77] <P(Λn w oo \ \Jc)\ C ) = lim d r ρ"(τ_ c j c ), φoffanϋ) =0. (10) Hence J c is asymptotically self -similar about c with the scale ρ and the limit model φ(j c nv). Proof. 1. From Proposition 3.1. p 2. The existence of φ is guaranteed by Lemma 3.3 if we replace g by f c and x by α. 3. Since 0 is the unique critical point of f c and is not periodic, there is no critical point of f c in hence 4. It is a consequence of parts a) and bl) in the proof of Theorem 3.2, by setting We give now some examples to illustrate the result of Theorem 3.2.

13 Similarity Between the Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets 599 Examples 1. Figure 3b is the Julia set for c = ΐ. The polynomial f c has two fixed points, both repulsive. We choose x = (l 1/1 4c)/2« / to be one of them. The period p of x is then 1, ana the eigenvalue ρ of x is 2x& i. Figure 6 consists of a sequence of magnifications of J c at x, the magnification factor from one image to the next is ρ 3 (since ρ «1.082 is too close to 1). 2. Figure 3c is the Julia set for c = It has a very different shape from Fig. 3b. In fact one is a connected set and the other one is homeomorphic to a Cantor set. But thefixed point x = (1 - /l-4c)/2 which is (1 -j/6)/2 w in this case is again a repulsive fixed point for f c =/_ 1<25. So the self-similar phenomenon occurs again around this point. We have p = 1 and ρ « Figure 7 consists of three magnifications of J c at x, the magnification factor from one image to the next is ρ = Since ρ is real negative, there is a difference of the rotation of angle 180 from one image to the next. Figure 7a and Fig. 7c then look the same. 3. Let us check the Misiurewicz point c = i now. For the polynomial f { : zt-+z 2 + i, the orbit of i is: i\-+i 11-» i\-*i 1. The point i is eventually repulsive periodic, with / =!, p = 2, α = / cz (c) = i-l, ρ = (/ C2 )'( a ) = 4 + 4ΐ = 4 /5e'" /4 and (/ c ')'(c) = φ'(0 = 2ί. Denote by X the limit model of J t at / -1 and Z the limit model of J t at i. By our theorem, we have Z = (l/2ΐ)-x". Figure 8a is a magnification of Fig. 3a in a neighborhood of i 1. Figure 8b is a magnification of Fig. 8a with. 5Λ&*3S ' 4f**H&**A Fig. 6. Three successive magnifications of J c for c = Ϊ. Center: Ϊ, width of the first picture: Magnification factor: , rotation: Fig. 7. Three successive magnifications of J c for c = Center: , width of the first picture: Magnification factor: , rotation: 0

14 600 TAN Lei Fig.8a-d. Magnification of J c for c = l a Center z 1, widths: 0.001, rotation: 0. b Center i 1, width: 0.001/4J/2, rotation: 45. c Center i, with: , rotation: 0. d Center i, width: , rotation: 90 the factor 4j/2e πί/4. Figure 8c is a magnification of Fig. 3a in a neighborhood of ϊ with the width of the window equal to the half of the width in Fig. 8a. Figure 8d is Fig. 8c rotated by an angle of 90. Compare Figs. 8a and 8d, one is centered at i 1, the other one is centered at i. This computer experiment confirms by impression our result. 4. Key Proposition This section will give a connection between the self-similarities of dynamic spaces and parameter spaces, in a high-dimension form. It is easy to generalize the notion of similarity to closed subsets of an euclidean space of finite dimension. Let = C fc and 2? be the set of compact subsets of E. Denote by D r the ball of E centered at 0 with radius r. Then the Hausdorff distance and the Hausdorff-Chabauty distance are defined in exactly the same way. Moreover, Definition. 1. A linear mapping L: -> is contracting if there are σ<l positive and C positive such that for all nen, L n ^Cσ n. We say that L is expanding if L is invertible and L~ 1 is contracting. 2. A subset B of E is ί^self-similar about 0 if L : E -> E is linear expanding and there is r > 0 such that (LB) r = B r. We also say that B is self-similar about 0 with scale L. 3. A subset B of E is asymptotically L-self-similar about a point x e B if L : E-*E is linear expanding and there is r>0, A^SF such that lim (L n τ. x B) r =

15 Similarity Between the Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets 601 exists for the Hausdorff distance (where τ α is the translation zi >z + α). The set A is automatically Z^self-similar about 0, it is called the limit model of B at x. Here is our main result of this section: Proposition 4.1. Suppose A is a neighborhood of λ 0 in E, and XcAxE. For each λeδ, set = {xee\(λ,x)εx}. Let u:a-+e be a continuous mapping, with u(λ 0 ) = 0. Set Assume: Condition 1. X is closed in AxE. M = M u = {λea\u(λ)εx(λ)}. (11) Condition 2. (Existence of a dense set of continuous sections at (λ Q, 0).) There is A C X(λ 0 ), dense in X(λ Q ), such that for each xea, there exists U X CA, neighborhood of λ Q, and a continuous mapping h x :U x -+E with h x (λ 0 ) = x and h x (λ)ex(λ). Condition 3. X(λ) is L(λ)-self-simίlar continuous, with and about 0 with a fixed radius r', and λ\-*l(λ) is \\L(λ)-L(λ 0 )\\=0(\\λ\\) L(^) HI# 0 ΓT<1, (12) we can assume then for λea (by restricting A if necessary), and Condition 4. The derivative S = T λo u exists and is non-singular, and \\u(λ)-sλ\\=0(\\λ\\ 2 ). (13) Then there is r>0 such that a) Under the conditions 1, 2, we have d r (X(λ),X(λ 0 ))-+Q when λ-*λ 0. b) Under the conditions 1, 2, 3, 4, the set Sτ _ AoM is asymptotically L(λ^-self -similar about 0, and the limit model is X(λ 0 ). Precisely we have c) // S and L(λ Q ) commute, then M is asymptotically L(λ 0 )-self -similar about λ 0, and the limit model is S~ 1 X(λ Q ), i.e. there is s>0, lim Mλorτ-^Λί^S-^μo)),. (14) Remark. Equation (12) is automatically verified if L(λ 0 ) = ρl. Otherwise, let {/!, / 2,..., l k } be the set of eigenvalues of L(λ 0 ) and

16 602 TAN Lei If 'fcl<iίi 2 then there is a norm such that (12) holds. This requires that L(/1 0 ) deforms the centered balls in a somehow homogeneous way. M. Shishikura has a counter-example which shows that the proposition becomes false if the condition (12) is not satisfied. Condition 1 can be stated in an equivalent but more useful form: Lemma 4.2. The following two conditions are equivalent: 1. X is a closed subset of A x E; 2. For each λ 0 εa, the set X(λ Q ) is closed in E and for all r>0, and lim δ(x r (λ\ We leave the proof to the reader. Proof (of Proposition 4.1). Without loss of generality, we may assume A 0 = 0. a) By Condition 1 and Lemma 4.2, fix any r > 0 we have Let us prove now lim λ-»0 by using the dense set of continuous sections of the Condition 2. Denote by V r (ε) the ε-neighborhood of dd r. Since X r (G) is compact, and A is dense in X(ϋ) by Condition 2, Vε > 0, there is a finite number of points x ί9 x 2,..., x m in A such that X r (0)GF r (ε/2)u U V=ι where D(x i9 ε/2) is the ball centered at x t and with radius ε/2. Now for each i, 3η t > 0 small enough such that when λ <η t, we have so Hence Vε>0, for \\λ\\ <η = min{η i }, VxeZ(0)nZ) r, we have ) \\x-xi for some i, hence δ(x r (Q), X r (λ}) < ε. b) Set M(n) = L(0) n SM and let r>0 be smaller than r' required in Condition 3. Our proof consists of two steps: bl) δ(m r (n),x r (ϋ))-+q when n-»oo. We are going to prove that for each ε > 0, there is N > 0, such that for n > JV, and for L(Q) n SλeM(n)nD r we have \\L(Q) n Sλ-L(λ) n u(λ)\\<ε/2 (15) (16)

17 Similarity Between the Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets 603 and as a consequence (17) Let y=l(0) n SλeM(n)nD r. Then λ=s~ 1 L(OΓ*y So IIAKHSΓ 1!! L(OΓT r^o4 (C is a constant). (18) Proof of (15). We have ί L(θr Sλ-HΰTu(λ)\\ + L(0)Xl)-L(Ar«(A). (19) And by using Condition 3 and 4 and the inequality (18), we get L(θr SA-L(0)"u(A) ^ I(0) " \\Sλ-u(λ)\\ (20) V2 n = C 5 nμ", (21) where C t are constants. Since lim μ" = lim nμ" = 0, from (19), (20), (21 ), we get (1 5). «-> oo n->oo Proof of (16). From (15) we have Choose ε sufficiently small such that r 4- ε < r'. Suppose A e M. We have u(λ) e hence L(λ) n u(λ)ex(λ). If L(A) π M(/l)eF r (ε/2) [recall that 7 r (ε/2) is the ε/2-neighborhood of δdj, then (16) is true. Otherwise According to part a) <5(^(A), X^(0))^0 when λ->0. So to prove (16) we need to show λ-»0 when n->oo. But this is guaranteed by (18). From (15), (16), we get (17). In other words: Vε>0, 3ΛΓ>0, such that Vn>ΛΓ, V;yeM r (tt), we have d(y,x r (0))<s, hence δ(m r (n\ X r (Q))-+Q when n-^oo. b2) (5(Z r (0),M r (n))->0 when n-^oo. b2.1) Let us prove at first that for each xeand r we have φc,m r (n))-»0. By Condition2, there is a continuous mapping h x :A-*E with ^(0) = * and h x (λ) e X(λ\ Lemma 4.3 below will show that fixing any neighborhood Δ' C Δ of 0, there is N' > 0, such that for each n > N', the next equation has at least one solution inzγ: h x (λ) = 0, (22)

18 604 TAN Lei i.e. there is λ n e A', such that Now we have automatically A π em, and hence L(0)"Sλ n e M(n). Therefore Sλ\\ (23) ϊ \\x-h x (λ n )\\ + \\L(λ n ru(λ n )-L(θγ Sλ n \\ =/ 1 (n) + / 2 (n). (24) Let us prove at first I 2 (n)=\\l(λ n ru(λ n )-L(0)" Sλ n \\^0 when»-*oo. Since L(A π )"u(a n ) = ft x (/l n ), and /j χ is continuous, we can suppose IIMAJII^ sup for some r^o. Then W μ π ) = L(4)-"/z x (4) grjilίλj-^r^r^. (25) By Condition 4 of the proposition, we have also Take α< \\S\\C~~ 1, then for A ^α, we have Hence Combining with (25), we get μ ^C 0 wμ). (26) (C,C 0,C are constants). Hence for 24'cD(0,α), the solutions /l π of (23) also verify (18). By using the results of (19), (20), (21) we get that for ε>0 and n>max{]v, N'} 9 the formula (15) holds for i π, i.e.. / 2 (n)<ε/2. From the continuity of h x and (27), we may also assume that under the same condition for n, (27) Hence / 1 (n) + / 2 (n)-^0 when n->oo. From (24) we get finallly d(x, M r (ή)) -> 0 when n -> oo. b2.2) For the general case, let us do as in a). For each ε>0, choose {xj a finite subset of AnD r such that and choose n large enough such that Vx e X r (ϋ), we have

19 Similarity Between the Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets 605 for some i. Hence when n-κx). c) This is a direct result from part b), by taking 0<s<r/ S. D The lemma below we needed in the proof of the theorem is in fact a topological result, which says that under small perturbations a continuous mapping does not lose zeros. Lemma 4.3. Let A'cEbea neighborhood of 0, and u'.δ'^ebe continuous, u(0) = 0, T 0 u = S exists and is non-singular. Then there is η>0 such for any w:a'-+e continuous with w(x) <η, the mapping u + w has at least one zero in A'. Proof. There is ε > 0, such that S ε = {x E E \ x \\ = ε} is contained in A ', the set u(s ε ) does not contain 0 and the induced mapping is an isomorphism (where k is the real dimension of E and Hj is the / h homology group). Let η = mϊ {\\u\\ \ uesε }. Then for w : A ->E continuous and vφc) < η, we have u + w : S ε -+E {0}, and the induced mapping (u + w)^ is also an isomorphism, since u -f ίw gives a homotopy between u and u + w. We claim then u + w has zeros in D ε = {x e E \ x \\ ^ ε}. If not, ( u + w)* :H k (D ε )^H k (E {0})=Z would be trivial homomorphism, since u + w is continuous on D ε, and H k (D ε ) would be trivial. This is a contradiction. Π To induce (22) from this lemma we choose N such that if n > N then h x (λ) Remark. If u and w are C-analytic, then under the same condition u + w has a unique zero in D ε for small ε. 5. Similarity Between M and J c for c a Misiurewicz Point In this section we are going to apply the result of Sect. 4 to show the similarity between the Mandelbrot set M and the Julia set J c for c a Misiurewicz point. Recall that under f c :z\-+z 2 + c the two sets K c, J c are completely invariant. Hence QeK c if and only if c = f c (0)eK c. We can then express the form of the Mandelbrot set by M = {ce \cek c }. (28) Recall that c 6 (C is a Misiurewicz point if 0 is eventually periodic for f c but not periodic, and in this case K C = J C. According to Corollary 3.5, J c is asymptotically self-similar about c with a scale ρ and with a certain limit model Z. We will prove that M is also asymptotically ρ-self-similar about c but with the limit model λz 9 for a certain complex number λ. In other words,

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