EXAMPLE 1: THREESPAN CONTINUOUS STRAIGHT COMPOSITE I GIRDER Load and Resistance Factor Design (Third Edition  Customary U.S.


 Magdalen Carroll
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 EXAMPLE 1: THREESPAN CONTINUOUS STRAIGHT COMPOSITE I GIRDER Load and Resistance Factor Design (Third Edition  Customary U.S. Units) by Michael A. Grubb, P.E. Bridge Software Development International, Ltd. Cranberry Township, PA and Robert E. Schmidt, E.I.T. SITEBlauvelt Engineers Pittsburgh, PA DESIGN PARAMETERS SPECIFICATIONS: LRFD Third Edition (004) STRUCTURAL STEEL:  ASTM A 709 Grade HPS 70W for flanges in negativeflexure regions  ASTM A 709 Grade 50W for all other girder and crossframe steel CONCRETE: f' c 4.0 ksi REINFORCING STEEL: F y 60 ksi ADTT:,000 trucks per day Design Example 31
2 BRIDGE CROSSSECTION CROSSFRAMES (Article ) The need for diaphragms or crossframes shall be investigated for all stages of assumed construction procedures and the final condition. The investigation should include, but not be limited to the following: Transfer of lateral wind loads from the bottom of the girder to the deck & from the deck to the bearings, Stability of the bottom flange for all loads when it is in compression, Stability of the top flange in compression prior to curing of the deck, Consideration of any flange lateral bending effects, and Distribution of vertical dead & live loads applied to the structure. Design Example 3
3 BRIDGE FRAMING PLAN CROSSSECTION PROPORTIONS Web Depth SpantoDepth Ratios (Table ) 0.03L 0.03(175.0) 5.6 ft 67. in. Use 69.0 in. Web Thickness (Article ) D ( ) 0.46 in. t w min. Design Example 33
4 CROSSSECTION PROPORTIONS (continued) Flange Width (Article ) ( ) D/6 69.0/ in. b f min. L (1) 85 ( ) 14.1in. b fc min. Flange Thickness (Article ) ( t ) 1.1t 1.1( 0.565) 0.6 in. f min w Design Example 34
5 CROSSSECTION PROPORTIONS (continued) Flange WidthtoThickness (Article ) b t f 18 ( 0.875) 10.3 f < 1.0 ok Flange Moments of Inertia (Article ) I I yc yt ( ) ( 18) < 0.51 < 10 ok 1 DEAD LOADS (Article 3.5.1) Component Dead Load (DC 1 ) DC 1 component dead load acting on the noncomposite section  Concrete deck k/ft (incl. integral w.s.)  Overhang tapers 0.14 k/ft  Deck haunches k/ft  SIP forms k/ft  Crossframes 0.10 k/ft & details TOTAL k/ft 4 girders k/ft + girder weight Design Example 35
6 DEAD LOADS (continued) Component Dead Load (DC ) DC component dead load acting on the composite section  Barriers 0.50/ 0.60 k/ft Note: Distributed equally to exterior girder & adjacent interior girder Wearing Surface Load (DW)  Wearing surface [0.05 x 40.0]/4 girders 0.50 k/ft Note: Distributed equally to each girder Basic LRFD Design Live Load HL93  (Article ) Design Truck: or Design Tandem: Pair of 5.0 KIP axles spaced 4.0 FT apart superimposed on Design Lane Load 0.64 KLF uniformly distributed load Design Example 36
7 LRFD Negative Moment Loading (Article ) For negative moment between points of permanentload contraflexure & interiorpier reactions, check an additional load case: Add a second design truck to the design lane load, with a minimum headway between the front and rear axles of the two trucks equal to 50 feet. Fix the rearaxle spacing of both design trucks at 14 feet, and Reduce all loads by 10 percent. LRFD Fatigue Load (Article ) Design Truck only > w/ fixed 30ft rearaxle spacing placed in a single lane Design Example 37
8 LOAD for OPTIONAL LIVELOAD DEFLECTION EVALUATION Refer to Article : Deflection is taken as the larger of:  That resulting from the design truck by itself.  That resulting from 5% of the design truck together with the design lane load. WIND LOADS (Article 3.8) DZ D V P PB Ł VB ł VDZ PB 10,000 P B base wind pressure ksf for beams V DZ design wind velocity at elevation Z V B base wind velocity at 30 ft height 100 mph Eq. ( ) For this example, assume the bridge is 35 ft above low ground & located in open country. Design Example 38
9 WIND LOADS (continued) V DZ.5V o V Ł V 30 B ln ł Ł Z Z o ł Eq. ( ) V o friction velocity 8. mph for open country V 30 wind velocity at 30 ft above low ground V B 100 mph in absence of better information Z height of structure above low ground (> 30 ft) Z o friction length of upstream fetch 0.3 ft for open country WIND LOADS (continued) w V DZ.5 Ł100 ł Ł0.3 ł Ø( 103.0) ø PD 0.050Œ œ ksf º 10,000 ß ( 8.0) ln mph PD hexp 0.053(10.41) 0.55 kips / ft > 0.3 kips / ft ok Design Example 39
10 Basic LRFD Design Equation S? i? i Q i fr n R r Eq. ( ) where:? i? D? R? I? i 0.95 for maximum g s? i h h h 0.95 for minimum g s D R I? i Load factor f Resistance factor Q i Nominal force effect R n Nominal resistance R r Factored resistance fr n 1 Load Combinations and Load Factors Load Combination Limit State DC DD DW EH EV ES LL IM CE BR PL LS WA WS WL FR TU CR SH TG SE Use One of These at a Time EQ IC CT CV STRENGTHI? p /1.0? TG? SE STRENGTHII? p /1.0? TG? SE STRENGTHIII? p /1.0? TG? SE STRENGTHIV EH, EV, ES, DW DC ONLY? p / STRENGTHV? p /1.0? TG? SE EXTREMEI? p? EQ EXTREMEII? p SERVICEI /1.0? TG? SE SERVICEII / SERVICEIII /1.0? TG? SE FATIGUELL, IM & CE ONLY Design Example 310
11 Load Factors for Permanent Loads,? p Load Factor Type of Load Maximum Minimum DC: Component and Attachments DD: Downdrag DW: Wearing Surfaces and Utilities EH: Horizontal Earth Pressure Active AtRest EV: Vertical Earth Pressure Overall Stability Retaining Structure Rigid Buried Structure Rigid Frames N/A LRFD LOAD COMBINATIONS (continued) Construction Loads (Article 3.4.): STRENGTH I  Construction loads > Load factor DW > Load factor 1.5 STRENGTH III  Construction dead loads > Load factor Wind loads > Load factor DW > Load factor 1.5 STRENGTH V  Construction dead loads > Load factor DW > Load factor 1.5 Design Example 311
12 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Summary  LiveLoad Distribution Factors: Strength Limit State Interior Girder Exterior Girder Bending Moment lanes lanes Shear 1.08 lanes lanes Fatigue Limit State Interior Girder Exterior Girder Bending Moment lanes lanes Shear lanes lanes STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (continued) Distribution Factor for LiveLoad Deflection: NL DF m3 ŁNb ł lanes Ł 4 ł Design Example 31
13 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (continued) Dynamic Load Allowance Impact (IM) COMPONENT Deck Joints All Limit States All Other Components  Fatigue & Fracture Limit State  All Other Limit States (applied to design truck only not to design lane load) IM 75% 15% 33% Design Example 313
14 Design Example 314
15 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (continued) Live Load Deflection Design Truck + IM (SERVICE I): (D LL+IM ) end span 0.91 in. (governs) (D LL+IM ) center span 1.3 in. (governs) 100% Design Lane + 5% Design Truck + IM (SERVICE I): (D LL+IM ) end span (0.91) 0.83 in. (D LL+IM ) center span (1.3) 1.16 in. Design Example 315
16 LRFD LIMIT STATES The LRFD Specifications require examination of the following limit states: SERVICE LIMIT STATE FATIGUE & FRACTURE LIMIT STATE STRENGTH LIMIT STATE  (CONSTRUCTIBILITY) EXTREME EVENT LIMIT STATE SECTION PROPERTIES Section L 1 ) Effective Flange Width (Article ): Interior Girder or or 1.0t s L 4 b x 1 4 tf 1.0 ( 9.0) in in. (governs) average spacing of girders in. + Design Example 316
17 SECTION PROPERTIES (continued) Section L 1 ) or or Effective Flange Width (Article ): Exterior Girder L x in t s btf ( 9.0) in. 4 + widthof the overhang in in. (governs) SECTION PROPERTIES (continued) Section L 1 ) Plastic Moment (Article D Appendix D): P + P t w + P 3,060 kips < 3,763 kips \ PNA is in the top flange,use Case II P c s M p A F steel y 0.85f ' b c 75.5(50) 3,763 kips eff t s 0.85(4.0)(100.0)(9.0) 3,060 kips tc ØPw + Pt  Ps ø y 1 Œ + P œ º c ß 0.44 in. from the top of the top flange [ y + ( tc  y) ] + [ Psds + Pw dw + Ptdt ] Pc tc M p 170,38 kip in. 14,199 kip ft Design Example 317
18 SECTION PROPERTIES (continued) Section L 1 ) Yield Moment (Article D Appendix D): M M M M + M MD1 MD M F y + + S S S NC LT AD (,0)( 1) 1.5( 335)( 1) ( 3)( 1) Ø Œ + º 1,973 M 78,06 kip in. 6,517 kipft AD y y y D1 [ (,0) + 1.5( 335) ( 3) + 6,517] D + M 10,171kipft AD (M p / M y 1.4) ST,483 MAD ø +,706œ ß SECTION PROPERTIES (continued) Section  Interior Pier) Effective Flange Width (Art ): Exterior Girder in. Min. Concrete Deck Reinforcement (Article ): 9.0 Ø ø A 1 Œ º 1 Ł łł 1 łß œ ( 43.0) ft 4,776 in deck. 0.01(4,776) in in. ft in. in (100.5) in. from bot. of the deck Design Example 318
19 Constructibility DECKPLACEMENT SEQUENCE Design Example 319
20 Table 1: Moments from DeckPlacement Analysis Span > 1 Unfactored DeadLoad Moments (kipft) Length (ft) Steel Weight SIP Forms (SIP) Cast Sum of Casts + SIP Max. +M DC + DW Deck, haunches + SIP M 35 +,537,889 kipft Table : Vertical Deflections from DeckPlacement Analysis Span >1 Unfactored Vertical DeadLoad Deflections (In.) Length (ft) Steel Weight SIP Forms (SIP) Cast Sum of Casts + SIP DC + DW Total Deck, haunches + SIP Design Example 30
21 Table 3: Unfactored Vertical DeadLoad Reactions from DeckPlacement Analysis (kips) Abut. 1 Pier 1 Pier Abut. Steel Weight sum SIP Forms (SIP) sum Cast sum Cast sum Cast sum Sum of Casts + SIP DC + DW Total Deck, haunches SIP DECKPLACEMENT ANALYSIS (continued) Calculate f bu : (at Section 11 > 560 from abut.) For STRENGTH I: Top flange: Bot. flange: 1.0(1.5)(,889)(1) fbu 7.41ksi 1, (1.5)(,889)(1) f bu 1.96 ksi 1,973 For STRENGTH IV: Top flange: Bot. flange: 1.0(1.5)(,889)(1) fbu ksi 1, (1.5)(,889)(1) f bu 6.36 ksi 1,973 Design Example 31
22 DECKOVERHANG LOADS F P tan a 3.5 ft a tan 1 Ł 5.75 ft ł o 31.3 DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) Deck overhang weight: P 55 lbs/ft Construction loads: Overhang deck forms: Screed rail: Walkway: Railing: Finishing machine: P 40 lbs/ft P 85 lbs/ft P 15 lbs/ft P 5 lbs/ft P 3000 lbs Design Example 3
23 DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) Determine if amplification of firstorder compressionflange f l is required: L b 40 If: L 1.L b p CbR f F bm b yc then, no amplification f 0.85 l fl1 fbm Otherwise: Eq. ( ) 1 Ł F cr ł f l1 Or: f l (AF)fl f 1 l1 DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) R b 1.0 L 1.L b bm C b 1.0 f bm f bu ksi (STRENGTH IV) p CbR f F b yc Eq. ( ) L 1.0r p yc Eq. ( ) t E F where: r t b fc 1 Dct 1 1+ Ł 3bfct w fc ł Eq. ( ) Design Example 33
24 DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) For the steel section at Section 11, D c in. 16 r t 3.90 in (0.5) 1 1 Ł (1) ł 1.0(3.90) 9,000 L p 7.83 ft (1.0) 1. b ( 7.83) ft < L 4.0 ft DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) Therefore, amplification of the firstorder compressionflange f l is required: CbRbp E Fcr Calculate F cr : L Eq. ( ) b Ł rt ł 1.0(1.0) p (9,000) 4(1) Ł 3.90 ł Fcr 5.49 ksi Note: F cr may exceed R b R h F yc in this calculation. Note: assumes K 1.0 (see Appendix A of example) Design Example 34
25 DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) The amplification factor is determined as: For STRENGTH I: 0.85 AF 1.78 > Ł 5.49 ł ok For STRENGTH IV: 0.85 AF.8 > Ł 5.49 ł ok DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) For STRENGTH I: Dead loads: [ + 1.5( ) ] lbs / ft P (55) F F P tana 731.3tan( 31.3 o l ) F L ( 4) M b l l 1.34 kip  ft 1 1 M 1.34(1) Top flange: f l l 6.00 ksi Sl 1(16) lbs / ft M 1.34(1) Bot. flange: f l l 3.45 ksi Sl 1.375(18) 6 Design Example 35
26 DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) For STRENGTH I: Finishing machine: [ ] 4,500 lbs P (3000) F P Ptana 4,500 tan( 31.3 o l ),736 lbs P.736( 4) M Lb l l 8.1 kip  ft 8 8 M 8.1(1) Top flange: f l l.31ksi Sl 1(16) 6 M 8.1(1) Bot. flange: f l l 1.33 ksi Sl 1.375(18) 6 DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) For STRENGTH I: Top flange: f l total ksi * AF (8.31)(1.78) ksi < 0.6F yf 30 ksi ok Bot. flange: f l total ksi * AF (4.78)(1.0) 4.78 ksi < 0.6F yf 30 ksi ok Design Example 36
27 DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) For STRENGTH IV: Dead loads: P 1.0[ 1.5( )] 795 lbs / ft F F P tan a 795 tan(31.3 o l ) lbs / ft F L ( 4) M b l l 3.0 kip  ft 1 1 M 3.0(1) Top flange: f l l 6.5 ksi Sl 1(16) 6 M 3.0(1) Bot. flange: f l l 3.75 ksi Sl 1.375(18) 6 Finishing machine: Not considered DECK OVERHANG LOADS (continued) For STRENGTH IV: Top flange: f l total 6.5 ksi * AF 6.5(.8) ksi ksi < 0.6F yf 30 ksi ok Bot. flange: f l total 3.75 ksi * AF 3.75(1.0) 3.75 ksi 3.75 ksi < 0.6F yf 30 ksi ok Design Example 37
28 CONSTRUCTIBILITY  FLEXURE (Article ) Determine if the section is a slenderweb section: 5.7 E F yc D t D t w w c E F yc (38.63) 0.5 c Eq. ( ) , < Therefore, the section is a slenderweb section. Go to Article to compute F nc. CONSTRUCTIBILITY  FLEXURE (Article ) For discretely braced compression flanges: f f f R F Eq. ( ) bu + l f h yc f 1 3 bu + fl f bu f F f F f f crw nc Eq. ( ) Eq. ( ) For discretely braced tension flanges: f f f R F Eq. ( ) bu + l f h yt Design Example 38
29 LOCAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE Top Flange (Article ) Determine the slenderness ratio of the top flange: l 0.38 l b t 16 1 fc f fc ( ) E F , pf yc 9. Since l f <l pf : F R R F Eq. ( ) F FLB nc b nc 1.0(1.0)(50) 50.0 ksi h yc Flexural Resistance  Composite Sections in Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections F n or M n F max or M M max max Basic Form of All FLB & LTB Eqs Fyr λf λpf Fnc 1 1 RbR hfyc nc b hf yc R F Anchor point 1 h yc λrf λpf nc b hf yc Fyr Lb L p Fnc Cb 1 1 RbRhFyc RbRhFyc RhF yc Lr L p F RR F RR Anchor point F r or M r r compact noncompact (inelastic buckling) nonslender F F RRF nc cr slender (elastic buckling) b h yc b bπ Lb C R r t E L p or λ λ p pf L r λor r λ rf L b or b fc /t fc Design Example 39
30 LAT. TORSIONAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE (Article ) Determine the limiting unbraced length, L r : L pr r t E F yr Eq. ( ) where: F 0.7F F yr yc yw F yr 0.7(50) 35.0 ksi < 50 ksi ( 0.5F yc 5 ksi ok) Therefore: p(3.90) 9,000 L r 9.39 ft LAT. TORSIONAL BUCKLING RESISTANCE (Article ) Since L p 7.83 ft < L b 4.0 ft < L r 9.39 ft: Ø F  L yr b p F nc Cb Œ11 RbRhFyc Ł RhFyc łł Lr Lp ł F nc º Ø 1.0Œ1 1 º  Ł  L Eq. ( ) Therefore: F ncltb ksi (< F ncflb 50.0 ksi) œ ß ø ø ( 1.0) (1.0)(50) ksi 1.0(50) œ łł  łß < 1.0(1.0)(50) 50 ksi R b R h F yc \ F nc F ncltb ksi Design Example 330
31 Flexural Resistance  Composite Sections in Negative Flexure & Noncomposite Sections F n or M n F max or M M max max Basic Form of All FLB & LTB Eqs Fyr λf λpf Fnc 1 1 RbR hfyc nc b hf yc R F Anchor point 1 h yc λrf λpf nc b hf yc Fyr Lb L p Fnc Cb 1 1 RbRhFyc RbRhFyc RhF yc Lr L p F RR F RR Anchor point F r or M r r compact noncompact (inelastic buckling) nonslender F F RRF nc cr slender (elastic buckling) b h yc b bπ Lb C R r t E L p or λ λ p pf L r λor r λ rf L b or b fc /t fc CONSTRUCTIBILITY  FLEXURE Top Flange For STRENGTH I: fbu 4.0 ksi < 50.0 ksi + fl ffrhfyc Eq. ( ) f bu + f l ksi ksi 4.0 ksi ffrhfyc 1.0(1.0)(50) 50.0 ksi f bu + l f F f nc f bu 3.34 ksi < ksi ok ( Ratio ) 1 + fl fffnc Eq. ( ) f ksi + ksi 3.34 ksi (38.75) ksi ok (Ratio 0.835) Design Example 331
32 WEB BENDBUCKLING RESISTANCE (Article ) F 0.9Ek D Ł t w ł crw k k min(r F h 9 ( D ) c D 9 ( ) yc,f yw ) Eq. ( ) 0.9(9,000)(8.7) Fcrw ksi < RhFyc 1.0(50) 50 ksi 69.0 Ł 0.5 ł ok CONSTRUCTIBILITY  FLEXURE Web & Top Flange (continued) fbu fffcrw Eq. ( ) fffcrw 1.0(39.33) ksi ksi < ksi ok (Ratio 0.697) For STRENGTH IV: fbu + fl ffrhfyc Eq. ( ) f bu + f l ksi ksi ksi ffrhfyc 1.0(1.0)(50) 50.0 ksi ksi < 50.0 ksi ok (Ratio 0.955) Design Example 33
33 CONSTRUCTIBILITY  FLEXURE Top Flange (continued) & Web 1 fbu + fl fffnc Eq. ( ) fbu + fl ksi + ksi ksi 3 3 fffnc 1.0(38.75) ksi 37.85ksi < ksi ok (Ratio 0.977) fbu fffcrw Eq. ( ) fffcrw 1.0(39.33) ksi ksi < ksi ok (Ratio 0.836) CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load  Section 11 Calculate f bu due to the steel weight within the unbraced length containing Section 11: For STRENGTH III: Top Flange: Bottom Flange: 1.0(1.5)(35)(1) f bu ksi 1, (1.5)(35)(1) f bu.68 ksi 1,973 Calculate the factored wind force on the steel section: ( 1.5) 1.0 (0.053)( ) W kips / ft 1 Design Example 333
34 BRIDGE FRAMING PLAN CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load  Section 11 (continued) Assume Span 1 of the structure resists the lateral wind force as a propped cantilever with an effective span length of 100 (i.e. assume top lateral bracing provides an effective line of fixity 00 from the pier): 9 9 M11 WLe (0.403)(10.0) 408.0kip  ft (Note: refined 3D analysis > kipft) Design Example 334
35 CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load  Section 11 (continued) Proportion total lateral moment to top & bottom flanges according to relative lateral stiffness of each flange. Then, divide total lateral moment equally to each girder: 1(16) Top Flg: I l in Bot Flg: 1.375(18) I l in Top Flange: Bottom Flange: 408.0(341.3) Ml kip  ft ( ) (668.3) Ml 67.5 kip  ft ( )4 CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load  Section 11 (continued) Separate calculations indicate that lateral bending stresses in the top (compression) flange may be determined from a firstorder analysis (i.e. no amplification is required). Top Flange: f l 34.48(1) 9.70 ksi < 0.6Fyf 30.0 ksi 1(16) 6 ok Bottom Flange: f l 67.5(1) ksi < 0.6Fyf 30.0 ksi 1.375(18) 6 ok Design Example 335
36 BRIDGE FRAMING PLAN CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load  Section 11 (continued) Calculate the shear in the propped cantilever at the assume effective line of fixity: V 5 WL 8 5 (0.403)(10.0) 8 f f e 30.3 kips Resolve the shear into a compressive force in the diagonal of the top bracing: P 30.3 Ł (0.0) + (1.0) 1.0 ł kips Design Example 336
37 CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load  Section 11 (continued) Separate calculations (see example) indicate a compressive force of kips in the diagonal to the selfweight of the steel. Therefore, the total compressive force in the bracing diagonal is: ( kips) + ( kips) kips (Note: refined 3D analysis > kips) CONSTRUCTIBILITY Wind Load  Section 11 (continued) Estimate the maximum lateral deflection of Span 1 of the structure (i.e. the propped cantilever) due to the factored wind load using the total lateral moments of inertia of the top & bottom flanges of all four girders at Section 11: 4 4 D l max. WL 0.403(10.0) (1,78) e 185EI 185(9,000)( )4 (Note: refined 3D analysis > 7.0 inches) 6.7 in. If the top lateral bracing were not present: L e > D l max. 1.3 inches Design Example 337
38 CONSTRUCTIBILITY Performance Ratios POSITIVEMOMENT REGION, SPAN 1 (Section 11) Constructibility (Slenderweb section) Flexure (STRENGTH I) Eq. ( ) Top flange Eq. ( ) Top flange Eq. ( ) Web bend buckling Eq. ( ) Bottom flange Flexure (STRENGTH III Wind load on noncomposite structure) Eq. ( ) Top flange 0.61 Eq. ( ) Top flange Eq. ( ) Web bend buckling Eq. ( ) Bottom flange 0.7 Flexure (STRENGTH IV) Eq. ( ) Top flange Eq. ( ) Top flange Eq. ( ) Web bend buckling Eq. ( ) Bottom flange 0.60 Shear (960 from the abutment) (STRENGTH IV) CONSTRUCTIBILITY Shear (Article ) Interior panels of stiffened webs must satisfy: V V u fvvcr Eq. ( ) ( V ) 1.0(1.5)( 79) 119 kips u DC  1 at 960 from the abutment V n Vcr CVp Eq. ( ) Vp 0.58F yw Dtw 1,001kips C 0.66 (for 07inch stiffener spacing) 0.66(1,001) 66 kips > V 119 kips (Ratio 0.447) cr u  Design Example 338
39 CONSTRUCTIBILITY Section  (Interior Pier) In regions of negative flexure, the constructibility checks for flexure generally do not control because the sizes of the flanges in these regions are normally governed by the sum of the factored dead and live load stresses at the strength limit state. Also, the maximum accumulated negative moments during the deck placement in these regions typically do not differ significantly from the calculated DC 1 negative moments. Deck overhang brackets and wind loads do induce lateral bending into the flanges, which can be considered using the flexural design equations. Web bendbuckling and shear should always be checked in these regions for critical stages of construction (refer to the design example). CONSTRUCTIBILITY Concrete Deck (Article ) Unless longitudinal reinforcement is provided according to the provisions of Article , f deck ff r 0.9f r ' fr 0.4 fc ksi ff r 0.90(0.480) 0.43 ksi Design Example 339
40 Table 1: Moments from DeckPlacement Analysis Span > 1 Unfactored DeadLoad Moments (kipft) Length (ft) Steel Weight SIP Forms (SIP) Cast Sum of Casts + SIP Max. +M DC + DW Deck, haunches + SIP M 35 +,537,889 kipft CONSTRUCTIBILITY Concrete Deck (continued) Calculate the longitudinal concrete deck tensile stress at the end of Cast 1 (use n 8): 1.0(1.5)( 1,403)(3.0)(1) f deck ksi > 0.43 ksi 161,518(8) Therefore, provide onepercent longitudinal reinforcement (No. 6 bars or 1 ). Extend to 95.0 feet from the abutment. Tensile force (0.453)(100.0)(9.0) 408 kips Design Example 340
41 Service Limit State SERVICE LIMIT STATE Elastic Deformations (Article ) Use suggested minimum spantodepth ratios (optional  Article ) Check liveload deflections (optional  Article.5..6.): 140.0(1) End Spans: DALLOW.10 in. > 0.91in (1) Center Span: DALLOW.63 in. > 1.3 in. 800 ok ok Design Example 341
42 SERVICE LIMIT STATE Permanent Deformations (Article ) Under the SERVICE II load combination: 1.0DC + 1.0DW + 1.3(LL+IM) Top steel flange of composite sections: f f 0.95RhFyf Eq. ( ) Bottom steel flange of composite sections: f f f + l 0.95RhFyf Eq. ( ) Web bendbuckling: f c Fcrw Eq. ( ) SERVICE LIMIT STATE Permanent Deformations (continued) Check top flange (Section 11): 0.95Rh F 0.95(1.0)(50) ksi yf f f 0.95RhFyf Ø1.0(,0) 1.0(335+ 3) 1.3(3,510) ø f f 1.0Œ ksi 1,581 4,863 13,805 œ º ß .30 ksi < ksi (Ratio 0.469) ok Design Example 34
43 SERVICE LIMIT STATE Permanent Deformations (continued) Check bottom flange (Section 11): f f f + l 0.95RhFyf f f Ø1.0(,0) 1.0Œ º 1, ( ) 1.3(3,510) ø ksi,483,706 œ ß (Ratio 0.775) For composite sections in positive flexure with D/t w 150, web bendbuckling need not be checked at the service limit state ksi + 0 < ksi ok SERVICE LIMIT STATE Permanent Deformations (continued) Check Section  (interior pier): Article for members with shear connectors provided throughout their entire length that also satisfy the provisions of Article (i.e. one percent longitudinal reinforcement is provided in the deck wherever the tensile stress in the deck due to the factored construction loads or the SERVICE II load combination exceeds the modulus of rupture), flexural stresses caused by SERVICE II loads applied to the composite section may be computed using the shortterm or longterm composite section, as appropriate, assuming the concrete deck is effective for both positive and negative flexure. Design Example 343
44 SERVICE LIMIT STATE Permanent Deformations (continued) Check Section  (interior pier): Flange majoraxis bending stresses at Section  and at the first flange transition located 150 from the interior pier are checked under the SERVICE II load combination and do not control. Stresses acting on the composite section are computed assuming the concrete is effective for negative flexure, as permitted in Article Web bendbuckling must be checked for composite sections in negative flexure under the SERVICE II load combination: f c F crw Eq. ( ) WEB BENDBUCKLING RESISTANCE (Article ) F 0.9Ek D Ł t w ł crw min(r F h yc 0.7) Eq. ( ) 9 where: k D Eq. ( ) According to Article D6.3.1 (Appendix D), for composite sections in negative flexure at the service limit state where the concrete is considered effective in tension for computing flexural stresses on the composite section, as permitted in Article , D c is to be computed as:  fc Eq. (D ) D c d  t fc 0 Ł fc + ft ł,f ( ) c D yw Design Example 344
45 WEB BENDBUCKLING RESISTANCE (Article ) Check the bottomflange transition (controls): Ø1.0( ,656 ) 1.0( ) 1.3( ,709 ) ø f f 1.0 Œ ksi º 1,789,46,463 œ ß  ( ) D c in. > 0 Ł ł 9 k.9 ( ) ok 0.9(9,000)(.9) 39.7ksi < 39.7 ksi 69.0 ok Ratio (0.979) Ł 0.565ł Fcrw SERVICE LIMIT STATE Performance Ratios POSITIVEMOMENT REGION, SPAN 1 (Section 11) Service Limit State Liveload deflection Permanent deformations (SERVICE II) Eq. ( ) Top flange Eq. ( ) Bottom flange INTERIORPIER SECTION (Section ) Permanent deformations (SERVICE II) Eq. ( ) Top Section Eq. ( ) Top Flange transition Eq. ( ) Bottom Section Eq. ( ) Bottom Flange transition Eq. ( ) Web bend Section Eq. ( ) Web bend Flange transition Design Example 345
46 SERVICE LIMIT STATE Concrete Deck (Article ) Calculate the longitudinal concrete deck tensile stress in Span 1 at 95.0 ft from the abutment (use n 8): 1.0[ 1.0(87) + 1.0(83) + 1.3( 1,701)](3.0)(1) fdeck ksi 161,518(8) Therefore, extend the onepercent longitudinal reinforcement (No. 6 bars or 1 ) to 94.0 feet from the abutment. f deck ksi < 0.43 ksi ok > 0.90fr 0.43 ksi Fatigue & Fracture Limit State Design Example 346
47 FATIGUE RESISTANCE FIRST PRINCIPAL For lower traffic volumes, fatigue resistance is inversely proportional to the cube of the effective stress range. Design Example 347
48 FATIGUE RESISTANCE SECOND PRINCIPAL For higher traffic volumes, fatigue resistance is infinite if the maximum stress range is less than the constantamplitude fatigue threshold. FATIGUE LOAD (Article ) The specified load condition for fatigue is a single truck; the current HS0 truck with a fixed rearaxle spacing of The truck occupies a single lane on the bridge  not multiple lanes. The fatigue load produces a lower calculated stress range than the Standard Specifications. Design Example 348
Introduction to LRFD, Loads and Loads Distribution
Introduction to LRFD, Loads and Loads Distribution Thomas K. Saad, P.E. Federal Highway Administration Chicago, IL Evolution of Design Methodologies SLD Methodology: (f t ) D + (f t ) L 0.55F y, or 1.82(f
More informationOverhang Bracket Loading. Deck Issues: Design Perspective
Deck Issues: Design Perspective Overhang Bracket Loading Deck overhangs and screed rails are generally supported on cantilever brackets during the deck pour These brackets produce an overturning couple
More informationA transverse strip of the deck is assumed to support the truck axle loads. Shear and fatigue of the reinforcement need not be investigated.
Design Step 4 Design Step 4.1 DECK SLAB DESIGN In addition to designing the deck for dead and live loads at the strength limit state, the AASHTOLRFD specifications require checking the deck for vehicular
More informationA.2 AASHTO Type IV, LRFD Specifications
A.2 AASHTO Type IV, LRFD Specifications A.2.1 INTRODUCTION A.2.2 DESIGN PARAMETERS 1'5.0" Detailed example showing sample calculations for design of typical Interior AASHTO Type IV prestressed concrete
More informationLRFD Bridge Design. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Loading and General Information
LRFD Bridge Design AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Loading and General Information Created July 2007 This material is copyrighted by The University of Cincinnati, Dr. James A Swanson, and Dr.
More information3.2 DEFINITIONS, cont. Revise or add the following definitions::
CALIFORNIA AMENDMENTS TO AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS THIRD EDITION W/ INTERIMS THRU 2006 _32A, 33A 3.2 DEFINITIONS, cont. Revise or add the following definitions:: Permanent Loads Loads
More informationAPPENDIX H DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NCHRP 1279 PROJECT NEW BRIDGE DESIGNS
APPENDIX H DESIGN CRITERIA FOR NCHRP 1279 PROJECT NEW BRIDGE DESIGNS This appendix summarizes the criteria applied for the design of new hypothetical bridges considered in NCHRP 1279 s Task 7 parametric
More informationSLAB DESIGN EXAMPLE. Deck Design (AASHTO LRFD 9.7.1) TYPICAL SECTION. County: Any Hwy: Any Design: BRG Date: 7/2010
County: Any Hwy: Any Design: BRG Date: 7/2010 SLAB DESIGN EXAMPLE Design example is in accordance with the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 5th Ed. (2010) as prescribed by TxDOT Bridge Design
More informationChapter 12 LOADS AND LOAD FACTORS NDOT STRUCTURES MANUAL
Chapter 12 LOADS AND LOAD FACTORS NDOT STRUCTURES MANUAL September 2008 Table of Contents Section Page 12.1 GENERAL... 121 12.1.1 Load Definitions... 121 12.1.1.1 Permanent Loads... 121 12.1.1.2 Transient
More informationSteel Bridge Design Handbook
U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Steel Bridge Design Handbook Loads and Load Combinations Publication No. FHWAIF12052  Vol. 7 November 2012 Notice This document is disseminated
More informationCHAPTER 13 CONCRETE COLUMNS
CHAER 13 CONCREE COUMNS ABE OF CONENS 13.1 INRODUCION... 131 13.2 YES OF COUMNS... 131 13.3 DESIGN OADS... 131 13.4 DESIGN CRIERIA... 132 13.4.1 imit States... 132 13.4.2 Forces... 132 13.5 AROXIMAE
More informationDesign of reinforced concrete columns. Type of columns. Failure of reinforced concrete columns. Short column. Long column
Design of reinforced concrete columns Type of columns Failure of reinforced concrete columns Short column Column fails in concrete crushed and bursting. Outward pressure break horizontal ties and bend
More informationCanadian Standards Association
S6S110 10.10.2.2 Laterally supported members When continuous lateral support is provided to the compression flange of a member subjected to bending about its major axis, the factored moment resistance,
More informationReinforced Concrete Slab Design Using the Empirical Method
Reinforced Concrete Slab Design Using the Empirical Method BridgeSight Solutions for the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications BridgeSight Software TM Creators of effective and reliable solutions for
More informationBasics of Reinforced Concrete Design
Basics of Reinforced Concrete Design Presented by: Ronald Thornton, P.E. Define several terms related to reinforced concrete design Learn the basic theory behind structural analysis and reinforced concrete
More informationSECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE
SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,
More informationLongterm serviceability of the structure Minimal maintenance requirements Economical construction Improved aesthetics and safety considerations
Design Step 7.1 INTEGRAL ABUTMENT DESIGN General considerations and common practices Integral abutments are used to eliminate expansion joints at the end of a bridge. They often result in Jointless Bridges
More informationDesign of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar
Problem 1 Design a hand operated overhead crane, which is provided in a shed, whose details are: Capacity of crane = 50 kn Longitudinal spacing of column = 6m Center to center distance of gantry girder
More informationDesign of an Industrial Truss
Design of an Industrial Truss Roofing U 2 U 3 Ridge U 4 Sagrod 24 U 1 U 5 L 0 L 1 L 2 L 3 L 4 L 5 L 6 6@20 = 120 Elevation of the Truss Top Cord Bracing Sagrod Purlin at top, Bottom Cord Bracing at bottom
More informationDesign of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges
7.7 Truss bridges Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges Truss Girders, lattice girders or open web girders are efficient and economical structural systems, since the members experience
More informationETABS. Integrated Building Design Software. Composite Floor Frame Design Manual. Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA
ETABS Integrated Building Design Software Composite Floor Frame Design Manual Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA Version 8 January 2002 Copyright The computer program ETABS and all
More informationIndex 20010 Series Prestressed FloridaI Beams (Rev. 07/12)
Index 20010 Series Prestressed FloridaI Beams (Rev. 07/12) Design Criteria AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 6th Edition; Structures Detailing Manual (SDM); Structures Design Guidelines (SDG)
More informationINTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
CHAPTER Structural Steel Design LRFD Method INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS Third Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part II Structural Steel Design and Analysis
More informationSECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE
SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,
More informationSEISMIC DESIGN. Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading:
SEISMIC DESIGN Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading: 1. Seismic Performance Category (SPC), varies from A to E, depending on how the
More informationChallenging Skew: Higgins Road Steel IGirder Bridge over I90 OTEC 2015  October 27, 2015 Session 26
2014 HDR Architecture, 2014 2014 HDR, HDR, Inc., all all rights reserved. Challenging Skew: Higgins Road Steel IGirder Bridge over I90 OTEC 2015  October 27, 2015 Session 26 Brandon Chavel, PhD, P.E.,
More informationSECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED
SECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design, it is preferable to draw moment diagrams
More informationInternational Nursing and Rehab Center Addition 4815 S. Western Blvd. Chicago, IL
PROJECT International Nursing and Rehab Center Addition 4815 S. Western Blvd. Chicago, IL EXP. 11/30/2014 STRUCTURAL CALCULATIONS July 24, 2014 BOWMAN, BARRETT & ASSOCIATES INC. CONSULTING ENGINEERS 312.228.0100
More informationDesign Parameters for Steel Special Moment Frame Connections
SEAOC 2011 CONVENTION PROCEEDINGS Design Parameters for Steel Special Moment Frame Connections Scott M. Adan, Ph.D., S.E., SECB, Chair SEAONC Structural Steel Subcommittee Principal Adan Engineering Oakland,
More informationLOAD TESTING FOR BRIDGE RATING: DEAN S MILL OVER HANNACROIS CREEK
REPORT FHWA/NY/SR06/147 LOAD TESTING FOR BRIDGE RATING: DEAN S MILL OVER HANNACROIS CREEK OSMAN HAGELSAFI JONATHAN KUNIN SPECIAL REPORT 147 TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BUREAU New York State
More informationFOUNDATION DESIGN. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples
FOUNDATION DESIGN Proportioning elements for: Transfer of seismic forces Strength and stiffness Shallow and deep foundations Elastic and plastic analysis Foundation Design 141 Load Path and Transfer to
More informationSTRUCTURAL STEEL STRUCTURES
Chapter 16 STRUCTURAL STEEL STRUCTURES SCDOT BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL April 2006 Table of Contents Section Page 16.1 GENERAL...161 16.1.1 Economical Steel Superstructure Design...161 16.1.1.1 Rolled Beams
More informationIII. Compression Members. Design of Steel Structures. Introduction. Compression Members (cont.)
ENCE 455 Design of Steel Structures III. Compression Members C. C. Fu, Ph.D., P.E. Civil and Environmental Engineering Department University it of Maryland Compression Members Following subjects are covered:
More informationNational Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. Principles and Practice of Engineering Structural Examination
Structural Effective Beginning with the April 2011 The structural engineering exam is a breadth and exam examination offered in two components on successive days. The 8hour Vertical Forces (Gravity/Other)
More informationDetailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures
Chapter 8 Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures 8.1 Scope Provisions of Sec. 8.1 and 8.2 of Chapter 8 shall apply for detailing of reinforcement in reinforced concrete members, in general. For
More informationABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE SEGMENTAL BEAM
Ninth LACCEI Latin American and Caribbean Conference (LACCEI 11), Engineering for a Smart Planet, Innovation, Information Technology and Computational Tools for Sustainable Development, August 3, 11,
More informationTHREESPAN CONTINUOUS STRAIGHT COMPOSITE I GIRDER Load and Resistance Factor Design (Third Edition  Customary U.S. Units)
EXAMPLE 1: THREESPAN CONTINUOUS STRAIGHT COMPOSITE I GIRDER Load and Resistance Factor Design (Third Edition  Customary U.S. Units) by Michael A. Grubb, P.E. Bridge Sotware Development International,
More informationSLAB DESIGN. Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems:
Reading Assignment SLAB DESIGN Chapter 9 of Text and, Chapter 13 of ACI31802 Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems: 13.6.1 Direct Design Method (DDM) For slab systems
More informationOptimising plate girder design
Optimising plate girder design NSCC29 R. Abspoel 1 1 Division of structural engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands ABSTRACT: In the design of steel plate girders a high degree
More informationSession 5D: Benefits of Live Load Testing and Finite Element Modeling in Rating Bridges
Session 5D: Benefits of Live Load Testing and Finite Element Modeling in Rating Bridges Douglas R. Heath P.E., Structural Engineer Corey Richard P.E., Project Manager AECOM Overview Bridge Testing/Rating
More informationTECHNICAL NOTE. Design of Diagonal Strap Bracing Lateral Force Resisting Systems for the 2006 IBC. On ColdFormed Steel Construction INTRODUCTION
TECHNICAL NOTE On ColdFormed Steel Construction 1201 15th Street, NW, Suite 320 W ashington, DC 20005 (202) 7852022 $5.00 Design of Diagonal Strap Bracing Lateral Force Resisting Systems for the 2006
More informationPreliminary steel concrete composite bridge design charts for Eurocodes
Preliminary steel concrete composite bridge 90 Rachel Jones Senior Engineer Highways & Transportation Atkins David A Smith Regional Head of Bridge Engineering Highways & Transportation Atkins Abstract
More informationCompression Members: Structural elements that are subjected to axial compressive forces
CHAPTER 3. COMPRESSION MEMBER DESIGN 3.1 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS Compression Members: Structural elements that are subjected to axial compressive forces onl are called columns. Columns are subjected to axial
More informationThe following sketches show the plans of the two cases of oneway slabs. The spanning direction in each case is shown by the double headed arrow.
9.2 Oneway Slabs This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design 9.2.1 Introduction Slabs are an important structural component where prestressing is applied. With increase
More informationSteel joists and joist girders are
THE STEEL CONFERENCE Hints on Using Joists Efficiently By Tim Holtermann, S.E., P.E.; Drew Potts, P.E.; Bob Sellers, P.E.; and Walt Worthley, P.E. Proper coordination between structural engineers and joist
More information16. BeamandSlab Design
ENDP311 Structural Concrete Design 16. BeamandSlab Design BeamandSlab System How does the slab work? L beams and T beams Holding beam and slab together University of Western Australia School of Civil
More informationFEBRUARY 2014 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 41
FEBRUARY 2014 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 41 4. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION The analysis of bridges and structures is a mixture of science and engineering judgment. In most cases, use simple models with
More informationispan, A Light Steel Floor System
ispan, A Light Steel Floor System D.M. Fox 1, R.M. Schuster 2, and M.R. Strickland 3 Abstract Described in this paper is a coldformed steel floor system called ispan. The system is comprised of multifunctional
More information1997 Uniform Administrative Code Amendment for Earthen Material and Straw Bale Structures Tucson/Pima County, Arizona
for Earthen Material and Straw Bale Structures SECTION 70  GENERAL "APPENDIX CHAPTER 7  EARTHEN MATERIAL STRUCTURES 70. Purpose. The purpose of this chapter is to establish minimum standards of safety
More informationMATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
HAPTER Reinforced oncrete Design Fifth Edition MATERIALS AND MEHANIS OF BENDING A. J. lark School of Engineering Department of ivil and Environmental Engineering Part I oncrete Design and Analysis b FALL
More informationSTEEL BUILDINGS IN EUROPE. MultiStorey Steel Buildings Part 10: Guidance to developers of software for the design of composite beams
STEEL BUILDINGS IN EUROPE MultiStorey Steel Buildings Part 10: Guidance to developers of software for the design of MultiStorey Steel Buildings Part 10: Guidance to developers of software for the design
More informationSEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP
13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 16, 2004 Paper No. 3279 SEISMIC UPGRADE OF OAK STREET BRIDGE WITH GFRP Yuming DING 1, Bruce HAMERSLEY 2 SUMMARY Vancouver
More informationReinforced Concrete Design
FALL 2013 C C Reinforced Concrete Design CIVL 4135 ii 1 Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1. Reading Assignment Chapter 1 Sections 1.1 through 1.8 of text. 1.2. Introduction In the design and analysis of reinforced
More informationBRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS APRIL 2000 SECTION 9  PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
SECTION 9  PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Part A General Requirements and Materials 9.1 APPLICATION 9.1.1 General The specifications of this section are intended for design of prestressed concrete bridge members.
More informationDESIGN OF SLABS. 3) Based on support or boundary condition: Simply supported, Cantilever slab,
DESIGN OF SLABS Dr. G. P. Chandradhara Professor of Civil Engineering S. J. College of Engineering Mysore 1. GENERAL A slab is a flat two dimensional planar structural element having thickness small compared
More informationHow to Design Helical Piles per the 2009 International Building Code
ABSTRACT How to Design Helical Piles per the 2009 International Building Code by Darin Willis, P.E. 1 Helical piles and anchors have been used in construction applications for more than 150 years. The
More informationEvaluation of Bridge Performance and Rating through Nondestructive
Evaluation of Bridge Performance and Rating through Nondestructive Load Testing Final Report Prepared by: Andrew Jeffrey, Sergio F. Breña, and Scott A.Civjan University of Massachusetts Amherst Department
More informationTechnical Notes 3B  Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993
Technical Notes 3B  Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993 Abstract: This Technical Notes is a design aid for the Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 40292) and Specifications
More informationStructural Design Calculation For Pergola
Structural Design Calculation For Pergola Revision :5 Prepared by :EC Date : 8/10/009 CONTENTS 1. Introduction... Design Code and Reference 3. Design Synopsis 4. Design Parameters 4.1 Design Load. 4. Design
More informationChapter  3 Design of Rectangular Beams and Oneway Slabs
Rectangular Beams and Oneway Slabs Page 1 of 9 Chapter  3 Design of Rectangular Beams and Oneway Slabs 12 h A 12 strip in a simply supported oneway slab h b=12 L Rectangular Beams and Oneway Slabs
More informationTwoWay PostTensioned Design
Page 1 of 9 The following example illustrates the design methods presented in ACI 31805 and IBC 2003. Unless otherwise noted, all referenced table, figure, and equation numbers are from these books. The
More informationFormwork for Concrete
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON DEPARTMENT OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT CM 420 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES Winter Quarter 2007 Professor Kamran M. Nemati Formwork for Concrete Horizontal Formwork Design and Formwork Design
More informationDesign rules for bridges in Eurocode 3
Design rules for bridges in Eurocode 3 Gerhard Sedlacek Christian üller Survey of the Eurocodes EN 1991 EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of Design EN 1992 to EN 1996 Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures Eurocode 2:
More informationDESIGN OF PRESTRESSED BARRIER CABLE SYSTEMS
8601 North Black Canyon Highway Suite 103 Phoenix, AZ 8501 For Professionals Engaged in PostTensioning Design Issue 14 December 004 DESIGN OF PRESTRESSED BARRIER CABLE SYSTEMS by James D. Rogers 1 1.0
More informationMODULE E: BEAMCOLUMNS
MODULE E: BEAMCOLUMNS This module of CIE 428 covers the following subjects PM interaction formulas Moment amplification Web local buckling Braced and unbraced frames Members in braced frames Members
More informationEvaluation of Appropriate Maintenance, Repair and Rehabilitation Methods for Iowa Bridges
T. J. Wipf, F. S. Fanous, F. W. Klaiber, A. S. Eapen Evaluation of Appropriate Maintenance, Repair and Rehabilitation Methods for Iowa Bridges April 2003 Sponsored by the Iowa Department of Transportation
More informationPage 1 of 18 28.4.2008 Sven Alexander Last revised 1.3.2010. SBProduksjon STATICAL CALCULATIONS FOR BCC 250
Page 1 of 18 CONTENT PART 1 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS PAGE 1.1 General 1. Standards 1.3 Loads 1. Qualities PART ANCHORAGE OF THE UNITS.1 Beam unit equilibrium 3. Beam unit anchorage in front..1 Check of capacity..
More informationNueva Edición del libro clásico para estudiantes de grado.
Nueva Edición del libro clásico para estudiantes de grado. Ha aparecido la quinta edición del que ya se ha convertido en uno de los libros más vendidos de Diseño de estructuras de Acero para su uso en
More informationTABLE OF CONTENTS. Roof Decks 172 B, BA, BV Deck N, NA Deck. Form Decks 174.6 FD,.6 FDV Deck 1.0 FD, 1.0 FDV Deck 1.5 FD Deck 2.0 FD Deck 3.
Pages identified with the NMBS Logo as shown above, have been produced by NMBS to assist specifiers and consumers in the application of New Millennium Building Systems Deck products. Pages identified with
More informationSection 5A: Guide to Designing with AAC
Section 5A: Guide to Designing with AAC 5A.1 Introduction... 3 5A.3 Hebel Reinforced AAC Panels... 4 5A.4 Hebel AAC Panel Design Properties... 6 5A.5 Hebel AAC Floor and Roof Panel Spans... 6 5A.6 Deflection...
More informationModule 3. Limit State of Collapse  Flexure (Theories and Examples) Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
Module 3 Limit State of Collapse  Flexure (Theories and Examples) Lesson 4 Computation of Parameters of Governing Equations Instructional Objectives: At the end of this lesson, the student should be able
More information[TECHNICAL REPORT I:]
[Helios Plaza] Houston, Texas Structural Option Adviser: Dr. Linda Hanagan [TECHNICAL REPORT I:] Structural Concepts & Existing Conditions Table of Contents Executive Summary... 2 Introduction... 3 Structural
More informationFOOTING DESIGN EXAMPLE
County: Any Design: BRG Date: 10/007 Hwy: Any Ck Dsn: BRG Date: 10/007 FOOTING DESIGN EXAMPLE Design: Based on AASHTO LRFD 007 Specifications, TxDOT LRFD Bridge Design Manual, and TxDOT Project 04371
More informationExternal PostTensioning for FullDepth Precast Deck Panels
A B AccelBridge External PostTensioning for FullDepth Precast Deck Panels A B ABC Made Simple. Information Prepared for 2012 Virginia Concrete Conference presented herein pertains to proprietary products.
More information20112012. Crane Runway Girder. Dr. Ibrahim Fahdah Damascus University. https://sites.google.com/site/ifahdah/home/lectures
Crane Runway Girder Dr. Ibrahim Fahdah Damascus University https://sites.google.com/site/ifahdah/home/lectures Components of Crane system The Crane Runway Girder and the Structure Issue1: Vertical Load
More informationChapter 8. Flexural Analysis of TBeams
Chapter 8. Flexural Analysis of Ts 8.1. Reading Assignments Text Chapter 3.7; ACI 318, Section 8.10. 8.2. Occurrence and Configuration of Ts Common construction type. used in conjunction with either
More informationEngineering for Stability in Bridge Construction: A New Manual and Training Course by FHWA/NHI
Engineering for Stability in Bridge Construction: A New Manual and Training Course by FHWA/NHI AASHTO SCOBS T14 Meeting Saratoga Springs, NY April 20, 2015 Brian Kozy, PhD, P.E. Federal Highway Administration
More informationSimplified Design to BS 5400
Simplified Design to BS 5400 Bridge Design to the Eurocodes Simplified rules for use in student projects (Document RT1156) Version Date of Issue Purpose Author Technical Reviewer Approved 1 Distribution
More informationLyang, J., Lee, D., Kung, J. "Reinforced Concrete Bridges." Bridge Engineering Handbook. Ed. WaiFah Chen and Lian Duan Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2000
Lyang, J., Lee, D., Kung, J. "Reinforced Concrete Bridges." Bridge Engineering Handbook. Ed. WaiFah Chen and Lian Duan Boca Raton: CRC Press, 000 Section II Superstructure Design 9 Reinforced Concrete
More informationStatics of Structural Supports
Statics of Structural Supports TYPES OF FORCES External Forces actions of other bodies on the structure under consideration. Internal Forces forces and couples exerted on a member or portion of the structure
More informationJoist. Reinforcement. Draft 12/7/02
Joist Reinforcement Draft 12/7/02 1 JOIST REINFORCING The purpose of this CSD Design Aid is to provide procedures and suggested details for the reinforcement of open web steel joists. There are three basic
More informationREINFORCED CONCRETE. Reinforced Concrete Design. A Fundamental Approach  Fifth Edition. Walls are generally used to provide lateral support for:
HANDOUT REINFORCED CONCRETE Reinforced Concrete Design A Fundamental Approach  Fifth Edition RETAINING WALLS Fifth Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
More informationARCH 331 Structural Glossary S2014abn. Structural Glossary
Structural Glossary Allowable strength: Nominal strength divided by the safety factor. Allowable stress: Allowable strength divided by the appropriate section property, such as section modulus or cross
More information8.2 Elastic Strain Energy
Section 8. 8. Elastic Strain Energy The strain energy stored in an elastic material upon deformation is calculated below for a number of different geometries and loading conditions. These expressions for
More informationApproximate Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures
Approximate Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures Every successful structure must be capable of reaching stable equilibrium under its applied loads, regardless of structural behavior. Exact analysis
More informationDraft Table of Contents. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 31814
Draft Table of Contents Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 31814 BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318 14) Chapter 1 General 1.1 Scope of ACI 318
More information4B2. 2. The stiffness of the floor and roof diaphragms. 3. The relative flexural and shear stiffness of the shear walls and of connections.
Shear Walls Buildings that use shear walls as the lateral forceresisting system can be designed to provide a safe, serviceable, and economical solution for wind and earthquake resistance. Shear walls
More informationStability. Security. Integrity.
Stability. Security. Integrity. PN #MBHPT Foundation Supportworks provides quality helical pile systems for both new construction and retrofit applications. 288 Helical Pile System About Foundation Supportworks
More informationPRESTRESSED CONCRETE. Introduction REINFORCED CONCRETE CHAPTER SPRING 2004. Reinforced Concrete Design. Fifth Edition. By Dr. Ibrahim.
CHAPTER REINFORCED CONCRETE Reinforced Concrete Design A Fundamental Approach  Fifth Edition Fifth Edition PRESTRESSED CONCRETE A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental
More informationbi directional loading). Prototype ten story
NEESR SG: Behavior, Analysis and Design of Complex Wall Systems The laboratory testing presented here was conducted as part of a larger effort that employed laboratory testing and numerical simulation
More informationINSERVICE PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIOR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HYBRID COMPOSITE BRIDGE SYSTEM A CASE STUDY
INSERVICE PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIOR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HYBRID COMPOSITE BRIDGE SYSTEM A CASE STUDY John M. Civitillo University of Virginia, USA Devin K. Harris University of Virginia, USA Amir Gheitasi
More informationSteel Deck. A division of Canam Group
Steel Deck A division of Canam Group TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE OUR SERVICES... 4 NOTES ABOUT LOAD TABLES... 5 P3615 & P3606 DIMENSIONS & PHYSICAL PROPERTIES... 6 FACTORED AND SERVICE LOADS... 7 P2436 &
More informationEFFECTS ON NUMBER OF CABLES FOR MODAL ANALYSIS OF CABLESTAYED BRIDGES
EFFECTS ON NUMBER OF CABLES FOR MODAL ANALYSIS OF CABLESTAYED BRIDGES YangCheng Wang Associate Professor & Chairman Department of Civil Engineering Chinese Military Academy FengShan 83000,Taiwan Republic
More informationIntroduction to Railroad Track Structural Design
BCR2A 09 Railroad Track Design Including Asphalt Trackbeds PreConference Workshop Introduction to Railroad Track Structural Design Don Uzarski, Ph.D., P.E. uzarski@illinois.edu Interaction, Vertical Load
More informationA. Cylindrical Tank, FixedRoof with Rafter & Column (cont.)
According to API 650 Code, Edition Sept. 2003 Page : 23 of 34 9. Seismic Design. [APPENDIX E, API 650] 9.1. Overturning Moment due to Seismic forces applied to bottom of tank shell, M = Z I (C1 Ws Xs +
More informationChapter 6 ROOFCEILING SYSTEMS
Chapter 6 ROOFCEILING SYSTEMS Woodframe roofceiling systems are the focus of this chapter. Coldformed steel framing for a roofceiling system also is permitted by the IRC but will not be discussed;
More informationMETHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST
Compression Test, METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST Tension Test and Lateral Test According to the American Standards ASTM D1143 07, ASTM D3689 07, ASTM D3966 07 and Euro Codes EC7 Table of Contents
More informationAASHTOWare Bridge Design and Rating Training. STL8 Single Span Steel 3D Example (BrDR 6.6)
AASHTOWare Bridge Design and Rating Training STL8 Single Span Steel 3D Example (BrDR 6.6) Last Modified: 4/28/2015 STL81 AASHTOWare BrDR 6.5 AASHTOWare Bridge Design and Rating Training STL8 Single Span
More informationResidential Deck Safety, Construction, and Repair
Juneau Permit Center, 4 th Floor Marine View Center, (907)5860770 This handout is designed to help you build your deck to comply with the 2006 International Residential Building code as modified by the
More informationDESIGN OF SLABS. Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
DESIGN OF SLABS Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Introduction Types of Slab Slabs are plate elements
More information