Woolooware High School YEAR 7 EGYPT HOMEWORK NAME: CLASS: TEACHER: HOMEWORK #

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1 Woolooware High School YEAR 7 EGYPT HOMEWORK NAME: CLASS: TEACHER: HOMEWORK #

2 H0MEWORK # I THE RIVER NILE The river Nile is one of the world's great rivers. It begins its long journey in Africa, as two separate rivers; the Blue Nile, which starts in the Ethiopian mountains, and the White Nile, which starts in central Africa around Lake Victoria. The two join to become the Nile in Sudan. It is one of the longest rivers in the world, flowing 6,400 km from the high mountains in Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. Each summer when heavy rains fall in the African Highlands, the river Nile becomes to full of water that it overflows its banks and floods the land on either side. The floods are a great blessing for the Egyptian people because when the water goes down, the fields on either side of the river are covered with a thick layer of rich, black mud that produces very good crops. Ancient Egyptian civilisation developed in the delta (an area of land made by deposits of sand and dirt and stones left at the mouth of a river) and the valley regions of the Nile River, isolated and protected by vast deserts on either side. The Nile River was the 'backbone' of Egypt, the fertile area never more than 20 kilometres wide. As a result of the floods, the Egyptians generally had enough food and did not have to spend all their time hunting animals and gathering berries. Instead, they had spare time in which to learn new skills like building, working metal and studying such things as the stars. It was their study of the stars that allowed the Egyptians to predict the flooding of the Nile. Knowing this allowed them to evacuate the area and prepare for the new planting season. They took understanding the Nile a step further with the invention of the Nilometre. This invention was a series of cuts in a rock near the Nile, which, depending on the level of the water, would tell the Ancient Egyptians whether they would have a good crop that year. A picture of one type of nilometre

3 QUESTIONS: 1. Why did the Egyptians live mostly around the Nile River? 2. How long is the Nile River? 3. Why does the river flood each year? 4. Why is the flooding of the river a good thing? 5. What does the Nile River flow into? 6. Answer true or false to the following: a) The flood waters left a rich supply of mud behind. True _ False _ b) The Nilometre measured distance. True _ False _ c) Most Egyptians lived in the desert away from the Nile. True _ False _ d) The Nile flooded in the summer months. True _ False _ 7. List five animals you think would have lived in or around the Nile River. 8. Use the information in the text and knowledge you have gained in class to write a paragraph on the following question: In what ways was the Nile the life source of the ancient Egyptians?

4 HOMEWORK #2 THE PHARAOH Ancient Egypt was ruled by powerful kings, called Pharaohs (meaning (great house'). The first pharaoh was Menes, who united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt in about 3200BC. All the pharaohs after Menes lived lives of great magnificence in fine palaces surrounded by guards and servants. They were extremely wealthy because they owned large estates and they could afford to build large temples and tombs. " Pharaohs came to power by succession: the pharaoh passed the right to rule Egypt to his son. The ruler was usually male, although several women ruled Egypt. They inherited power because they were the sister, wife or mother of the pharaoh. The ancient Egyptians thought of the Pharaoh in two ways. He was both king and god. People believed he was descended from Re, the sun god, and that he was inhabited by the spirit of the god Horus (the falcon-headed god). As a result of these beliefs, the pharaoh had many duties to fulfil: He had to receive ambassadors and tribute from other nations, oversee his building projects, go out hunting to prove his power and might, listen to his ministers advice, make new laws and make sure there was enough food for the people and that they were protected against attack. Of course Pharaoh had many servants and officials to help him. The Pharoah wore many types of crown depending on the occasion. He wore a war crown when at war, a state crown when in court and so on. The most often worn crown was the double crown of Egypt. The white crown represented Upper Eygpt while the red crown represented Lower Egypt. Placed together they reminded the Egyptians that the Pharaoh ruled both parts of the kingdom. (b) The Nemes- a soft headcloth usually made of linen (c) The Khepresh - the Blue War Crown worn when the Egyptian pharaoh went to war as the head of the army, used from the 18th Dynasty onwards (a) The Hemhemet Crown - a ceremonial crown featuring papyrus bundles and sun discs, this crown was rarely worn (d) The White Crown the symbol of power over Upper Egypt (e) The Red Crown the symbol of power over Lower Egypt (f) The Double Crown the symbol of power over the Two Lands

5 THREE LEVEL GUIDE - PHARAOH Once you have read the passage on ancient Egypt s Pharaohs answer true or false to the following questions. For part B and C, write a reason for your answer. A) Factual: 1) The ruler of Egypt was called a pharaoh. 2) The Pharaoh almost never left his palace. 3) The Pharaoh had many assistants to help him run Egypt. 4) The Pharaoh had many different types of crowns, but he hardly ever wore one. B) Deductive: 1) Pharaohs held such great power due to their great wealth. 2) Due to the fact that Egyptians thought of their Pharaoh as a god, they could never disobey him. 3) We can tell Egyptians were a very religious people because they believed that their Pharoah was a living version of the god Horus. 4) The combination of the red crown of Lower Egypt and the white crown of Upper Egypt shows that the Pharaoh ruled a united Egypt. C) Hypothetical: 1) If the first Pharaoh, Menes, had not united Egypt, the pyramids may never have been built. 2) Egypt was such a great civilisation due to the fact that the Pharaoh ruled with the wisdom of the god Horus.

6 HOMEWORK #3 SOCIAL HIERARCHY 1. Study the flow chart in source A and then answer the questions: a) In which areas of government did scribes work? b) The Pharaoh had several officials who helped to organise his government. Who controlled: i) Politics? ii) Religion? iii) The army? c) Which group of people were on the lowest level of Egyptian society? Read source B and then answer the following questions in full sentences. a) List the personal characteristics a vizier should display. b) How would these characteristics help him to do his job? Write out some quotes from the source to support your answer. See next page for Source A & B

7 Source A Source B Slaves Scribes Peasants Superintendents of public works and village mayors Scribes Unskilled labourers Gov ernment minist ers and nomarchs Priests Political Skilled labourers/artisans Vizier Religious Chief priests Bureaucracy The pharaoh s government included: Queen Pharaoh DO NOT BECOME VAIN DESPITE ALL YOUR KNOWLEDGE. DO NOT BECOME OVERCONFIDENT BECAUSE OF YOUR WISDOM. LISTEN TO THE IGNORANT AS WELL AS THE WISE. IF YOU ARE IN CONTROL OF LARGE NUMBERS BE GOOD, THEN YOU CANNOT BE ACCUSED OF WRONG. BE JUST FOR JUSTICE IS IMPORTANT AND EVERLASTING. PUNISHMENT WILL COME TO THOSE WHO IGNORE PHARAOH S LAW. IF YOU BE A GUEST AT THE PHARAOH S TABLE, TAKE WHAT IS GIVEN TO YOU. KEEP YOUR FACE DOWN UNTIL HE ADDRESSES YOU. SPEAK ONLY WHEN HE ASKS YOU TO DO SO. LAUGH WHEN HE LAUGHS. THUS YOU WILL PLEASE HIM. CARRY OUT ANY ERRAND THE PHARAOH GIVES YOU. DO NOT FORGET THE INSTRUCTIONS. WHEN YOU ARE HEARING A PETITION KEEP SILENT AS THE PETITIONER SPEAKS. DO NOT SCOLD HIM BEFORE HE HAS SAID WHAT HE HAS COME TO SAY. THE PETITIONER IS MORE INTERESTED IN BEING HEARD THAN IN HAVING HIS PETITION FULFILLED. A GOOD HEARING WILL SOOTH HIS HEART EVEN IF HE DOES NOT RECEIVE EVERYTHING HE WANTS. Military Generals Officers Scribes Soldiers How to be a good vizier instructions given to Ptah Hotep. c BC

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