Topic 1 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Rates of Reaction

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Topic 1 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Rates of Reaction"

Transcription

1 Chemical Reactions Topic 1 National Chemistry Summary Notes Rates of Reaction LI 1, 2 and 3 We know a chemical reaction has taken place when we notice one or more of the following things happening: Colour change Gas is produced (also known as effervescence) Energy change i.e. energy is taken in or given out, for example, heat, light etc Solid forming (also known as precipitation) Note: all chemical reactions involve the formation of one or more new substances Effervescence Precipitation 1

2 Everyday Chemical Reactions LI 4 Our lives are full of chemical reactions. Some examples of everyday chemical reactions include: Striking a match Wool growing on a sheep whenever something is produced in nature it is an example of a chemical reaction Baking a cake A car rusting WORD EQUATIONS LI 5 A shorthand way of showing what goes on in a chemical reaction is to write a WORD EQUATION. Substances you start with are called REACTANTS. These appear on the left hand side of the equation. Substances that form are called PRODUCTS. These appear on the right hand side of the equation. In a word equation + means and and the means produces. e.g. magnesium burns in oxygen to produce magnesium oxide. magnesium + oxygen magnesium oxide REACTANTS PRODUCT(S) 2

3 LI6 When is it Not a Chemical Reaction? Sometimes a substance can appear to change appearance drastically or even seem to disappear. These may not be chemical reactions. They could simply be changes of state or mixtures being formed. If the substance can be easily brought back (or separated out) it is not a chemical reaction. Here is a reminder of work you did in first year. Changes of State Melting, freezing, boiling, condensing are not chemical changes but physical changes. They do not produce a new substance, just a new form. Changes in state are not examples of chemical reactions as no new substances are being formed. The four changes of state are: Melting Freezing Evaporating (liquid to gas) Condensing (gas to liquid) 3

4 Separation techniques LI 7, 8 A mixture is formed when two or more substances come together without reacting. As no new substances form in a mixture, it is not an example of a chemical reaction. For example, air is a mixture of gases, mainly nitrogen and oxygen. Mixtures can be separated in different ways depending on their properties some of these ways include filtration, evaporation and chromatography. Filtration Filtration is used to separate a mixture of a solid and a liquid e.g. sand and water. The liquid collected is the filtrate and the solid collected in the filter paper is called the residue. Evaporation Evaporation is used when we want to separate the mixture created when a solid has dissolved in a liquid e.g. salty water. The salty water is heated until all the water evaporates and the salt is left behind in the evaporating basin. 4

5 Chromatography Chromatography is used to separate mixtures of substances into their components. It is particularly useful for separating mixtures of inks into their separate colours. 5

6 LI 9 to 13 Making Solutions To make a solution a solute must dissolve in a solvent. Solute substance being dissolved Solvent substance doing the dissolving Solution solute plus solvent For example, when salt is dissolved in water a salt solution is made. Solute salt Solvent water Solution salt solution Making a solution is not an example of a chemical reaction. This is because the solute and the solvent can be easily brought back. e.g. the salt in salty water can be brought back by evaporation. Note: when the starting substances can be easily brought back a chemical reaction has not taken place. A substance which dissolves in a liquid is said to be soluble; a substance which does not dissolve is said to be insoluble. e.g. chalk is insoluble in water, salt is soluble in water. A saturated solution is one in which no more solute can be dissolved. A dilute solution has less dissolved solute than a concentrated solution e.g. a glass of dilute orange juice has less orange dissolved in it than a glass of concentrated orange juice A solution is diluted by adding more solvent. For example, adding water to concentrated orange juice makes it more dilute and as a result, it tastes less orangey than before. 6

7 LI 14 Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction We often want to speed up a chemical reaction. There are 4 main ways we can alter the speed (rate) of a chemical reaction. The Effect of Particle Size Solids with a smaller particle size (e.g. powders or small chips) react more quickly than solids with a larger particle size (e.g. lumps). The diagram explains why. acid particle E The perimeter (solid line) of the large chip is 12 units. The acid particles can only collide with the edge of the chip. However, if we break up the large chip into 9 smaller chips: 7

8 then the perimeter around each chip is 4 units, but there are 9 of them so the total perimeter is 4 x 9 = 36 units. Reducing the size of particles increases the rate of a reaction because it increases the surface area available for collisions to take place. This increases the number of collisions. If a solid reactant is broken into small pieces or ground into a powder: its surface area increases more particles are exposed to the other reactant there are more collisions the rate of reaction increases Effect of Temperature and Concentration The rate of a chemical reaction can be increased by raising the temperature. It can also be increased by increasing the concentration of a reactant. Temperature If the temperature is increased: the reactant particles move more quickly they have more energy the particles collide more often, and more of the collisions result in a reaction the rate of reaction increases = particle A = particle B 8

9 Concentration If the concentration of a reactant is increased the reactant particles become more crowded there is a greater chance of the particles colliding the rate of reaction increases Catalysts LI 15 and 16 A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a reaction without being used up itself. Some reactions have catalysts that can speed them up, but for many reactions there is no catalyst that works. Here is an example of a reaction with a catalyst. Hydrogen peroxide decomposes (falls apart) to form water and oxygen gas: hydrogen peroxide > water + oxygen This reaction only occurs very slowly unless we add the compound manganese dioxide that acts as a catalyst for this reaction. When the catalyst is added the reaction speeds up greatly but the manganese dioxide never runs out. 9

10 Note: As a catalyst does not get used up during a reaction, the mass of a catalyst at the start of a reaction will be the same as at the end. Different catalysts catalyse different reactions. The table below summarises some common catalysts used in industry and the reactions they catalyse: Some common catalysts used in industry and the reactions they catalyse Catalyst Reaction Catalysed iron platinum vanadium(v) oxide making ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen making nitric acid from ammonia making sulphuric acid Transition metals, such as platinum, are used as the catalyst in catalytic converters. Catalytic converters are devices that fit onto the exhausts of cars. They change harmful gases into harmless gases, for example, nitrogen oxide is converted to nitrogen and oxygen. A gauze or honeycomb structure is a better structure for a catalyst than a lump because a gauze or honeycomb structure has a bigger surface area. Gauze 10

11 Measuring the Rate of Reaction LI17 Reactions can be followed by measuring changes in concentration, mass and volume of reactants and products. Note: When the line of a graph levels off, this indicates the reaction has finished i.e. one of the reactants has been completely used up. 11

12 E LI 18 Calculating the Rate of Reaction 10. The average rate of a reaction, or stage in a reaction, can be calculated from initial and final quantities and the time interval. Average Rate = The table shows the volume of hydrogen gas produced over fifty seconds. Time (s) Volume of gas (cm 3 ) Volume of gas (cm 3 ) 12 Time (s)

13 The average rate at which gas is produced can be calculated as shown. = 2 cm 3 /s 13

14 LI 19 to 22 Tests for Gases Many reactions produce gases and it is important to be able to identify them: Oxygen The test for oxygen is that it relights a glowing splint. As air is approximately 20% oxygen, there is not enough oxygen in the air for the test to be positive. Hydrogen The test for hydrogen is that it burns with a pop. 14

15 Carbon Dioxide The test for carbon dioxide is that it turns lime water milky. Summary Gas Carbon dioxide Test Turns lime water milky Hydrogen Burns with a pop Oxygen Relights a glowing splint Note: if a burning splint is placed in a test tube of oxygen it will burn more brightly Nitrogen gas has no chemical test 15

16 Collecting Gases LI23 The best way to collect a gas depends upon the properties of the gas. The following 3 set-ups show the best way to collect a gas. Note: Less dense than air means lighter than air, denser than air means heavier than air. Soluble in water Less dense than air Soluble in water More dense than air Insoluble in water 16

17 LI24 Naming compounds COMPOUNDS When elements join together during a chemical reaction new substances called COMPOUNDS are formed. A COMPOUND is a substance made up of two or more elements joined together. The name of a compound can tell you the name of the elements in it Compounds which end in IDE USUALLY contain only 2 elements. The first element in the name of a compound is usually the furthest left in the periodic table or if in the same group the furthest up in the table. Oxygen is ALWAYS the second element in an oxide compound. A MIXTURE of elements is not a compound. COPY & COMPLETE NAME OF COMPOUND ELEMENTS PRESENT sodium chloride hydrogen and oxygen copper bromide potassium and iodine rubidium fluoride 17

18 EXCEPTIONS TO THE IDE RULE Compounds which end in IDE usually contain only 2 elements but as usual there are always exceptions to any rule. HYDROXIDES and CYANIDES are two classes of compounds which have more than two elements in them. HYDROXIDES contain HYDROGEN and OXYGEN CYANIDES contain CARBON and NITROGEN COPY & COMPLETE NAME OF COMPOUND ELEMENTS PRESENT calcium hydroxide sodium, hydrogen and oxygen hydrogen cyanide barium, carbon and nitrogen 18

19 COMPOUNDS ENDING IN ATE OR ITE Not all compounds end in IDE. Some other compounds names end in ATE or ITE. The ATE or ITE ending tells you that there is a third element in the compound which is always OXYGEN. COPY & COMPLETE NAME OF COMPOUND ELEMENTS PRESENT calcium carbonate magnesium, sulphur and oxygen iron Sulphite lithium, carbon and oxygen sodium nitrate 19

20 Number Learning Intention Success criteria 1. I will find out chemical reactions can be identified by changes in I can identify a chemical reaction by appearance of substance, including colour change, gas evolved, A change of appearance precipitate formed. A colour change A gas evolved A precipitate formed 2. I will find out chemical reactions can be identified by energy changes including temperature change, light given off. 3. I will find out chemical reactions involve the formation of one or more new substances. 4. I will find out about some chemical reactions which occur in our day-today lives. 5. I am going to find out how to write word equations in order to summarise what happens during chemical reactions. 20 I can identify a chemical reaction by energy changes including Temperature increasing or decreasing Light being given off I can state that at least one new substance is produced during a chemical reaction. I can give examples of chemical reactions such as Iron rusting Cooking food Substances burning I can write word equations for chemical reactions including : correctly using the + and symbols recognising reactants and placing them on the left of the recognising products and placing them on the right of the

21 6. 1. I will find out the changes of state melting, freezing, condensing and evaporating are not chemical reactions. 7. I will find out mixtures occur when two or more substances come together without reacting. 8. I will find out mixtures can be separated in different ways depend on their properties i.e. filtration, evaporation, chromatography. 9. I will find out a solution is a mixture formed when a solute dissolves in a solvent. 10. I will find out a substance which dissolves in a liquid is soluble and a substance which does not dissolve is insoluble. I can state that Melting Freezing condensing evaporating are not chemical reactions I can state that mixtures occur when two or more substances come together without reacting. I can state that: filtration is used to separate solids and liquids evaporation is used to obtain the solid which was dissolved in a liquid chromatography can be used to separate different liquids. I can state that a solution is a mixture formed when a solute dissolves in a solvent. I can state that a substance which dissolves in a liquid is soluble and a substance which does not dissolve is insoluble. 11. I will find out a saturated solution is one in which no more substance can be dissolved. 21 I can state that a saturated solution is one in which no more substance can be

22 12. I will find out a dilute solution has a lower concentration of dissolved substance than a concentrated solution. 13. I will find out a solution is diluted by adding more solvent. 14. I will find out that rates of reaction are affected by changes in concentration, particle size and temperature. 15. I will find out catalysts are substances which speed up some reactions and are not used up by the reactions. 16. I will find out about some everyday examples of uses of catalysts. 17. I will find out reactions can be followed by measuring changes in concentration, mass and volume of reactants and products. 18. I will find out the average rate of a reaction, or stage in a reaction, can be calculated from initial and final quantities and the time interval. dissolved. I can state that a dilute solution has a lower concentration of dissolved substance than a concentrated solution I can state that a solution is diluted by adding more solvent. I can state that rates of reaction can be increased by Increasing concentration Increasing temperature Using smaller particles I can state that catalysts are substances which speed up some reactions and are not used up by the reactions I can state that transition metals in car exhaust systems are examples of uses of catalysts. I can state that reactions can be followed by measuring changes in concentration, mass and volume of reactants and products. I can calculate the average rate of reaction using 22

23 19. I will find out the test for oxygen is that it relights a glowing splint. 20. I will find out there is not enough oxygen in the air for the test to be positive. 21. I will find out the test for hydrogen is that it burns with a pop. 22. I will find out the test for carbon dioxide is that it turns lime water milky. 23. I will find out the best way to collect a gas depends upon the properties of the gas. 24. I will find out how to apply the general rules: compounds with the name ending in ide contain the two elements indicated (except hydroxides and cyanides), and that the ending ite or ate indicates the additional element oxygen. I can state that the test for oxygen is that it relights a glowing splint I can state that there is not enough oxygen in the air for the test to be positive I can state that the test for hydrogen is that it burns with a pop I can state that the test for carbon dioxide is that it turns lime water milky. I can state that the best way to collect an insoluble gas is to bubble through water. A soluble gas with a lower density than air is to collect in an upturned test tube A soluble gas with a higher density than air is to collect downwards in a test tube I can state the elements present in a compound given its name. 23

21 st Century Chemistry Structured Question in Topic 1 Planet Earth Unit 1-4

21 st Century Chemistry Structured Question in Topic 1 Planet Earth Unit 1-4 21 st Century Chemistry Structured Question in Topic 1 Planet Earth Unit 1-4 1. Air consists of oxygen and other substances. (a) Is oxygen an element or a compound? Explain briefly. It is an element. [1]

More information

The Periodic Table & Chemical Reactions. Elements & Compounds

The Periodic Table & Chemical Reactions. Elements & Compounds The Periodic Table & Chemical Reactions Elements & Compounds Elements are the simplest type of substance. Compounds are made of 2 or more elements joined together. Substances are made up of atoms. Atoms

More information

THE PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER

THE PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER THE PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF MATTER COURSE CONTENT 1. Define matter and state of matter 2. Properties of solids, liquids and gases 3. Changes in matter Physical and chemical changes Phase changes of

More information

Bellahouston Academy S2 CHEMISTRY. Part 1 Matter HOMEWORK

Bellahouston Academy S2 CHEMISTRY. Part 1 Matter HOMEWORK Bellahouston Academy S2 CHEMISTRY Part 1 Matter HOMEWORK Name May 2012 HOMEWORK SHEET 1: States of Matter There are three states of matter: solid liquid gas Heat a solid to its melting point and it will

More information

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia.

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. Chemistry C2 Foundation and Higher Questions Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. (a) Complete the word equation for the reaction that takes place

More information

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases The position of hydrogen in the reactivity series Hydrogen, although not a metal, is included in the reactivity series because it, like metals, can be displaced from aqueous solution, only this time the

More information

London Examinations IGCSE

London Examinations IGCSE Centre No. Paper Reference Surname Initial(s) Candidate No. 4 3 3 5 2 Signature Paper Reference(s) 4335/2 London Examinations IGCSE Chemistry Paper 2 igher Tier Monday 10 November 2008 Afternoon Time:

More information

Unit 1 Building Blocks

Unit 1 Building Blocks Unit 1 Building Blocks a) Substances (i) Elements Everything in the world is made from about 100 elements. Each element has a name and a symbol. Elements are classified in different ways, including naturallyoccurring/made

More information

Cathkin High School CfE Higher Chemistry. Chemical Changes & Structure Controlling the Rate

Cathkin High School CfE Higher Chemistry. Chemical Changes & Structure Controlling the Rate Cathkin High School CfE Higher Chemistry Unit 1 : Part 1 Chemical Changes & Structure Controlling the Rate E a Page 1 of 17 Learning Outcomes Controlling the Rate Circle a face to show how much understanding

More information

Q1. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate.

Q1. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. Q. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide The student measured

More information

Section B: Some Essential Background Chemistry

Section B: Some Essential Background Chemistry Section B: Some Essential Background Chemistry Soluble and insoluble salts The importance of knowing whether a salt is soluble or insoluble in water You will remember that acids react with carbonates to

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances?

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? 12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? Simple particle theory is developed in this unit to include atomic structure and bonding. The arrangement of electrons

More information

No Brain Too Small. Credits: Four

No Brain Too Small. Credits: Four No Brain Too Small Level 1 Science 2015 90944 Demonstrate understanding of aspects of acids and bases Credits: Four Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence Demonstrate understanding

More information

Specimen Paper. Time allowed! 60 minutes

Specimen Paper. Time allowed! 60 minutes Centre Number Surname Candidate Number Specimen Paper For Examiner s Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examiner s Initials General Certificate of Secondary Education Foundation Tier Question 1 Mark Chemistry

More information

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY Problems to try at the end of the chapter. Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7,13,17,19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,37,39, 41,43,45,47,49,51,53,55,57,59,63,65,67,87,89, 4.1 Physical States

More information

Q1. (a) The figure below represents the reaction of sulfur dioxide with oxygen. Oxygen

Q1. (a) The figure below represents the reaction of sulfur dioxide with oxygen. Oxygen Q. (a) The figure below represents the reaction of sulfur dioxide with oxygen. Oxygen Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide (i) Complete the word equation for the reaction of sulfur dioxide with oxygen. sulfur

More information

CHAPTER 3: MATTER. Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64

CHAPTER 3: MATTER. Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64 CHAPTER 3: MATTER Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64 3.1 MATTER Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies volume We study

More information

Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions

Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions Gezahegn Chaka, Ph.D., and Sudha Madhugiri, Ph.D., Collin College Department of Chemistry Objectives Introduction To observe physical and chemical changes. To identify

More information

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY Problems: 1,3,5,7,13,17,19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,37,41,43,45,47,49,51,53,55,57,59,63,65,67,69,77,79,81,83 4.1 Physical States of Matter Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies

More information

SCIENCE. Chemical Reactions

SCIENCE. Chemical Reactions StudyPacks STUDY. KS4 SCIENCE Chemical Reactions Making Salts This Study Pack aims to cover:. Energy transfer in Reactions. 2. Acid and Alkalis and reactions with metals. 3. Oxides, Hydroxides and Ammonia.

More information

Chapter 1: Matter, Energy, and the Origins of the Universe

Chapter 1: Matter, Energy, and the Origins of the Universe Chapter 1: Matter, Energy, and the Origins of the Universe Problems: 1.1-1.40, 1.43-1.98 science: study of nature that results in a logical explanation of the observations chemistry: study of matter, its

More information

C2 revision topics 5 and 6

C2 revision topics 5 and 6 C2 revision topics 5 and 6 To understand heat changes in reactions To be able to describe what controls rates of reactions To be able to explain how to change the rate of a reaction Exothermic Gives out

More information

PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF OXYGEN EXPERIMENT 3

PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF OXYGEN EXPERIMENT 3 PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF OXYGEN EXPERIMENT 3 OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate various reactions that occur with oxygen, and how concentrations of reactants affect the rate

More information

Section 3.1 Properties of Matter

Section 3.1 Properties of Matter Section 3.1 Properties of Matter In your textbook, read about physical properties and chemical properties of matter. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. chemical mass physical

More information

Year 8 Science Home Learning Booklet

Year 8 Science Home Learning Booklet Student Name: Year 8 Science Home Learning Booklet Chemical Reactions To be handed in on or before: 25th April 2014 The options that I have completed for my Home Learning are (Please tick): Option Number

More information

5th Grade Mixtures & Solutions

5th Grade Mixtures & Solutions Read and answer each question carefully. 1) The smallest particle of matter is A) an atom. B) a compound. C) a solute. D) a molecule. 2) Which scientist made an important contribution to the science of

More information

One type of cold pack has a plastic bag containing water. Inside this bag is a smaller bag containing ammonium nitrate.

One type of cold pack has a plastic bag containing water. Inside this bag is a smaller bag containing ammonium nitrate. Q. Instant cold packs are used to treat sports injuries. One type of cold pack has a plastic bag containing water. Inside this bag is a smaller bag containing ammonium nitrate. The outer bag is squeezed

More information

21 st Century Chemistry Multiple Choice Question in Topic 3 Metals Unit 11

21 st Century Chemistry Multiple Choice Question in Topic 3 Metals Unit 11 21 st Century Chemistry Multiple Choice Question in Topic 3 Metals Unit 11 1. Consider the equation: 2Ca(s) + O 2 (g) 2CaO(s) Which of the following statements are correct? (1) Calcium and oxygen are reactants.

More information

London Examinations IGCSE

London Examinations IGCSE Centre No. Candidate No. Surname Signature Initial(s) Paper Reference(s) 4335/2H London Examinations IGCSE Chemistry Paper 2H Higher Tier Monday 9 May 2005 Morning Time: 2 hours Examiner s use only Team

More information

13+ Entrance 2016 SCIENCE. One hour. Attempt as many questions as you can, and do not worry if you have not covered all the topics in your school.

13+ Entrance 2016 SCIENCE. One hour. Attempt as many questions as you can, and do not worry if you have not covered all the topics in your school. 13+ Entrance 2016 SCIENCE One hour This paper contains 13 questions on biology, chemistry and physics. Attempt as many questions as you can, and do not worry if you have not covered all the topics in your

More information

Chemistry/Additional Science Unit C2: Discovering Chemistry

Chemistry/Additional Science Unit C2: Discovering Chemistry Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GCSE Centre Candidate Chemistry/Additional Science Unit C2: Discovering Chemistry Foundation Tier Additional Sample Assessment Material Time: 1 hour You

More information

Figure 1. Oxygen. (g) +... (g)... SO. The pressure of the reacting gases was increased.

Figure 1. Oxygen. (g) +... (g)... SO. The pressure of the reacting gases was increased. Q. Figure represents a reaction in the production of sulfuric acid. Figure Oxygen Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide (a) Complete and balance the equation for the reaction.... SO 2 (g) +... (g)... SO 3 (g)

More information

Test Bank - Chapter 6 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 6 Multiple Choice Test Bank - Chapter 6 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 6. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

1 Forming New Substances

1 Forming New Substances CHAPTER 2 1 Forming New Substances SECTION Chemical Reactions BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a chemical reaction? What can you tell that

More information

Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes

Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes An understanding of material things requires an understanding of the physical and chemical characteristics of matter. A few planned experiments can help you

More information

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education *0123456789* CHEMISTRY 0620/03 Paper 3 Theory (Core) For Examination from 2016 SPECIMEN PAPER 1 hour

More information

What is a Chemical Reaction?

What is a Chemical Reaction? Lab 8 Name What is a Chemical Reaction? Macroscopic Indications and Symbolic Representations Pre-Lab Assignment This written pre-lab is worth 25% (5 POINTS) of your lab report grade and must be turned

More information

1º ESO UNIT 3: Pure substances and mixtures. Susana Morales Bernal

1º ESO UNIT 3: Pure substances and mixtures. Susana Morales Bernal 1º ESO UNIT 3: Pure substances and mixtures Objectives 1. To know that a substance is identified according to its characteristic properties like: density and melting or boiling points. 2. To know the concepts

More information

TYPES OF REACTIONS IN SOLUTIONS 29 JULY 2014

TYPES OF REACTIONS IN SOLUTIONS 29 JULY 2014 TYPES OF RETIONS IN SOLUTIONS 29 JULY 2014 Lesson escription In this lesson we: Identify different types of reactions that take place in aqueous solutions pply knowledge of solubility to identify unknown

More information

Unit 2: Matter Properties and Changes

Unit 2: Matter Properties and Changes Unit 2: Matter Properties and Changes CHEMISTRY August 29, 2007 1 Brainteaser Define physical and chemical change (in your own words). Is this picture of a physical or a chemical change? Explain your reasoning

More information

Heterogeneous Homogenous. Mixtures; Solutions. Phases of matter: Solid. Phases of Matter: Liquid. Phases of Matter: Gas. Solid, Liquid, Gas

Heterogeneous Homogenous. Mixtures; Solutions. Phases of matter: Solid. Phases of Matter: Liquid. Phases of Matter: Gas. Solid, Liquid, Gas Phases of matter: Solid Heterogeneous Homogenous Mixtures Solutions Phases of Matter: Liquid Atoms and molecules are more spaced out and now can move. The material can be slightly compressed into a smaller

More information

Grade 7 Science Unit 3: Mixtures and Solutions

Grade 7 Science Unit 3: Mixtures and Solutions Grade 7 Science Unit 3: Mixtures and Solutions Chapter 9: Many useful products depend on technology for separating mixtures and solutions. Name: Homeroom #: 1 Separating Mixtures 1. Salt Water Mixtures

More information

CHY2H (JAN08CHY2H01) General Certifi cate of Secondary Education January ADDITIONAL SCIENCE Unit Chemistry C2. CHEMISTRY Unit Chemistry C2

CHY2H (JAN08CHY2H01) General Certifi cate of Secondary Education January ADDITIONAL SCIENCE Unit Chemistry C2. CHEMISTRY Unit Chemistry C2 Surname Other Names For Examiner s Use Centre Number Candidate Number Candidate Signature General Certifi cate of Secondary Education January 2008 ADDITIONAL SCIENCE Unit Chemistry C2 CHEMISTRY Unit Chemistry

More information

Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass

Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass St Peter the Apostle High School Chemistry Department Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass N4 & N5 Homework Questions Answer questions as directed by your teacher. National 4 level questions are first followed

More information

Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. 11. Ammonia can be reacted with an acid to produce the salt ammonium nitrate.

Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. 11. Ammonia can be reacted with an acid to produce the salt ammonium nitrate. Q. This question is about salts of ammonia and salts of lead. (a) Ammonia dissolves in water to make an alkaline solution. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete each sentence. The ph of a solution

More information

Name Class Date. physical property solid liquid

Name Class Date. physical property solid liquid 2.1 MATTER SECTION REVIEW Objectives Identify the characteristics of matter and substances Differentiate among the three states of matter Define physical property and list several common physical properties

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions: An Introduction. Chemical Reactions, Equations and Balancing

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions: An Introduction. Chemical Reactions, Equations and Balancing Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions: An Introduction Chemical Reactions, Equations and Balancing Learning Target Chapter 7 Vocabulary 4 words 1. Chemical reaction 2. Reactant 3. Product 4. Coefficients balanced

More information

RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS OBJECTIVES 1. To experimentally determine how the nature of the reactants, the concentration of reactants, the temperature and the presence of a catalyst affect the rates of

More information

OC42 Recall that ionic bonding is an attraction between positive and negative ions; describe the bonding in NaCl and MgO as examples

OC42 Recall that ionic bonding is an attraction between positive and negative ions; describe the bonding in NaCl and MgO as examples Chemistry: 7. Ionic and Covalent Bonding Please remember to photocopy 4 pages onto one sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Syllabus OC41 Understand how atoms of elements combine

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND REACTING MASSES AND VOLUMES

CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND REACTING MASSES AND VOLUMES CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND REACTING MASSES AND VOLUMES The meaning of stoichiometric coefficients: 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(l) number of reacting particles 2 molecules of hydrogen react with 1 molecule

More information

Unit: KCH0/4CH0 Science (Double Award) KSC0/4SC0 Paper: 1C

Unit: KCH0/4CH0 Science (Double Award) KSC0/4SC0 Paper: 1C Write your name here Surname Other names Pearson Edexcel Certificate Pearson Edexcel International GCSE Centre Number Chemistry Unit: KCH0/4CH0 Science (Double Award) KSC0/4SC0 Paper: 1C Monday 12 January

More information

Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1

Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1 Centre Number 71 Candidate Number ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY (AS) General Certificate of Education January 2011 Chemistry Assessment Unit AS 1 assessing Basic Concepts in Physical and Inorganic Chemistry [AC111]

More information

? I have some understanding but I need to revise this some more

? I have some understanding but I need to revise this some more 1 I am confident that I understand this and I can apply this to problems? I have some understanding but I need to revise this some more I don t know this or I need help because I don t understand it National

More information

(1) (1) (1)... (1) (2)

(1) (1) (1)... (1) (2) 1. In the Periodic Table, where elements are arranged by atomic number, chlorine is a p-block element whereas manganese, a transition element, is in the d-block. (i) Define the term atomic number. Define

More information

Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Chemistry Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Chemistry MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A theory is a. a. mathematical formula that models a pattern of behavior b. set of quantitative data c. well-tested unifying principle that explains

More information

CARBON DIOXIDE/ CHEMICAL REACTION RATES LANDMARK MEDIA, 2001 Grade Levels: minutes 1 Instructional Graphic Enclosed

CARBON DIOXIDE/ CHEMICAL REACTION RATES LANDMARK MEDIA, 2001 Grade Levels: minutes 1 Instructional Graphic Enclosed #9654 CARBON DIOXIDE/ CHEMICAL REACTION RATES LANDMARK MEDIA, 2001 Grade Levels: 10-12 15 minutes 1 Instructional Graphic Enclosed DESCRIPTION Experiments show the production and properties of carbon dioxide

More information

Compounds vs mixtures. Physics and Chemistry IES Jaume Salvador i Pedrol February 2009

Compounds vs mixtures. Physics and Chemistry IES Jaume Salvador i Pedrol February 2009 Compounds vs mixtures Physics and Chemistry IES Jaume Salvador i Pedrol February 2009 Compounds Remember that a compound is a substance made up from two or more elements, chemically joined together. This

More information

The particulate nature of matter

The particulate nature of matter The particulate nature of matter Solids, liquids and gases The kinetic theory of matter Explaining the states of matter Changes of state An unusual state of matter An unusual change of state Heating and

More information

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE EXPERIMENT 1

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE EXPERIMENT 1 PURPOSE To investigate the criteria used to distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter. 1 DEFINITIONS Chemical property, physical property, chemical change, physical change, conservation

More information

Matter Properties and Changes

Matter Properties and Changes CHAPTER 3 STUDY GUIDE FOR CONTENT MASTERY Matter Properties and Changes Section 3.1 Properties of Matter In your textbook, read about physical properties and chemical properties of matter. Use each of

More information

Atomic structure, chemical reactions and the periocic table

Atomic structure, chemical reactions and the periocic table Atomic structure, chemical reactions and the periocic table 9 minutes 9 marks Page of 40 Q. The diagram shows an atom. (a) On the diagram, write the names of structures A, B, C and D. (4) To which Group

More information

Physical and Chemical Properties

Physical and Chemical Properties Physical and Chemical Properties Introduction Matter can be classified in different ways using physical and chemical properties. Physical properties include color, odor, density, hardness, structure, solubility,

More information

*GCH12* *20GCH1201* GCSE Chemistry. Unit 1 Higher Tier [GCH12] TUESDAY 9 JUNE, AFTERNOON *GCH12* TIME 1 hour 30 minutes.

*GCH12* *20GCH1201* GCSE Chemistry. Unit 1 Higher Tier [GCH12] TUESDAY 9 JUNE, AFTERNOON *GCH12* TIME 1 hour 30 minutes. Centre Number Candidate Number General Certificate of Secondary Education 2015 GCSE Chemistry Unit 1 Higher Tier *GCH12* [GCH12] *GCH12* TUESDAY 9 JUNE, AFTERNOON TIME 1 hour 30 minutes. INSTRUCTIONS TO

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

General Chemistry Lab Experiment 6 Types of Chemical Reaction

General Chemistry Lab Experiment 6 Types of Chemical Reaction General Chemistry Lab Experiment 6 Types of Chemical Reaction Introduction Most ordinary chemical reactions can be classified as one of five basic types. The first type of reaction occurs when two or more

More information

Part I: Parts and Meaning of a Chemical Equation:

Part I: Parts and Meaning of a Chemical Equation: Chemical Equations Name: Period: Date: Part I: Parts and Meaning of a Chemical Equation: 1) = process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances (atoms are rearranged)

More information

Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility

Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility Dissolving Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility One very important property of a solution is the rate of, or how quickly a solute dissolves in a solvent. When dissolving occurs, there

More information

Henry8SCI3 (H8SCI_MATTER) 1. Look carefully at the pictures below. Which picture shows only a physical change in the wood?

Henry8SCI3 (H8SCI_MATTER) 1. Look carefully at the pictures below. Which picture shows only a physical change in the wood? Name: Date: 1. Look carefully at the pictures below. Which picture shows only a physical change in the wood? A. B. C. D. 2. During a science lab investigating chemical reactions, Mrs. Gray's students placed

More information

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name:

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name: 6.1 Types of Chemical Reactions a) Synthesis (A + B AB) Synthesis reactions are also known as reactions. When this occurs two or more reactants (usually elements) join to form a. A + B AB, where A and

More information

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES 31 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to develop skills in writing and balancing chemical equations. The relevance of this exercise is illustrated by a series

More information

Properties and Classifications of Matter

Properties and Classifications of Matter PS-3.1 Distinguish chemical properties of matter (including reactivity) from physical properties of matter (including boiling point, freezing/melting point, density [with density calculations], solubility,

More information

Chapter 6 Student Reading

Chapter 6 Student Reading Chapter 6 Student Reading What is a chemical reaction? There are many common examples of chemical reactions. For instance, chemical reactions happen when baking cookies and in your digestive system when

More information

CHAPTER 8 Chemical Equations and Reactions

CHAPTER 8 Chemical Equations and Reactions CHAPTER 8 Chemical Equations and Reactions SECTION 1 Describing Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVES 1. List three observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place. 2. List three requirements

More information

Remember the best arguments are based on the strongest evidence and can explain why opposing arguments are incorrect.

Remember the best arguments are based on the strongest evidence and can explain why opposing arguments are incorrect. Magnesium and carbon dioxide Student sheet Burning magnesium in carbon dioxide what will happen? Either the magnesium will go out or it will continue to burn. Which will it be? You will use the evidence

More information

Name: Unit 2- Elements, Compounds and Mixtures and Physical/Chemical Properties and Changes. Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

Name: Unit 2- Elements, Compounds and Mixtures and Physical/Chemical Properties and Changes. Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Name: Unit 2- Elements, Compounds and Mixtures and Physical/Chemical Properties and Changes Day Page # Description IC/HW All 2 Warm-up IC 1 3 5 Matter Notes IC 1 6 Nuts & Bolts IC 1 7 Elements, Compounds

More information

7.2.2 Changing State. 43 minutes. 56 marks. Page 1 of 17

7.2.2 Changing State. 43 minutes. 56 marks. Page 1 of 17 7.2.2 Changing State 43 minutes 56 marks Page 1 of 17 Q1. Air is a gas at room temperature. The chemical formulae below show some of the substances in the air. Ar CO 2 H 2 O N 2 Ne O 2 (a) Put these formulae

More information

Unit 2: Nature s Chemistry

Unit 2: Nature s Chemistry Unit 2: Nature s Chemistry 1. A Fuel is a substance which burns giving out energy. 2. Oxygen is needed for anything to burn 3. Combustion is another name for burning Test for Oxygen - Relights a glowing

More information

National 4/5 Chemistry. Unit 1c - Chemical Changes and Structure

National 4/5 Chemistry. Unit 1c - Chemical Changes and Structure National 4/5 Chemistry Unit 1c - Chemical Changes and Structure Kirkcaldy High School 2013/2014 Contents Formation of ions (N4*)...1 Formation of ions (N4*)...3 Ionic bonding (N4*)...4 Writing formulae

More information

2 MATTER. 2.1 Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes

2 MATTER. 2.1 Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes 2 MATTER Matter is the material of which the universe is composed. It has two characteristics: It has mass; and It occupies space (i.e., it has a volume). Matter can be found in three generic states: Solid;

More information

Chemistry 1215 Experiment #9 Copper and its Compounds

Chemistry 1215 Experiment #9 Copper and its Compounds Chemistry 1215 Experiment #9 Copper and its Compounds Objective The objective of this experiment is to take a piece of copper as efficiently as possible through a series of chemical reactions. The final

More information

CHY2F (JAN08CHY2F01) General Certifi cate of Secondary Education January ADDITIONAL SCIENCE Unit Chemistry C2. CHEMISTRY Unit Chemistry C2

CHY2F (JAN08CHY2F01) General Certifi cate of Secondary Education January ADDITIONAL SCIENCE Unit Chemistry C2. CHEMISTRY Unit Chemistry C2 Surname Other Names For Examiner s Use Centre Number Candidate Number Candidate Signature General Certifi cate of Secondary Education January 2008 ADDITIONAL SCIENCE Unit Chemistry C2 CHEMISTRY Unit Chemistry

More information

Syllabus OC18 Use litmus or a universal indicator to test a variety of solutions, and classify these as acidic, basic or neutral

Syllabus OC18 Use litmus or a universal indicator to test a variety of solutions, and classify these as acidic, basic or neutral Chemistry: 9. Acids and Bases Please remember to photocopy 4 pages onto one sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Syllabus OC18 Use litmus or a universal indicator to test a variety

More information

Chapter Test A. Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures MULTIPLE CHOICE. chemically combined? MIXs2 a. element b. compound c. mixture d.

Chapter Test A. Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures MULTIPLE CHOICE. chemically combined? MIXs2 a. element b. compound c. mixture d. Assessment Chapter Test A Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the letter of the correct answer in the space provided. 1. What is a pure substance made of two or more elements that are

More information

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education ambridge International Examinations ambridge International General ertificate of Secondary Education *012345678* EMISTRY 0620/01 Paper 1 Multiple hoice (ore) For Examination from 2016 SPEIMEN PPER dditional

More information

School District of Hillsborough County Middle School Science Physical Science Honors Semester 1 Exam Review

School District of Hillsborough County Middle School Science Physical Science Honors Semester 1 Exam Review School District of Hillsborough County Middle School Science 2011-2012 IPS Chapter 1 Volume and Mass - (Safety) 1. Review all required reading sections and chapter questions for all sections. 2. Be familiar

More information

Test 1: Introduction to Chemistry

Test 1: Introduction to Chemistry Name: Sunday, October 14, 2007 Test 1: Introduction to Chemistry 1. Two substances, A and Z, are to be identified. Substance A can not be broken down by a chemical change. Substance Z can be broken down

More information

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia.

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. Q. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. (a) Complete the word equation for the reaction that takes place in the first reaction vessel. ammonia +... nitrogen

More information

EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL GCSE CHEMISTRY EDEXCEL CERTIFICATE IN CHEMISTRY ANSWERS SECTION C

EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL GCSE CHEMISTRY EDEXCEL CERTIFICATE IN CHEMISTRY ANSWERS SECTION C EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL GCSE CHEMISTRY EDEXCEL CERTIFICATE IN CHEMISTRY ANSWERS SECTION C Chapter 16 1. Burn sulfur in air to give sulfur dioxide. S(s) + O 2 (g) ----> SO 2 (g) Pass this with more air over

More information

Chemistry Worksheet: Matter #1

Chemistry Worksheet: Matter #1 Chemistry Worksheet: Matter #1 1. A mixture (is/is not) a chemical combining of substances. 2. In a compound the (atoms/molecules) are (chemically/physically) combined so that the elements that make up

More information

The table gives some information about a family of molecules in crude oil. Show information from the table in the most appropriate way on the grid.

The table gives some information about a family of molecules in crude oil. Show information from the table in the most appropriate way on the grid. ## The table gives some information about a family of molecules in crude oil. NUMBER OF CARBON ATOMS IN MOLECULE MASS OF MOLECULE (atomic units) 6 30 4 58 (a) Show information from the table in the most

More information

Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances. Covalent Bonds

Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances. Covalent Bonds Topic 3 National Chemistry Summary Notes Bonding, Structure and Properties of Substances LI 1 Covalent Bonds Most atoms do not exist as single atoms. They are mainly found combined with other atoms in

More information

Strontium (intense red) Lithium (medium red) Potassium Rubidium (violetred)

Strontium (intense red) Lithium (medium red) Potassium Rubidium (violetred) Chapter 7.1 Color Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet Metal Strontium (intense red) Lithium (medium red) Calcium Sodium Barium Copper Cesium Potassium Rubidium (violetred) Example compounds SrCO

More information

C u ( O H ) 2. N i ( N O 3 ) 2. N a m e C a t i o n Cation A n i o n A n i o n

C u ( O H ) 2. N i ( N O 3 ) 2. N a m e C a t i o n Cation A n i o n A n i o n Name Exam 3 Page 1 AQUEUS SLUTINS 1. (8 points) Names, formulas, and water-solubility of compounds. N a m e F o r m u l a Soluble in Water? Ammonium chloride N H 4 C l y e s C u ( H N i ( N 3 Iron(III)

More information

INSTRUCTIONS Please complete this assessment on your own. Answer each item by clicking on the correct choice, then go on to the next item.!

INSTRUCTIONS Please complete this assessment on your own. Answer each item by clicking on the correct choice, then go on to the next item.! Matter Test 1 INSTRUCTIONS Please complete this assessment on your own. Answer each item by clicking on the correct choice, then go on to the next item. 1) The process that includes energy supplied by

More information

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Science Junior Cert Quick Notes

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Science Junior Cert Quick Notes Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Science Junior Cert Quick Notes Elements, Compounds and Mixtures CHEMISTRY The world is made up of a variety of substances. Some of these occur naturally in our environment,

More information

Pre GCSE assessment 1 practice questions Chemistry

Pre GCSE assessment 1 practice questions Chemistry Pre GCSE assessment practice questions Chemistry High Storrs School Q.Magnesium burns in oxygen. By Kingsway School [CC BY 2.0],via Flickr Use the Chemistry Data Sheet to help you to answer this question.

More information

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS 35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product

More information

Chapter 6, Lesson 3: Forming a Precipitate

Chapter 6, Lesson 3: Forming a Precipitate Chapter 6, Lesson 3: Forming a Precipitate Key Concepts The ions or molecules in two solutions can react to form a solid. A solid formed from two solutions is called a precipitate. Summary Students will

More information

Net Ionic Equations Making Sense of Chemical Reactions

Net Ionic Equations Making Sense of Chemical Reactions 14 Making Sense of Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVE Students will be able to write net ionic equations from balanced molecular equations. LEVEL Chemistry NATIONAL STANDARDS UCP.1, UCP.2, B.3 T E A C H E R

More information