1 The Periodic Table of The Elements
2 Elements are like a collection As more and more elements were discovered it became more important to organize and classify them
3 Between the late 1700 s and mid 1800 s scientists, using mostly atomic spectroscopy, doubled the number of known elements.
4 In early 1800 s, German chemist J.W. Dobereiner observed that several of the elements could be classified into groups of three which he called triads
5 Ca, Sr, and Ba Li, Na, K Cl, Br, I Dobereiner based his triads on similar chemical properties
6 In addition: Many of the properties of the middle element in each triad are approximate averages of the properties of the first and third element
7 Element Atomic Density Mass (amu) Cl g/l Br g/l I g/l Ca g/cm 3 Sr g/cm 3 Ba g/cm 3
8 In 1865, English chemist J.A.R Newlands presented another way to classify and organize the 62 elements known at the time
9 Newlands placed the elements in order of increasing atomic mass He noticed that the properties of the eighth element were like those of the first, the ninth like those of the second, and so on.
10 He called this repeating pattern of every eight elements THE LAW OF OCTAVES After the eight notes of the musical scale
11 Because he linked chemistry to music, he was not taken seriously! It took 20 years for him to receive credit for recognizing periodicity
12 In 1869 Russian Chemist Dimitri Mendeleev and German chemist Lothar Meyer published nearly identical ways of classifying
13 But Mendeleev is generally more credited with the 1 st periodic table for 2 reasons: He published first He was better at explaining it than Meyer
14 Mendeleev also saw the periods Credited with publishing the first periodic table
16 Mendeleev got lots of credit because he left gaps for missing elements!
17 In 1913, English Chemist James Moseley Presented a way of organizing the elements that we still use today.
18 Moseley was the first to put the elements in order of increasing Atomic #
19 When he did this, he saw the same repeating periodic pattern, without the exceptions that Mendeleev had to switch around
20 Periodic Law When the elements are arranged in increasing order by their atomic numbers, their properties repeat periodically
21 The Modern Periodic Table
22 METALS Non-METALS METALLOIDS
23 Tall columns are collectively referred to as the representative elements
24 Short, center groups are collectively referred to as the transition elements
25 Two long rows on bottom are collectively referred to as the inner transition metals
26 Vertical columns are called groups. Elements are placed in columns by similar properties. Also called families
27 Alkali Metals Group 1
28 Alkali Earth Metals Group 2
29 Boron Family Group 13
30 Carbon Family Group 14
31 Group 15 Nitrogen Family
32 Oxygen Family A.K.A. the Chalcogens Group 16
33 Group 17 Halogens
34 Group 18 Noble Gasses
35 Lanthanide Series Actinide Series
36 Regions of the table also correspond to the elements electron configuration
37 S 1 S 2 First two groups are known as the s-block elements All of these elements have an electron configuration that ends in s Group one elements all have configurations that end in s 1 Group two elements all have configurations that end in s 2
38 These elements are known as the p-block elements All of their electron configurations end in p Group 13 elements all end in p 1 Group 14 elements all end in p 2 Group 15- p 3 p 1 p 2 p 3 p 4 p 5 Group 17- p 5 Group 16- p 4 Group 18- p 6 p6
39 The transition metals are known as the d-block elements All of their electron configurations end in d d 1 d 2 d 3 d 4 d 5 d 6 d 7 d 8 d 9 d 10
40 The inner transition metals are known as the f-block elements All of their electron configurations end in f f 1 f 2 f 3 f 4 f 5 f 6 f 7 f 8 f 9 f 10 f 11 f 12 f 13 f 14
41 Horizontal rows are called periods There are 7 periods
42 What do all of the elements in any given period have in common?
43 Each row (or period) is the energy level for s and p orbitals.
44 S 1 1S 1 S 2 2S 1 2S 2 3S 1 3S 2 4S 1 4S 2 5S 1 5S 2 6S 1 6S 2 7S 1 7S 2 Electron configuration correspond the period this represents the energy level of the last electron
45 Same for the p-block elements He is considered part of the 1s block. p6 1 p 1 p 2 p 3 p 4 p 5 1s 2 2p 1 2p 2 2p 3 2p 4 2p 5 2p
46 For the d-blockd elements, the energy level drops down one from the period # d 1 3d 2 3d 3 3d 4 3d 5 3d 6 3d 7 3d 8 3d 9 3d 10 4d 1 5d 1 6d 1
47 For the f-blockf elements, the energy level drops down two from the period # 7 4f 1 4f 2 4f 3 4f 4 4f 5 4f 6 4f 7 4f 8 4f 9 4f 10 4f 11 4f 12 4f 13 4f 14 5f 1
48 Fill in the electron configuration for the last electron of each element
50 Atomic Size First problem where do you start measuring. The electron cloud doesn t have a definite edge. They get around this by measuring more than 1 atom at a time.
51 Atomic Size Atomic Radius = half the distance between two nuclei of a diatomic molecule. Radius
52 Trends in Atomic Size Influenced by two factors. Energy Level Higher energy level is further away. Charge on nucleus More charge pulls electrons in closer.
53 Group trends As we go down a group Each atom has another energy level, So the atoms get bigger. H Li Na K Rb
54 Periodic Trends As you go across a period the radius gets smaller. Same energy level. More nuclear charge. Outermost electrons are closer. Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
55 Ionization Energy The amount of energy required to completely remove an electron from a gaseous atom. Removing one electron makes a +1 ion. The energy required is called the first ionization energy.
56 Ionization Energy The second ionization energy is the energy required to remove the second electron. Always greater than first IE. The third IE is the energy required to remove a third electron. Greater than 1st of 2nd IE.
57 Symbol First Second Third H 1312 He Li Be B C N O F Ne
58 Symbol First Second Third H 1312 He Li Be B C N O F Ne
59 What determines IE The greater the nuclear charge the greater IE. Distance from nucleus increases IE decreases Filled and half filled orbitals have lower energy, so achieving them is easier, lower IE. Shielding
60 Shielding The electron on the outside energy level has to look through all the other energy levels to see the nucleus
61 Shielding The electron on the outside energy level has to look through all the other energy levels to see the nucleus. AA second electron has the same shielding.
62 Group trends As you go down a group first IE decreases because The electron is further away. More shielding.
63 Periodic trends All the atoms in the same period have the same energy level. Same shielding. Increasing nuclear charge So IE generally increases from left to right. Exceptions at full and 1/2 fill orbitals.
64 First Ionization energy He H He has a greater IE than H. same shielding greater nuclear charge Atomic number
65 He First Ionization energy H Li Li has lower IE than H more shielding further away outweighs greater nuclear charge Atomic number
66 He First Ionization energy H Li Be Be has higher IE than Li same shielding greater nuclear charge Atomic number
67 First Ionization energy He H Be B Li B has lower IE than Be same shielding greater nuclear charge By removing an electron we make s orbital full Atomic number
68 He First Ionization energy H Li Be B C Atomic number
69 He First Ionization energy H Li Be B N C Atomic number
70 He First Ionization energy H Be B Li N C O Breaks the pattern because removing an electron gets to 1/2 filled p orbital Atomic number
71 He First Ionization energy H Li Be B N C F O Atomic number
72 First Ionization energy He H Be B Li N C F O Ne Ne has a lower IE than He Both are full, Ne has more shielding Greater distance Atomic number
73 First Ionization energy He H Be B Li N C F O Ne Na Na has a lower IE than Li Both are s 1 Na has more shielding Greater distance Atomic number
74 First Ionization energy Atomic number
75 Driving Force Full Energy Levels are very low energy. Noble Gases have full orbitals. Atoms behave in ways to achieve noble gas configuration.
76 Electron Affinity The energy change assciated with adding an electron to a gaseous atom. Easiest to add to group 7A. Gets them to full energy level. Increase from left to right atoms become smaller, with greater nuclear charge. Decrease as we go down a group.
77 Ionic Size Cations form by losing electrons. Cations are smaller that the atom they come from. Metals form cations. Cations of representative elements have noble gas configuration.
78 Ionic size Anions form by gaining electrons. Anions are bigger that the atom they come from. Nonmetals form anions. Anions of representative elements have noble gas configuration.
79 Configuration of Ions Ions always have noble gas configuration. Na is 1s 1 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Forms a +1 ion - 1s 1 2s 2 2p 6 Same configuration as neon. Metals form ions with the configuration of the noble gas before them - they lose electrons.
80 Configuration of Ions Non-metals form ions by gaining electrons to achieve noble gas configuration. They end up with the configuration of the noble gas after them.
81 Configuration of Ions Non-metals form ions by gaining electrons to achieve noble gas configuration. They end up with the configuration of the noble gas after them.
82 Group trends Adding energy level Ions get bigger as you go down. Li +1 Na +1 K +1 Rb +1 Cs +1
83 Periodic Trends Across the period nuclear charge increases so they get smaller. Energy level changes between anions and cations. Li +1 B +3 N -3 O -2 F -1 Be +2 C +4
84 Size of Isoelectronic ions Iso means the same Iso electronic ions have the same # of electrons Al +3 Mg +2 Na +1 Ne F -1 O -2 and N -3 all have 10 electrons all have the configuration 1s 1 2s 2 2p 6
85 Size of Isoelectronic ions Positvie ions have more protons so they are smaller. Al +3 Na +1 Ne F -1 O-2 N-3 Mg +2
86 Electronegativity The tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element. How fair it shares. Big electronegativity means it pulls the electron toward it. Atoms with large negative electron affinity have larger electronegativity.
87 Group Trend The further down a group the farther the electron is away and the more electrons an atom has. More willing to share. Low electronegativity.
88 Periodic Trend Metals are at the left end. They let their electrons go easily Low electronegativity At the right end are the nonmetals. They want more electrons. Try to take them away. High electronegativity.
89 Ionization energy, electronegativity Electron affinity INCREASE
90 Atomic size increases, shielding constant Ionic size increases