Hamstring Apophyseal Injuries in Adolescent Athletes

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1 Hamstring Apophyseal Injuries in Adolescent Athletes Kyle Nagle, MD MPH University of Colorado Department of Orthopedics Children s Hospital Colorado Orthopedics Institute June 14, 2014

2 Disclosures I have no conflicts of interest or financial support to disclose. 2

3 Objectives Review anatomy of hamstrings and pelvis apophyses Differentiate between apophysitis and acute apophyseal avulsion injuries Understand epidemiology and mechanism of injury of ischial apophyseal avulsion injuries Understand conservative treatment and indications for surgical management of these injuries 3

4 The Big Grab 4

5 Hamstrings Function and Anatomy Semimembranosus: - Knee stability - Flex and medially rotate the leg at the knee - Extending, adducting, and medially rotating the thigh at the hip Semitendinosus: - Flexor and internal rotator of the tibia at the knee - Valgus stability to the knee Short head Biceps Femoris: - Flex the knee with the thigh extended Long head Biceps Femoris: - Posterior stability to the pelvis - Extends the femur at the hip 5

6 Origin of Hamstring Muscles 6

7 Anatomy of Pelvic Physes McKinney BI et al,

8 Ischial Apophysitis Overuse injury Pain and tenderness over origin of hamstrings Possible swelling No significant bruising Radiographs usually normal or show slight widening of physis Treatment Activity modification, pain-guided activity Physical therapy if needed 8

9 Ischial Apophyseal Avulsion Injury Typically acute injury Pain and tenderness over origin of hamstrings Weakness and pain with resisted movement Passive stretching may cause pain Bruising may be present 9

10 Epidemiology of Ischial Apophyseal Avulsion Injury Age 14-25yo 54% of hip/pelvis apophyseal avulsions Soccer (36%) and gymnastics (27%) most common sports involved Rossi and Dragoni,

11 Mechanism of Avulsion Injury Usually result of sudden ballistic movement Sudden forceful contraction Eccentric loading of tendinous insertion at apophysis Running, jumping, sprinting Uncontrolled stretch of hamstring Rapid stretch in knee extension and hip flexion Typical mechanisms for hamstring origin avulsion in adults 11

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16 Hamstring injury plain radiograph AP +/- oblique Avulsion usually apparent Can determine degree of displacement 16

17 MRI of Ischial Apophyseal Avulsion Usually not required but can help delineate extent of injury Can be helpful in younger kids when apophysis not ossified 17

18 Radiographs MRI CT Can aid in determining bony displacement U/S Can be less costly and effective in skilled hands 18

19 Treatment Most can be treated conservatively <2 cm displacement or more Better outcomes if treatment started early (<1 month from injury) Consider if large fragment and significantly displaced >2 cm Failed conservative treatment High level athlete Prolonged symptoms (4 months or longer) or symptomatic non-union McKinney, 2009; Kujala,

20 Conservative Treatment Crutches until painless normal gait achieved 2-4 weeks protected weight bearing Physical Therapy for gentle range of motion and strengthening as pain resolves From 4-8 weeks stretching and strengthening Return to sport after 8 weeks & asymptomatic Usually 8-10 weeks to return to full activity 20

21 Surgical Treatment Reduction and fixation of apophyseal fragment Large fragment Excision of fragment with reattachment of hamstring tendons Concern possible loss of power One small case series found that not to be the case 21 Sikka, 2013; McKinney 2009

22 Postsurgical recovery Initially non-weightbearing 1-6 weeks Gradual progressive weightbearing 3-6 weeks Physical Therapy 6 weeks-4 months Return to sport Wide range reported; 6 weeks to 5 months Sikka, 2013; McKinney

23 Thank you! Questions? 23

24 References Kujala UM et al. Ischial tuberosity apophysitis and avulsion among athletes. Int J Sports Med. 1997;18: Mckinney BI et al. Apophyseal avulsion fractures of the hip and pelvis. Orthopedics. 2009;32(1):42 Rossi F, Dragoni S. Acute avulsion fractures of the pelvis in adolescent competitive athletes; prevalence, location and sports distribution of 203 cases collected. Skeletal Radiol. 2001; 30(3): Sikka RS et al. Ischial apophyseal avulsions: proximal hamstring repair with bony fragment excision. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013;33(8):e72- e76 24

(in: Skeletal Radiology - Vol. 30, n. 3 - March 2001)

(in: Skeletal Radiology - Vol. 30, n. 3 - March 2001) ACUTE AVULSION FRACTURES OF THE PELVIS IN ADOLESCENT COMPETITIVE ATHLETES: PREVALENCE, LOCATION AND SPORTS DISTRIBUTION OF 203 CASES COLLECTED Folco Rossi - Stefano Dragoni (in: Skeletal Radiology - Vol.

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