Knee Muscle Actions. Popliteus (externally rotates femur if foot is planted; internally rotates tibia if foot is free)

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1 Knee Muscle Actions Knee Extension (Concentric) Quads (Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Intermedius) (Rectus Femoris Also flexes hip!!!) Knee Flexion (Concentric) Hamstrings (Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus) (Hamstrings except for short head of biceps femoris -also extend hip!!!) Sartorius, Gracilis (a little) (Sartorius also externally rotates & flexes hip (as when crossing your leg)!!!) (Gracilis also adducts the hip!!!) Gastrocnemius Plantaris (minimal) Unlocks Knee Popliteus (externally rotates femur if foot is planted; internally rotates tibia if foot is free) Pulls Synovial Membrane Superiorly During Knee Extension Articularis Genu

2 Gluteals Tensor fascia lata 1. hip flexion 2. medially rotate & abduct a flexed thigh 3. tenses IT tract to support femur on the tibia during standing Gluteus medius & minimus 1. anterior and lateral fibers abduct and medially rotate the thigh 2. stabilizes the pelvis and prevents free limb from sagging during gait Gluteus maximus 1. powerful extensor of hip 2. laterally rotates thigh 3. upper fibers aid in abduction of thigh 4. fibers of IT band stabilize a fully extended knee Piriformis, Superior Gemellus, Obturator Internus 1. lateral rotation of extended thigh 2. abducts a flexed thigh Inferior gemellus & Quadratus femoris laterally rotates femur Semitendinosus 1. extends hip 2. flexes knee 3. medially rotates tibia Posterior Thigh Musculature Semimembranosus 1. flexes knee 2. extends hip 3. medially rotates tibia 4. pulls medial meniscus posterior during flexion Biceps femoris 1. flexes knee (mainly short head) 2. laterally rotates thigh if flexed at the knee 3. extends hip (long head)

3 Adductor Thigh Musculature Adductor longus 1. adducts thigh 2. flexes thigh 3. may laterally rotate thigh at the hip Adductor brevis 1. adducts thigh (major) 2. aids in flexion of thigh 3. may laterally rotate thigh at the hip Adductor magnus 1. adducts the thigh 2. posterior fibers also extend and laterally rotate thigh Gracilis 1. adducts thigh 2. flexes knee 3. medially rotates tibia Obturator externus 1. laterally rotates thigh 2. assists in flexion of hip joint Anterior Thigh Musculature Sartorius 1. flexes hip and knee 2. laterally rotates thigh if flexed at the hip Rectus femoris 1. extends knee 2. flexes hip Vastus lateralis 1. extends knee 2. can laterally displace patella Vastus intermedius extends knee Vastus medialis extends knee

4 Articularis genus 1. pulls the synovial membrane of the knee superior with knee extension 2. prevents impingement of the synovial membrane between patella and the femur Psoas major 1. hip flexion 2. lateral rotation Illiacus 1. powerful hip flexion 2. lateral rotation Pectineus 1. flexes hip 2. adducts thigh 3. medially rotates thigh Posterior Leg Musculature Gastrocnemius 1. plantarflex the ankle 2. knee flexion (when not weight bearing) 3. stabilizes ankle & knee when standing Soleus plantarflex the foot Plantaris like a weak gastrocnemius Popliteus 1. insertion fixed: laterally rotates femur on tibia & unlocks knee 2. origin fixed: medially rotates tibia on femur & unlocks knee Flexor digitorum longus 1. primarily flexes 2nd - 5th toes 2. weak plantarflexor 3. weak inversion & adduction of foot Tibialis posterior Action: 1. stabilizes ankle

5 2. inversion & adduction of foot 3. prevents hyperpronation while in gait 4. weak plantarflexion of ankle Flexor hallucis longus 1. flexes big toe (hallux) 2. weak plantarflexion of the foot 3. weak inversion & adduction of foot Anterolateral Leg Musculature Peroneus longus 1. eversion & abduction of the foot 2. weak plantarflexion of the foot at the transverse tarsal joint Peroneus brevis 1. eversion & abduction of the foot 2. weak plantarflexion of foot Tibialis anterior 1. strongest dorsiflexor 2. inverts & adducts the foot Extensor hallucis longus 1. extends distal phalanx of big toe 2. weak dorsiflexor 3. weak inversion & adduction Extensor digitorum longus 1. extends the lateral 4 toes 2. weak dorsiflexor & everts foot Peroneus tertius 1. extends the 5th toe 2. weak dorsiflexor & everts foot

6 Posterior Right Leg Muscles Anterior Right Leg Muscles Refer to the above diagrams of leg muscles for the following questions: Diagrams taken from on April 25, 2008 ExRx.net Exercise & Muscle Directory On the Anterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter a is on what muscle? Tensor Fascia Latae On the Anterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter l is on what tendinous structure? Iliotibial Band (IT Band) On the Anterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter b is on what muscle? Vastus Lateralis On the Anterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter c is on what muscle? Rectus Femoris On the Anterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter d is on what muscle? Vastus Medialis On the Anterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter e is on what muscle? Sartorius On the Anterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter j is on what bony structure? Patella On the Anterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter m is on what bony structure? Head of the fibula

7 On the Anterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter n is on what bone? Tibia On the Anterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter k is on what bony structure? Tibial Tuberosity On the Anterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter j is connected to the letter k by what structure? The patellar tendon or patellar ligament On the Posterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter j is on what muscle? Gracilis On the Posterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter m is over what area? Popliteal fossae On the Posterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter d is on what tendinous structure? Iliotibial Band (IT Band) On the Posterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the number 1 is on what muscle? Biceps Femoris On the Posterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the number 3 is on what muscle? Semitendinosis On the Posterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the number 4 is on what muscle? Semimembranosis On the Posterior Right Leg Muscles diagram the letter b is on what muscle? Gluteus Medius r

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