# A level is a level. Compiled for 2008

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1 Level5opaedia A level is a level Compiled for Please note that Using and Applying assessment criteria are not included within the Levelopaedia

2 Numbers and the Number System Use understanding of place value to multiply and divide whole numbers and decimals by 10, 100 and 1000 and explain the effect Know that, e.g. in the digit 9 represents nine thousandths, which is written as a number when multiplied by 10 gives an answer greater than 3.5 the number in words is five point two three nine not five point two hundred and thirty five a number when divided by 100 gives an answer less than 3.5 the fraction 5 and 239/1000 is read as five and two hundred and thirty-nine thousandths Complete statements such as, e.g = 4 = x 10 = 0.4 x = = 0.4 = = 0.04 To multiply by 100, you move the digits two places to the left To multiply by 100, you move the digits two places to the right To divide by 100, you move the digits two places to the left To divide by 100, you move the digits two places to the right To divide by 100, you move the decimal point two places to the left To divide by 100, you move the decimal point two places to the right 0.46 x 10, 46 10, 4.6 x 10, Convince me: that 0.35 is greater than that x 100 = 4.6 that = 0.04 that and give the same answer. how to multiply a decimal by 10. how to divide a decimal by 100. Round decimals to the nearest decimal place and order negative numbers in context Round, e.g to 1 decimal place to 1 decimal place to 2 decimal places to 3 decimal places Order the following places from coldest to warmest: Moscow, Russia: 4 C Oymyakou, Russia: -96 C Vostok, Antarctica: -129 C Rogers Pass, Montana, USA: -70 C Fort Selkirk, Yukon, Canada: -74 C Northice, Greenland: -87 C Reykjavik, Iceland: 5 C a number that rounds to 4.3 to 1 decimal place a situation where you would need to order negative numbers rounds to to 2 decimal places -6 is smaller than -4 What is the same / different: and is closer to 4 than it is to 5-36 is bigger than rounds to 8.5 to 3 decimal places -14 is greater than -16 Recognise and use number patterns and relationships Identify a pattern of numbers within a grid and use this to decide whether or not a number greater than 100 is in this pattern A prime number greater than 100 Two prime numbers that add to 98 Continue sequences involving decimals Describe number relationships including multiple, factor and square Understand and use prime numbers The sum of the factors of a number (except the number itself) have a total greater than that number The sum of the factors of a number (except the number itself) have a total less than that number

3 What is the same different about 4.3, 4.6, 4.9, 5.2, 16.8, 17.1, 17.4, 17.7, 9.4, 9.1, 8.8, 8.5,... Multiple, factor, square, prime Convince me that 1 is not a prime number Use equivalence between fractions and order fractions and decimals Find two fractions equivalent to 4/5 two equivalent fractions. Show that 12/18 is equivalent to 6/9, 4/6 or 2/3 some fractions that are equivalent 3/5. a set of equivalent percentages, fractions and decimals. Find the unknown numerator or denominator in equivalent fraction statements a percentage of a given quantity that you can easily work out. Order fractions with different denominators Know there is more than one way to find a percentage using a calculator. For example, to find 12% of 45: Convert a percentage calculation to an equivalent decimal calculation 0.12 x 45. Or, convert a percentage calculation to an equivalent fraction calculation 12/100 x 45. Recognise that the second method is less efficient than the first. 10% is the same as 1/10 so 20% must be the same as 1/20. Equivalent fractions can be found by adding the same amounts to the numerators and denominators Equivalent fractions can be found by subtracting the same amounts to the numerators and denominators Convert fractions such as 2/5 into tenths or hundredths and express them as decimals or percentages and vice versa Convince me: that 12/18 is equivalent to 2/3 how to order 2/3, 3/5, ½, 3/10 from smallest to largest. how you use a calculator to find 13% of 25 Reduce a fraction to its simplest form by cancelling common factors Cancel these fractions to their simplest form by looking for highest common factors: 9/15 12/18 What is wrong with 2/3 = 1/1.5? 42/56 Show me a fraction that can be reduced to 2/3 in its simplest form To cancel a fraction, you halve the numerator and denominator until you can t do it any more 9/15, 30/50, 9/30, 15/50 Understand simple ratio Write 16:12 in its simplest form A teaspoon holds 5ml of medicine and a bottle holds 100ml of medicine. Find the ratio of the capacity of the teaspoon to the capacity of the bottle. Write the answer in its simplest form Understand the meaning of mix sand and cement in the ratio 5:1 Convince me that 42/56 in its simplest form is ¾ Show me a ratio which simplifies to 2:7 To simplify the ratio 32:48 keep dividing both sides by 2 until you can t do it any more To simplify the ratios keep dividing both sides by 2 until you can t do it any more What is the same / different: 4:5 and 4:500p 2:3, 34:51 and 3:2 Convince me that 19:95 1:5

4 Calculating Use known facts, place value, knowledge of operations and brackets to calculate including using all four operations with decimals to two places Multiply or divide decimal numbers by a single digit e.g. Show me an example of how you could use partitioning to multiply a decimal by a two digit whole number Know and use the order of operations, including brackets = (7 10) + (0.3 2) = = 156 (2 3) = (156 2) 3 = 78 3 = 234 Use factors, e.g. 3.2 x 30: 3.2 x 10 = 32: 32 x 3 = : = = 26 Use partitioning, e.g. for multiplication, partition either part of the product: 7.3 x 11 = (7.3 x 10) = = = = 26 3/5 = 0.6 Use 1/5 = 0.2 to convert fractions to decimals mentally. e.g. 3/5 = 0.2 x 3 = 0.6 Use a calculator where appropriate to calculate fractions/percentages of quantities/measurements Use mental calculations, e.g. 1/8 of 20 = 2.5; find one quarter and halve it 75% of 24 = 18; find 50% then 25% and add the results 15% of 40 = 6; find 10% then 5% and add the 15% of 45 = = 3 results 40% of 400kg = = 10 40% of 400kg = 160kg; find 10% then multiply by 4 Calculate simple fractions or percentages of a number/quantity e.g. ⅜ of 400g or 20% of 300 Show me a percentage of a given quantity that you can you easily work out To calculate 15% of a quantity, you divide by 15 40% is greater than 15% 75% of 24 = 18 15% of 40 = 6 40% of 400kg Understand and use an appropriate non-calculator method for solving problems that involve multiplying and dividing any three digit number by any two-digit number Understand and use an appropriate non-calculator method for solving problems that involve multiplying and dividing any three-digit number by any two-digit number, e.g , , = (6 x 8) + (0.2 8) + (0.04 8) = = = (673 2) + (673 4) = = = (319 7) + (9 7) = (45r4) + (1r2) = 46r = = = 457 Solve simple problems involving ordering, adding, subtracting negative numbers in context Work out the resulting temperature after a change which passes 0 C, or one which involves negative numbers only Solve problems involving overdrawn amounts on bank statements Show me an addition / subtraction with the answer -7 Addition makes numbers bigger. Subtraction makes numbers smaller. -6 < = -3

5 Solve simple problems involving ratio and direct proportion Solve simple problems involving ratio and direct proportion, beginning to use multiplication rather than trial and improvement to solve ratio problems Show me a quantity divided correctly into a ratio of two parts. Show me how pupils could be in a school if the ratio of boys to girls in a school is 4:5. A map is drawn to the scale 1:500. Therefore 1cm on the map represents 500m on the ground. Convince me that if 28 red cubes are arranged with a number of green cubes in the ratio 2:7 then there will be 126 cubes altogether. Apply inverse operations and approximate to check answers to problems are of the correct magnitude Discuss questions such as, e.g. A girl worked out the cost of 8 bags of apples at 47p a bag. Her answer was Without working out the answer, say whether you think it is right or wrong. I buy six items costing 76p, 89p, 36p, 1.03, 49p and 97p. I give the shop assistant a 10 note and get 3.46 change. I immediately think the change is wrong. Without calculating the sum, explain why you think I am right. A boy worked out p on a calculator. The display showed Why did the calculator give the wrong answer? Check by doing the inverse operation, e.g. use a calculator to check 43.2 x 26.5 = with /5 of 320 = 192 with 192 x / 7 = with 7 x Convince me how you could use inverse operations to check that a calculation is correct.

6 Algebra Construct, express in symbolic form, and use simple formulae involving one or two operations Substitute integers into simple formulae Show me a formula involving a and b such that when you substitute a = 2 and b = 7 into the Simplify P=x+x+y+y formula you get 18. Write P = 2(x+y) as P=2x+2y Recognise that in the expression 2 + 5a the multiplication is to be performed first Understand that the letter stands for an unknown number or variable number and not a label, e.g. 5a cannot mean 5 apples Understand the difference between expressions such as: 2n and n+2 3(c + 5) and 3c + 5 n² and 2n 2n² and (2n)² Show me a formula involving a and b such that when you substitute a = -2 and b = 3 into the formula you get 18. 4(b+2) = 4b + 2 3(p -4) = 3p (5 - b) = 10-2b 12 (n 3) = 9 n 3(x+4) = 3x (y -3) = 4y (6 - m) = m 15 (g 2) = 17 g Use and interpret coordinates in all four quadrants Plot and interpret graphs such as Show me a pair of co-ordinates of a point on the y = x line i) x = 2 ii) y = 2 iii) y = x iv) y = x + 1 y = 2x Show me four pairs of co-ordinates that when y = x + 1 plotted in would form a i) square enclosing the y = x - 1 origin ii) rectangle enclosing the origin Given the coordinates of three vertices of a parallelogram, find the fourth You might like to try: x is a cross, wise up! the point (3, 6) is on the line y = x + 2. It doesn t matter which axes you use first The first number is the x value The first number is the y value The x value has to be less than or equal to the y- value What is the same/different about: (-2, 1), (-2, -4), (-2, 6), (-2, -8) and (0,0), (-1,-2), (2, -2), (-3, 4) Convince me: how to use the scale on the axes to help you to read a co-ordinate that has been plotted how to use the scale on the axes to help plot a co-ordinate accurately that (-2, 3) is in a different quadrant to (2, -3)

7 Shape, Space and Measures Use a wider range of properties of 2-D and 3-D shapes and identify all the symmetries of 2-D shapes Find lines of reflection symmetry in shapes and diagrams Draw shapes with a fixed number of lines of symmetry Recognise the rotation symmetry of familiar shapes, such as parallelograms and regular polygons. Also: reason about shapes, positions and movements, e.g. visualise a 3-D shape from its net and match vertices that will be joined visualise where patterns drawn on a 3-D shape will occur on its net a quadrilateral that has i) no lines of symmetry ii) 1 line of symmetry, iii) 2 lines, iv) 4 lines. a polygon that has i) no lines of symmetry ii) 1 line of symmetry, iii) 2 lines, iv) 3 lines v) more than 4 lines a quadrilateral that has i) no rotational symmetry ii) order of rotational symmetry 1, iii) order of rotational symmetry 2 iv) order of rotational symmetry 4 a polygon that has i) no rotational symmetry ii) order of rotational symmetry 1, iii) order of rotational symmetry 2 iv) order of rotational symmetry 3 v) order of rotational symmetry greater than 4. Quadrilaterals have at least 2 lines of symmetry Quadrilaterals have at least rotational symmetry of order 2 Polygons are symmetrical A trapezium has one line of symmetry Convince me that a rectangle has only two lines of symmetry Use language associated with angle and know and use the angle sum of a triangle and that of angles at a point Calculate missing angles in triangles, including isosceles triangles or right angled triangles, when only one/one other angle is given Calculate angles on a straight line or at a point such as the angle between the hands of a clock, or intersecting diagonals at the centre of a regular hexagon Understand parallel and begin to understand perpendicular in relation to edges or faces Classify quadrilaterals, including trapezium, using properties such as number of parallel sides Reason about position and movement and transform shapes Reflect shapes in oblique (45 ) mirror lines where the shape either does not touch the mirror line, or where the shape crosses the mirror line Reflect shapes not presented on grids, by measuring perpendicular distances to/from the mirror Reflect shapes in two mirror lines, where the shape is not parallel or perpendicular to either mirror Rotate shapes, through 90 or 180, when the centre of rotation is a vertex of the shape and recognise such rotations Translate shapes along an oblique line a triangle with, (i) exactly one acute angle, (ii) two acute angles, (iii) exactly one obtuse angle three angles of a triangle three angles that meet at a point You can draw a triangle with, (i) one acute angle, (ii) two acute angles. (iii) one obtuse angle, (iv) two obtuse angles The sum of the angles in a triangle is 180 The sum of the angles at a point is 180 the sum of the angles in a triangle is 180. the sum of the angles at a point is 360. a (i) reflection that is easy to do (ii) a rotation that is easy to do. (i) reflection that is hard to do (ii) a rotation that is hard to do. Reflected shapes are the same size and shape as the original shape. Rotated shapes are the same size and shape as the original shape. Translated shapes are the same size and shape as the original shape. Rotating a shape through 180 results in the same image as reflection into a mirror line presented at 45.

8 rotation, reflection, translation Convince me how to: reflect a shape into a mirror line presented at 45. reflect a shape into a mirror line where the shape touches the line. rotate a shape or object about its centre. rotate a shape or object about a vertex. translate a shape or object. Measure and draw angles to the nearest degree, when constructing models and drawing or using shapes Measure and draw reflex angles to the nearest degree, when neither edge is horizontal / vertical Show me i) an acute angle ii) an obtuse angle iii) a reflex angle Construct a triangle given the length of two sides and the angle between them (accurate to 1mm and 2 ) To draw a triangle you need to know the size of all three angles To draw a triangle you need to know the size of all three sides. Convince me: how to draw a reflex angle with a 180 protractor. why I should estimate the size of an angle before measuring it. Read and interpret scales on a range of measuring instruments, explaining what each labelled division represents Show me a scale measuring i) 50cm ii) 25 kg iii) 4 litres Convince me: how to read a scale on measuring equipment. how to decide what each labelled division represents. Solve problems involving the conversion of units and make sensible estimates of a range of measures in relation to everyday situations Change a larger unit into a smaller one. e.g. Change 36 centilitres into millilitres Change 0.89km into metres Change 0.56 litres into millilitres Change a smaller unit into a larger one. e.g. Change 750 g into kilograms Change 237 ml into litres Change 3 cm into metres Change 4mm into centimetres a metric equivalent of an imperial measurement. another measurement that is the same as i) 3m ii) 2 kg metres, miles, kilometres, inches grams, kilograms, kilometres, millimetres mile, litre, gallon, pounds Work out approximately how many km are equivalent to 20 miles Solve problems such as 1.5kg 30g Convince me how you would change: metres into feet km into miles g into kilograms Explain what each labelled division represents on a Convince me that 80p a litre is better value for scale money than 4 for a gallon of petrol. Understand and use the formula for the area of a rectangle and distinguish area from perimeter Find the length of a rectangle given its perimeter and width Find the area or perimeter of simple L shapes, given some edge lengths Show me a rectangle: with an area of 24cm2. that has a perimeter of 24cm that has an area < perimeter that has an area = perimeter Draw a parallelogram or trapezium of a given area on a square grid Reason about special triangles and quadrilaterals Area of a rectangle = Perimeter of a rectangle Area of a rectangle < Perimeter of a rectangle Area of a rectangle > Perimeter of a rectangle

9 e.g. given the perimeter and one side of an isosceles triangle, find both possible triangles The area of a rectangle can be found by number of squares in a row times number of rows What is the same/different about: Area, Perimeter Convince me how to: find the area of compound shapes formed from rectangles. find the area of a rectangle given its perimeter and width.

10 Handling Data Ask questions, plan how to answer them and collect the data required Plan to answer questions such as: Convince me why you chose to collect the data in Which football team has the best goal-scoring record? that way. What method of travel to school has the shortest journey time? Convince me why you chose to ask that many people / select that amount of data. Which newspaper is the easiest to read? In probability, select methods based on equally likely outcomes and experimental evidence, as appropriate Describe and predict outcomes from data using the language of chance or likelihood Show me examples of equally likely outcomes with given probabilities of i) 0.5, ii) 1/6, iii) 0.2. Compare two spinners to find which is more likely to result in an even number Decide if a probability can be calculated or if it can only be estimated from the results of an experiment On a fair die what is the probability of rolling, e.g. 5? an odd number? 0? a number greater than 2? a prime number? a number lying between 0 and 7? The probability of rolling a four on a fair die is 1/4 When rolling a fair die, the probability of getting a six is greater than the probability of getting a one. If when tossing a coin ten times, the outcome has been tails nine times then the probability of getting a head is more likely than a tail for the tenth toss. When you spin a coin, the probability of getting a head is 0.5. So if you spin a coin ten times you would get exactly 5 heads. Probabilities lie between 0 and 1 Convince me that the numbers on a fair die have equally likely outcomes of 1/6. Understand and use the probability scale from 0 to 1 On a fair die what is the probability of rolling, e.g. 5? an odd number? 0? a number greater than 2? a prime number? a number lying between 0 and 7? Mark these probabilities on a probability scale Show me an event which should be placed at i) 0 on the probability scale ii) 1 on the probability scale iii) ½ on the probability scale, iv) ¼ on the probability scale with any probability greater than 1 with any probability less than 0 What is the same / different with a probability scale marked with: Fractions, decimals, percentages, words Convince me that I mark the probability of rolling a prime number on a die at ½ on the probability scale. Understand and use the mean of discrete data and compare two simple distributions, using the range and one of mode, median or mean Describe and compare two sets of football results, by using the range and mode Solve problems such as, Find 5 numbers where the mode is 6 and the range is 8 Use the mean of a set of measurements from a science experiment How do pupils travel to school? Compare the median and range of the times taken to travel to school for two groups of pupils such as those who travel by bus and those who travel by car. Show me a set of 5 numbers that have: i) a mean of 6 ii) a range of 8 iii) a mean of 6 and a range of 8 i) a median of 6 ii) a range 8 iii) a median of 6 and a range of 8 i) a mode of 6 ii) a range 8 iii) a mode of 6 and a range of 8 The median of the set of numbers 2, 3, 2, 7, 3 is 2 The mode of the set of numbers 2, 3, 2, 7, 3 is 3. The range of the set of numbers is 2, 3, 2, 7, 3 is 1

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