I. Geography of the Colonies (Chapter 6 Core Lesson 1)

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1 Social Studies Chapter 6 New England Colonies Social Studies Tennessee United States: The Early Years Fourth Grade: Mr. Wilson s Class, New Market Elementary School Houghton Mifflin Publishing I. Geography of the Colonies (Chapter 6 Core Lesson 1) A. The Thirteen Colonies 1. In the 1600 s-1700 s, English settlers moved to North America. 2. They established the thirteen English colonies on the banks of the Atlantic Ocean. 3. French settlers established New France. 4. Spain claimed Florida. 5. The geography, climate, and culture of the colonies separated them into three regions: New England, the Middle Colonies, and the Southern Colonies. B. New England 1. New England s geography was shaped by glaciers. 2. During the Ice Age, the glaciers scraped up the rich soil and pushed it south, leaving only a thin, rocky layer of dirt. 3. Farming was difficult in New England because most of the land was filled with rocks or was too sandy. 4. The region s many forests and rugged mountains made it hard to find good farmland. 5. Summers were warm, but winters were long and cold. 6. The growing season was short, lasting from late May to early October. 7. An abundance of natural resources made living in New England a bit more easier. Wood was used to build houses and ships. Fish and whales were used food and other products. 8. The following colonies made up the New England Colonies: a. New Hampshire/Maine b. Massachusetts c. Rhode Island d. Connecticut C. The Middle Colonies 1. The glaciers that scooped up soil from Nrew England stopped in the Middle Colonies. As the glaciers melted, they deposited fertile soil on the hills and valleys. 2. Crops grew well in the Middle Colonies due to the fertile soil. 3. The growing season was longer. 4. The Middle Colonies had many sunny days and plenty of rain. 5. The region s wild rivers, such as the Delaware and Hudson, were used to transport goods and services. 6. Farmers used riverboats to sell their crops and bring supplies back to their

2 farms. 7. The following colonies made up the Middle Colonies: a. New York b. Pennsylvania c. New Jersey d. Delaware D. The Southern Colonies 1. The geography of the Southern Colonies was very different from the Middle and New England Colonies. 2. The southern coast is a watery world of rivers, bays, and wetlands. This area is called the tidewater. 3. The climatre and soil of the tidewater were excellent for farming. 4. The Southern Colonies grow several cash crops. 5. The following colonies made up the Southern Colonies: a. Maryland b. Virginia c. North Carolina d. South Carolina e. Georgia II. New England (Chapter 6 Core Lesson 2) A. Massachusetts 1. The Puritans were English colonists who settled in New England in the 1600 s. 2. They wanted to establish communities where they could follow the rules of the Bible and serve their God. 3. Puritan religion shaped the government of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 4. Usually, only the male church members could take part in town government. 5. Town leaders made laws to control how people worshipped. 6. On Sundays, the town gathered at the town meeting house for church. 7. The meeting house was the most important building in a Puritan community. 8. A town meeting was held once a year at the meeting house. 9. Everyone was allowed to attend the town meeting; however, only men who owned property could vote. B. Rhode Island 1. Some colonists believed that Puritan leaders should not tell them how to believe or how to act. These colonists were called dissenters. 2. A dissenter is a person who does not agree with the beliefs of his/her leaders. 3. Roger Williams was a dissenter who wanted more religious freedom. 4. Williams believed that government should not make laws about religion.

3 5. The Puritan leaders banished Williams from Massachusetts. Banish means to force someone to leave. 6. In 1636, Williams founded a new colony called Rhode Island. 7. People could worship freely. 8. The first idea of separation of church and state was practiced in Rhode Island. 9. Anne Hutchinson was another Puritan who was criticized by the Puritan church leaders. 10. Hutchinson held meetings where men and women talked about religion. Remember, back in those days, men were only allowed to discuss religious matters in the church, so the Puritan leaders banished Anne Hutchinson from Massachusetts. 11. Hutchinson moved to Rhode Island. C. Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Maine 1. A minister named Thomas Hooker also did not like some of the Puritan laws. 2. He wanted to form a new community where ALL men could vote, even if they were not church members. 3. In 1636, Hooker led about 100 colonists west, where they founded the town of Hartford. 4. They named this new colony Connecticut. 5. Other colonists from Massachusetts Bay moved north and settled the area that later became New Hampshire and Maine. D. Conflicts Over Land 1. The New England Colonies were founded on American Indian lands. 2. There were disagreements between the Indians and the colonists on who owned the land. 3. American Indians believed that no one could truly own the land. 4. When the Indians sold the land to the colonists, they thought it was an agreement to share the land. 5. Colonists thought the Indians should move from the land, after they sold it. 6. In the 1630 s a war broke out between the colonists and the Pequot (Pee kwat) Indians. 7. This conflict became known as the Pequot War, and was ended when the colonists killed most of the Pequot Indians, and enslaved the surviving tribe members. 8. Metacomet (MEHT-uh-kah-meht) was a leader of the Wampanoag (wahmpah-noh-ahg) nation. 9. He wanted to avoid war, but he believed his people would have to fight for their land. 10. In 1675, Metacomet, to which the colonists called King Philip, attacked Massachusetts villages. 11. The battles that spread across New England became known as King Philip s

4 War. 12. The colonists had better weapons and more men than Metacomet s army. 13. In 1676, Metacomet was defeated, and most of his men were enslaved. III. Life In New England (Chapter 6 Core Lesson 3) A. Using the Sea 1. Most people in New England were farmers. 2. Because farming was so difficult in New England, some colonists looked for other ways to earn a living. 3. New England s geography, being right there on the Atlantic coast made it an ideal place to make a living from the sea. 4. The rocky coasts made good harbors, and the thick forests provided wood to build ships. 5. The rivers also had rivers, like the Charles and Mystic Rivers. Colonists used the rivers to ship wood and other goods from places inland to ports along the coast. B. Shipbuilding, Fishing, and Whaling 1. Boston, Massachusetts became a center for New England s shipbuilding industry. 2. Many people made a living by catching fish from the Atlantic Ocean. 3. The most common fish was cod, which was exported to Europe and the West Indies. 4. Sailors also hunted whales. 5. Colonists used whales to make products such as oil for lamps. 6. By the late 1700 s, whaling was one of the region s most important industries. C. The Triangular Trade 1. New England merchants shipped goods such as fish and lumber to Europe, Africa, and the West Indies 2. They traded these goods for imports to bring back to the colonies. 3. Ships from Europe carried imports, such as teas and spices, to sell in the colonies. 4. The shipping routes between North America, Europe, and Africa formed an imaginary triangle across the Atlantic Ocean. 5. Many of New England s merchants and traders became rich from this trade. D. Slavery 1. Some traders in the triangular trade made money by selling human-beings. 2. In Africa, traders captured and bought enslaved men, women, and children. 3. They were chained and placed in filthy, crowded ships for the Middle Passage. 4. The Middle Passage was the voyage from Africa to the West Indies.

5 5. Many Africans died of disease or hunger along the way. 6. Olaudah Equiano who was enslaved as a boy, survived the Middle Passage, and later wrote about his horrific journey. 7. Those that survived the voyage was sold to the colonists in New England. 8. In the s, hundreds of thousands of Africans were brought to the colonies in the slave trade. 9. The slave trade was the business of buying and selling human-beings. E. Home and Community Life 1. New England families were large, often with 6-7 children. 2. They lived in small wooden houses with few rooms or winders. 3. Most light came from candles and lamps. 4. Many homes had one room with a large fireplace. A cooking fire was kept burning at all times. 5. At night, families slept on mattresses near the fire to keep warm. 6. Wealthier families may have a second story or a loft for sleeping. F. Work in the Home 1. Almost everything needed by a family was made or grown by hand at home. 2. Men and boys spent most of their time working in the fields. 3. They planted corn and wheat in the spring and harvested them in the fall. 4. They built and repaired buildings and tools and cared for the animals. 5. Colonial women and girls spent much of their time preparing and preserving food. 6. They made household items such as clothing, soap, and candles. 7. During the planting and harvest seasons, the women and girls would help in the fields with the men and boys. G. Education and Recreation 1. Puritans wanted everyone to be able to read the Bible. 2. Some parents taught their children how to read and write, but many New England towns had schools. 3. In 1647, Massachusetts passed a law that said any town with 50 or more families had to build a school to teach reading and writing. 4. Older boys could go on to study at colleges such as Harvard College in Massachusetts. 5. Harvard was founded in 1636, and was the first college in the 13 colonies. 6. For spring, summer, and fall recreation, colonists would play sports such as horseracing and bowling. 7. For winter recreation, they went ice skating and skiing. H. The Great Awakening 1. Religion was a central part of New England life, but by the early 1700 s, the church had become less powerful.

6 2. Many colonists did not share the strong beliefs of their parents. 3. In the 1730 s Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield set out to minister to the colonists. Their sermons convinced people to make religion a more important part of their lives. 4. This movement became known as the Great Awakening because people felt if they were waking up with new faith. 5. During the Great Awakening, new churches developed throughout the colonies. 6. Many people joined these Protestant congregations, and some even allowed women, African Americans, and American Indians join. 7. As the Great Awakening spread, people all over the colonies began to question their religious keaders and place more trust in their own beliefs.

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