Femtosecond Laser Micromachining

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Femtosecond Laser Micromachining"

Transcription

1 Femtosecond Laser Micromachining 02/03/2010 Spring 2010 MSE503 Seminar Deepak Rajput Center for Laser Applications University of Tennessee Space Institute Tullahoma, Tennessee Web: 1of xx

2 Outline Introduction Laser micromachining Femtosecond laser micromachining (FLM) UTSI research Summary 2of xx 2

3 Introduction Laser: Theodore Maiman (1960) Laser micromachining: cutting, drilling, welding, or other modification in order to achieve small features. Laser micromachining of materials: Automotive and machine tools Aerospace Microelectronics Biological devices 3of xx 3

4 Introduction Laser micromachining: Direct writing Mask projection Interference Direct writing: desired pattern fabricated by translating either the sample or the substrate. Mask projection: A given feature on a mask is illuminated, which is projected on the substrate. Interference: Split the primary beam into two beams, which are superimposed in order to create a pattern. The interference pattern is projected on the substrate and the micromachined pattern corresponds with the intensity profile of the pattern. 4 4of xx

5 Direct Writing Reference: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 127, Issue 2, Pages of xx 5

6 Mask Projection Reference: Dahotre and Harimkar, Laser Fabrication and Machining of Materials (New York: Springer 2008) 6of xx 6

7 7of xx Interference Reference: Dahotre and Harimkar, Laser Fabrication and Machining of Materials (New York: Springer 2008) ( ) 2 / 2sin 1 2 cos 2 ) ( θ λ π = + = l l x I x I o Intensity distribution: 0 to 4I o

8 Combined Techniques Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) + Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) = ablation + etching The setup involves the coupling of the laser light into the tip of solid or hollow fiber. Laser Induced Nano Patterning = interference subpatterns generated by microspheres. A regular two-dimensional array of microspheres acts as an array of microlenses. 8of xx 8

9 Combined Techniques SNOM arrangement for nanopatterning Reference: Dahotre and Harimkar, Laser Fabrication and Machining of Materials (New York: Springer 2008) 9of xx 9

10 Combined Techniques Laser-induced surface patterning by means of microspheres Reference: Appl. Phys. A. 76, 1-3 (2003) of xx

11 Laser Micromachining Laser beam: Continuous wave mode (CW) Pulsed mode CW: output constant with time Pulsed: output is concentrated in small pulses Laser micromachining requirement: minimize the heat transport to the region immediately adjacent to the micromachined region. Laser micromachining is often carried out by using pulsed laser, which delivers high energy at short time scales and minimizes heat flow to surrounding material of xx

12 Laser Micromachining Types of lasers used: Infrared to Ultraviolet Excimer lasers: 157, 193, 248, 308, or 351 nm wavelength depending on the composition of the gas in the cavity. Most materials absorb UV wavelengths. Hence, they provide both low machining rates and high machining precision. Diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers Nd:YAG DPSS: 355 nm (3 rd harmonic) and 266 nm (4 th harmonic) Ti:sapphire solid state lasers (700 nm 1100 nm) CO 2 gas lasers (10,600 nm): limited roles (low operating costs and high throughput) because of spot size limitation (50-75 micrometers) of xx

13 Laser Micromachining Laser-material interaction leading to ablation. Material removal occurs when the absorbed energy is more than the binding energy of the substrate material. Energy transfer mechanism depends on material properties and laser properties. Absorption: Thermal or/and Photochemical processes of xx

14 Absorption Mechanism Thermal Ablation Commonly observed with long wavelength and continuous wave (CW) lasers e.g., CO 2 lasers. Absorption of laser energy causes rapid heating, which results in melting and/or vaporization of the material. May be associated with a large heat-affected zone. Photochemical Ablation Commonly observed with short wavelength and pulsed lasers. Occurs when the laser photon energy is greater than the bond energy of the substrate material. Vaporization occurs due to bond-dissociation due to photon absorption. Thermal effects do not play a significant role of xx

15 Factors Affecting Laser Ablation Laser ablation demonstrates threshold behavior in that ablation takes above certain fluence level. The threshold is a function of laser properties and substrate material properties. Laser properties: laser fluence, wavelength, peak power. Material properties: optical (absorption) and thermal (diffusivity) properties. Pulse duration affects the heat-affected zone of xx

16 Femtosecond Laser Machining (FLM) Exhibit extremely large peak power values. Laser material interaction in femtosecond lasers is fundamentally different than that in long wavelength lasers. Induces nonlinear effects (e.g., multiphoton absorption). MPA: The simultaneous absorption of two or more photons can provide sufficient energy to cleave strong bonds. As a result, relatively long wavelength lasers with femtosecond pulse widths can be used to machine materials that are otherwise difficult to machine of xx

17 Femtosecond Laser Micromachining First demonstrated in 1994 by Du et al followed by Pronko et al in 1995 to ablate micrometer sized features. The resolution since then has improved to machine nanometer sized features. Advantages of femtosecond laser micromachining (FLM): The nonlinear absorption induces changes to the focal volume. The absorption process is independent of the material. Fabrication of an optical motherboard by bonding several photonic devices to a single transparent substrate of xx

18 FLM: Physical Mechanisms Results from laser-induced optical breakdown. Laser-induced optical breakdown: Transfer of optical energy to the material by ionizing a large number of electrons that, in turn, transfer energy to the lattice. As a result of the irradiation, the material can undergo a phase or structural modification, leaving behind a localized permanent change in the refractive index or even a void. Absorption: the absorption of light in a transparent material must be nonlinear because there are no allowed electronic transitions at the energy of the incident photon of xx

19 FLM: Physical Mechanisms For such nonlinear absorption to occur, the electric-field strength in the laser pulse must be approximately equal to the electric field that binds the valence electrons in the atoms of the order of 10 9 V/m, corresponding to a laser intensity of 5 x W/m 2. To achieve such electric-field strengths with a laser pulse, high intensities and tight focusing are required. Example: a 1-microJoule, 100 femtosecond pulse focused to a spot size of 16 micrometers of xx

20 FLM: Physical Mechanisms Laser-induced optical breakdown of xx MSE503 Materials Science Seminar Spring 2010

21 FLM: Physical Mechanisms The laser pulse transfers energy to the electrons through nonlinear ionization. For pulse durations greater than 10 femtoseconds, the nonlinearly excited electrons are further excited through phonon-mediated linear absorption. When they acquire enough kinetic energy, they can excite other bound electrons Avalanche ionization. When the density of excited electrons reaches about /m 3, the electrons behave as a plasma with a natural frequency that is resonant with the laser leading to reflection and absorption of the remaining pulse energy of xx

22 FLM: Physical Mechanisms Sub-picosecond: absorption, ionization, and scattering events Nanosecond: pressure or shock wave propagation Microsecond: thermal energy propagation Reference: Gattass RR and Mazur E, Nature Photonics, Vol 2, , of xx

23 FLM: Physical Mechanisms For pulses of subpicosecond duration, the timescale over which the electrons are excited is smaller than the electron-phonon scattering time (about 1 picosecond). Thus, a femtosecond laser pulse ends before the electrons thermally excite any ions. Reduces heat affected region Increases the precision of the method. FLM: deterministic process because no defect electrons are needed to seed the absorption process. The confinement and repeatability of the nonlinear excitation make it possible for practical purposes of xx

24 Bulk Damage If the absorption is purely nonlinear, the laser intensity required to induce a permanent change will depend nonlinearly on the bandgap of the substrate material. Because the bandgap energy varies from material to material, the nonlinear absorption would vary a lot. However, the threshold intensity required to damage a material is found to vary only very slightly with the bandgap energy, indicating the importance of avalanche ionization, which depends linearly on I. Because of this low dependence on the bandgap energy, femtosecond laser micromachining can be used in a broad range of materials of xx

25 Applications Waveguides Active devices Filters and resonators Polymerization Nanosurgery Material processing Microfluidic devices Rapid prototyping of xx

26 FLM at the UT Space Institute Single-pulse ultrafast-laser machining of high aspect nano-holes at the surface of SiO 2 Volume 16, No. 19, Optics Express, PP White Y., Li X., Sikorski Z., Davis L.M., Hofmeister W of xx

27 FLM at the UT Space Institute Experimental Set-up Ti-sapphire laser: Center wavelength: 800 nm Repetition rate: 250 khz Pulse width: 200 femtosecond (FWHM) Average power of 1 W. Objective lens (dry): Numerical Aperture: 0.85 Working distance: mm Correction collar to adjust for spherical aberration Fused silica (200 micrometers) of refractive index at 800 nm Piezoelectric nanostage with 200 micrometers range of motion of xx

28 Single Pulse Nano-holes 1.2 μj 1.6 μj 2.4 μj 1.2 μj Nano-holes machined by single laser pulses at different energies of xx

29 Single Pulse Nano-holes Dependence of nano-hole diameter at the surface on the pulse energy of xx MSE503 Materials Science Seminar Spring 2010

30 Single Pulse Nano-holes Depth analysis Conventional technique: Atomic Force Microscopy Problems in obtain signal from the bottom of a nanometer sized, high-aspect ratio feature. Techniques used: Replication method DualBeam TM SEM/FIB (CNMS, ORNL) Replication method: fast, non-destructive, and inexpensive. Used a cellulose-based acetate films (35 micrometer) of xx

31 Single Pulse Nano-holes Replication method Nano-holes machined with laser pulse energy of 1.6 μj of xx MSE503 Materials Science Seminar Spring 2010

32 Single Pulse Nano-holes Replication method Nano-holes machined with laser pulse energy of 2 μj of xx MSE503 Materials Science Seminar Spring 2010

33 Single Pulse Nano-holes Dependence of hole depth (by replication) on the pulse energy of xx MSE503 Materials Science Seminar Spring 2010

34 Single Pulse Nano-holes Dependence of aspect ratio (by replication) on the pulse energy of xx MSE503 Materials Science Seminar Spring 2010

35 Single Pulse Nano-holes DualBeam TM SEM/FIB Schematics of the DualBeam TM SEM/FIB tool of xx MSE503 Materials Science Seminar Spring 2010

36 Single Pulse Nano-holes DualBeam TM SEM/FIB Scope image inside the chamber of the tool of xx MSE503 Materials Science Seminar Spring 2010

37 Single Pulse Nano-holes DualBeam TM SEM/FIB SEM image of the sectioned nano-holes in the trench at zero degree of xx

38 Single Pulse Nano-holes DualBeam TM SEM/FIB View of the trench after 90 o rotation and 25 o tilt AB = AC/tan52 o = 0.78 AC of xx

39 Single Pulse Nano-holes Nano-hole #1 #2 #3 #4 AC (μm) AB (μm) The FIB sectioning confirmed that the replication technique does not overestimate the depth of the holes. In fact, the replication technique most probably underestimates the depths. It might be due to the difficulty of the polymer to reach the bottom of the nano-hole and/or distortion of the acetate nanowires during gold coating of xx

40 Single Pulse Nano-holes DualBeam TM SEM/FIB SEM image at 52-degree tilt of FIB cross-sectioned nano-hole of xx

41 Summary Femtosecond lasers enable direct writing of nanoscale features. FLM can be used to fabricate fluidic and photonic components Focusing the femtosecond laser pulse with a high numerical aperture with spherical aberration is the key to produce high aspect ratio features. Self-focusing due to Kerr nonlinearity is also expected. The fabrication of high aspect ratio nano-holes demonstrated of xx

42 Thanks! 42 of xx MSE503 Materials Science Seminar Spring 2010

What is Laser Ablation? Mass removal by coupling laser energy to a target material

What is Laser Ablation? Mass removal by coupling laser energy to a target material Laser Ablation Fundamentals & Applications Samuel S. Mao Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California at Berkeley Advanced Energy Technology Department March 1, 25 Laser Ablation What

More information

Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications Saulius Marcinkevičius Optics, ICT, KTH 1 Outline Optical near field. Principle of scanning near field optical microscope

More information

Laser Based Micro and Nanoscale Manufacturing and Materials Processing

Laser Based Micro and Nanoscale Manufacturing and Materials Processing Laser Based Micro and Nanoscale Manufacturing and Materials Processing Faculty: Prof. Xianfan Xu Email: xxu@ecn.purdue.edu Phone: (765) 494-5639 http://widget.ecn.purdue.edu/~xxu Research Areas: Development

More information

Ultrashort pulse laser processing current industrial applications and beyond

Ultrashort pulse laser processing current industrial applications and beyond Ultrashort pulse laser processing current industrial applications and beyond Stefan Nolte Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Albert-Einstein-Str.

More information

Micro machining of Metals, Ceramics, Silicon and Polymers Using Nanosecond Lasers

Micro machining of Metals, Ceramics, Silicon and Polymers Using Nanosecond Lasers Micro machining of Metals, Ceramics, Silicon and Polymers Using Nanosecond Lasers Rajani Pragada 1, M. Vijay Kumar 2, Prasanna Gangaraju 3 1 1V/IV B.Tech, 2 Asst. Prof, Mechanical engineering, KL University

More information

High power picosecond lasers enable higher efficiency solar cells.

High power picosecond lasers enable higher efficiency solar cells. White Paper High power picosecond lasers enable higher efficiency solar cells. The combination of high peak power and short wavelength of the latest industrial grade Talisker laser enables higher efficiency

More information

High Power Laser Assemblies

High Power Laser Assemblies Fiberguide s High Power Assemblies use our High Power SMA and High Power Industrial FD-80 connectors to provide a fiber optic link between the laser source and the target. These are ideal for laser cutting,

More information

Femtosecond laser-induced silicon surface morphology in water confinement

Femtosecond laser-induced silicon surface morphology in water confinement Microsyst Technol (2009) 15:1045 1049 DOI 10.1007/s00542-009-0880-8 TECHNICAL PAPER Femtosecond laser-induced silicon surface morphology in water confinement Yukun Han Æ Cheng-Hsiang Lin Æ Hai Xiao Æ Hai-Lung

More information

Experimental and theoretical study of the laser micromachining of glass using a high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser

Experimental and theoretical study of the laser micromachining of glass using a high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser Experimental and theoretical study of the laser micromachining of glass using a high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser Yuri Yashkir a*, Qiang Liu a a Institute for Optical Sciences, 60 St. George Street,

More information

Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics

Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics Photonics Technical Note # 21 Fiber Optics Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics Optical fibers are circular dielectric wave-guides that can transport optical energy and information. They have a central core surrounded

More information

The Creation of Micropatterns through the Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Diamond Materials

The Creation of Micropatterns through the Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Diamond Materials University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange Masters Theses Graduate School 8-2009 The Creation of Micropatterns through the Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Diamond

More information

Thresholds for femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in bulk transparent solids and water

Thresholds for femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in bulk transparent solids and water Thresholds for femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in bulk transparent solids and water Chris B. Schaffer, Nozomi Nishimura, and Eric Mazur * Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA 02138

More information

Ti:Sapphire Lasers. Tyler Bowman. April 23, 2015

Ti:Sapphire Lasers. Tyler Bowman. April 23, 2015 Ti:Sapphire Lasers Tyler Bowman April 23, 2015 Introduction Ti:Sapphire lasers are a solid state laser group based on using titanium-doped sapphire (Ti:Al 2O 3) plates as a gain medium. These lasers are

More information

5. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy 5.1. Resolution of conventional optical microscopy

5. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy 5.1. Resolution of conventional optical microscopy 5. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy 5.1. Resolution of conventional optical microscopy Resolution of optical microscope is limited by diffraction. Light going through an aperture makes diffraction

More information

Self-Guided Intense Laser Pulse Propagation in Air

Self-Guided Intense Laser Pulse Propagation in Air Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, 2000, v.6, No, 2-26 Self-Guided Intense Laser Pulse Propagation in Air R. Danielius, D. Mikalauskas, A. Dubietis and A. Piskarskas Department of Quantum Electronics,

More information

Advanced Laser Microfabrication in High Volume Manufacturing

Advanced Laser Microfabrication in High Volume Manufacturing Advanced Laser Microfabrication in High Volume Manufacturing IPG Photonics Microsystems Division 220 Hackett Hill Road, Manchester NH, 03102USA E-mail: jbickley@ipgphotonics.com There is increased interest

More information

Near-field scanning optical microscopy (SNOM)

Near-field scanning optical microscopy (SNOM) Adviser: dr. Maja Remškar Institut Jožef Stefan January 2010 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fluorescence Raman and surface enhanced Raman 7 Conventional optical microscopy-limited resolution Two broad classes of techniques

More information

Ultrafast Short Pulse Laser Material Processing of Aerospace Materials

Ultrafast Short Pulse Laser Material Processing of Aerospace Materials Ultrafast Short Pulse Laser Material Processing of Aerospace Materials P.W. French 1, J. Clowes 2, W. Perrie 4, M. Sharp 1, J.Cheng 3, D. Homes 1, L. Mellor 3, K.G. Watkins 3 1 Lairdside, Cambeltown Rd,

More information

Micromachining with UV Laser Markers

Micromachining with UV Laser Markers White Paper Micromachining with UV Laser Markers David Gillen, Blueacre Technology David Gillen, Blueacre Technology Laser Marking technology has come a long way from simply identifying parts with logos

More information

Pulsed laser deposition of organic materials

Pulsed laser deposition of organic materials Pulsed laser deposition of organic materials PhD theses Gabriella Kecskeméti Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics University of Szeged Supervisor: Dr. Béla Hopp senior research fellow Department

More information

The Fiber Laser Advantage

The Fiber Laser Advantage The Fiber Laser Advantage White Paper PN 200-0200-00 Revision 1.1 January 2009 Calmar Laser, Inc www.calmarlaser.com Overview With the fiber optics revolution for telecommunications in the 1980s, fiber

More information

Holographically corrected microscope with a large working distance (as appears in Applied Optics, Vol. 37, No. 10, 1849-1853, 1 April 1998)

Holographically corrected microscope with a large working distance (as appears in Applied Optics, Vol. 37, No. 10, 1849-1853, 1 April 1998) Holographically corrected microscope with a large working distance (as appears in Applied Optics, Vol. 37, No. 10, 1849-1853, 1 April 1998) Geoff Andersen and R. J. Knize Laser and Optics Research Center

More information

Self assembled nanoparticle aggregates from line focused femtosecond laser ablation

Self assembled nanoparticle aggregates from line focused femtosecond laser ablation Self assembled nanoparticle aggregates from line focused femtosecond laser ablation Craig A. Zuhlke, Dennis R. Alexander*, John C. Bruce III, Natale J. Ianno, Chad A. Kamler, and Weiqing Yang Department

More information

It has long been a goal to achieve higher spatial resolution in optical imaging and

It has long been a goal to achieve higher spatial resolution in optical imaging and Nano-optical Imaging using Scattering Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy Fehmi Yasin, Advisor: Dr. Markus Raschke, Post-doc: Dr. Gregory Andreev, Graduate Student: Benjamin Pollard Department of Physics,

More information

HIGH-POWER, NANOSECOND-PULSE Q-SWITCH LASER TECHNOLOGY WITH FLATTOP BEAM-SHAPING TECHNIQUE FOR EFFICIENT INDUSTRIAL LASER PROCESSING Paper #1286

HIGH-POWER, NANOSECOND-PULSE Q-SWITCH LASER TECHNOLOGY WITH FLATTOP BEAM-SHAPING TECHNIQUE FOR EFFICIENT INDUSTRIAL LASER PROCESSING Paper #1286 HIGH-POWER, NANOSECOND-PULSE Q-SWITCH LASER TECHNOLOGY WITH FLATTOP BEAM-SHAPING TECHNIQUE FOR EFFICIENT INDUSTRIAL LASER PROCESSING Paper #1286 Jim Bovatsek and Rajesh S. Patel Spectra Physics, a division

More information

Laser-induced microexplosions in transparent materials: microstructuring with nanojoules

Laser-induced microexplosions in transparent materials: microstructuring with nanojoules Laser-induced microexplosions in transparent materials: microstructuring with nanojoules Chris B. Schaffer, André Brodeur, Nozomi Nishimura, and Eric Mazur * Harvard University, Department of Physics and

More information

1156 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 35, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999

1156 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 35, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999 1156 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 35, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999 Laser-Induced Plasma Formation in Water at Nanosecond to Femtosecond Time Scales: Calculation of Thresholds, Absorption Coefficients,

More information

Short Pulsed & Ultrafast Laser Applications for Enhanced Fuel Economy

Short Pulsed & Ultrafast Laser Applications for Enhanced Fuel Economy Short Pulsed & Ultrafast Laser Applications for Enhanced Fuel Economy Lasers in Automotive Technical Symposium September 19, 2013 Sascha Weiler TRUMPF Inc., Farmington CT The Power of Choice for Laser

More information

LASER TRANSMISSION MICROJOINING TECHNOLOGY FOR PACKAGING OF MEMS

LASER TRANSMISSION MICROJOINING TECHNOLOGY FOR PACKAGING OF MEMS MICROMANUFACTURING 2009, APRIL 1-2, MINNEAPOLIS, MN LASER TRANSMISSION MICROJOINING TECHNOLOGY FOR PACKAGING OF MEMS R. Patwa 1, H. J. Herfurth 1, S. Heinemann 1, Golam Newaz 2 1 Fraunhofer USA, Center

More information

Development of MEMS micromirrors for intracavity laser control

Development of MEMS micromirrors for intracavity laser control Development of MEMS micromirrors for intracavity laser control Walter Lubeigt Centre for Microsystems and Photonics, EEE Department, University of Strathclyde,204 George Street, Glasgow G1 1XW,UK Motivation

More information

CREOL, College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida

CREOL, College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida OSE6650 - Optical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Optical Properties of Nanostructured Materials Fall 2013 Class 3 slide 1 Challenge: excite and detect the near field Thus far: Nanostructured materials

More information

1. INTRODUCTION ABSTRACT

1. INTRODUCTION ABSTRACT MultiWave Hybrid Laser Processing of Micrometer Scale Features for Flexible Electronics Applications J. Hillman, Y. Sukhman, D. Miller, M. Oropeza and C. Risser Universal Laser Systems, 7845 E. Paradise

More information

Femtosecond ablation of silver with single and double pulses Ted Roberts, Anton du Plessis*, Lourens Botha

Femtosecond ablation of silver with single and double pulses Ted Roberts, Anton du Plessis*, Lourens Botha Femtosecond ablation of silver with single and double pulses Ted Roberts, Anton du Plessis*, Lourens Botha CSIR National Laser Centre, Femtosecond Science group SAIP 29 Outline of talk Motivation of this

More information

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Conformal Deep Trench Coating with both Conducting and Insulating Materials L. Ji a), c), J.-K. Kim b), Q. Ji, K.-N.Leung a), Y. Chen a), and R. A. Gough Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University

More information

Single Mode Fiber Lasers

Single Mode Fiber Lasers Single Mode Fiber Lasers for Industrial and Scientific Applications T h e P o w e r t o T r a n s f o r m T M IPG s Single Mode Fiber Lasers Advantages IPG's YLR-SM Series represents a break-through generation

More information

Understanding Laser Beam Parameters Leads to Better System Performance and Can Save Money

Understanding Laser Beam Parameters Leads to Better System Performance and Can Save Money Understanding Laser Beam Parameters Leads to Better System Performance and Can Save Money Lasers became the first choice of energy source for a steadily increasing number of applications in science, medicine

More information

The light emitted from a laser is monochromatic, directional, and coherent. These three properties of laser light are what can make it more hazardous

The light emitted from a laser is monochromatic, directional, and coherent. These three properties of laser light are what can make it more hazardous 1 The light emitted from a laser is monochromatic, directional, and coherent. These three properties of laser light are what can make it more hazardous than ordinary light. Laser light can deposit a lot

More information

EFFICIENT USE OF SHORT PULSE WIDTH LASER FOR MAXIMUM MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE Paper# M602

EFFICIENT USE OF SHORT PULSE WIDTH LASER FOR MAXIMUM MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE Paper# M602 EFFICIENT USE OF SHORT PULSE WIDTH LASER FOR MAXIMUM MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE Paper# M602 Ashwini Tamhankar and Rajesh Patel Spectra-Physics Lasers, Newport Corporation, 3635 Peterson Way, Santa Clara, CA

More information

LASER TERMS GLOSSARY

LASER TERMS GLOSSARY LASER TERMS GLOSSARY Texas State University San Marcos 2/25/07 Introduction - This section lists information pertinent to laser safety. The definitions in this glossary will not cover every term associated

More information

PICOSECOND LASER PROCESSING MATERIAL REMOVAL RATES OF METALS

PICOSECOND LASER PROCESSING MATERIAL REMOVAL RATES OF METALS PICOSECOND LASER PROCESSING MATERIAL REMOVAL RATES OF METALS R. Penttilä 1, H. Pantsar 1, P. Laakso 1 1 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Lappeenranta, Finland Abstract A picosecond laser has been

More information

ADVANCES IN LASER SINGULATION OF SILICON Paper #770

ADVANCES IN LASER SINGULATION OF SILICON Paper #770 ADVANCES IN LASER SINGULATION OF SILICON Paper #770 Leonard Migliore1, Kang-Soo Lee2, Kim Jeong-Moog2, Choi Byung-Kew2 1Coherent, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA 2HBL Corporation, Daejeon 305-811 Korea Abstract

More information

Excimer Laser Technology

Excimer Laser Technology D. Basting G. Marowsky (Eds.) Excimer Laser Technology With 257 Figures ^y Springer Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Introductory Remarks 1 1.1.1 The Unique Microstructuring Capabilities of Excimer Lasers

More information

Laser Beam Expanders Basics and Applications

Laser Beam Expanders Basics and Applications Laser Beam Expanders Basics and Applications In complex laser systems, such as those for material processing (Fig. ), passive optical components and systems play a key role alongside active optical components

More information

Raman Spectroscopy Basics

Raman Spectroscopy Basics Raman Spectroscopy Basics Introduction Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on inelastic scattering of monochromatic light, usually from a laser source. Inelastic scattering means that

More information

Measuring Laser Power and Energy Output

Measuring Laser Power and Energy Output Measuring Laser Power and Energy Output Introduction The most fundamental method of checking the performance of a laser is to measure its power or energy output. Laser output directly affects a laser s

More information

Holographically corrected telescope for high bandwidth optical communications (as appears in Applied Optics Vol. 38, No. 33, , 20 Nov.

Holographically corrected telescope for high bandwidth optical communications (as appears in Applied Optics Vol. 38, No. 33, , 20 Nov. Holographically corrected telescope for high bandwidth optical communications (as appears in Applied Optics Vol. 38, No. 33, 6833-6835, 20 Nov. 1999) Geoff Andersen and R. J. Knize Laser and Optics Research

More information

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators D. J. McCarron December 7, 2007 1 Introduction Acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) are useful devices which allow the frequency, intensity and direction of a laser beam

More information

Plasma ion assisted deposition with radio frequency powered plasma sources

Plasma ion assisted deposition with radio frequency powered plasma sources Plasma ion assisted deposition with radio frequency powered plasma sources H. Hagedorn, M. Klosch, H. Reus, A. Zoeller Leybold Optics GmbH, Siemensstrasse 88, 63755 Alzenau, Germany ABSTRACT The deposition

More information

Diffraction of a Circular Aperture

Diffraction of a Circular Aperture Diffraction of a Circular Aperture Diffraction can be understood by considering the wave nature of light. Huygen's principle, illustrated in the image below, states that each point on a propagating wavefront

More information

Development of Optical Wave Microphone Measuring Sound Waves with No Diaphragm

Development of Optical Wave Microphone Measuring Sound Waves with No Diaphragm Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Taipei, March 5 8, 3 359 Development of Optical Wave Microphone Measuring Sound Waves with No Diaphragm Yoshito Sonoda, Takashi Samatsu, and

More information

NEAR FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY WITH STM AND AFM PROBES

NEAR FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY WITH STM AND AFM PROBES Vol. 93 (1997) A CTA PHYSICA POLONICA A No. 2 Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Scanning Probe Spectroscopy and Related Methods, Poznań 1997 NEAR FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY AND SPECTROSCOPY

More information

Amplification Atomic (or molecular, or semiconductor) system has energy levels Some higher energy states are stable for a short time (ps to ms)

Amplification Atomic (or molecular, or semiconductor) system has energy levels Some higher energy states are stable for a short time (ps to ms) Part 5: Lasers Amplification Atomic (or molecular, or semiconductor) system has energy levels Some higher energy states are stable for a short time (ps to ms) Incident photon can trigger emission of an

More information

Lasers Design and Laser Systems

Lasers Design and Laser Systems Lasers Design and Laser Systems Tel: 04-8563674 Nir Dahan Tel: 04-8292151 nirdahan@tx.technion.ac.il Thank You 1 Measuring the width of a laser beam is like trying to measure the size of a cotton ball

More information

Nanoscale Resolution Options for Optical Localization Techniques. C. Boit TU Berlin Chair of Semiconductor Devices

Nanoscale Resolution Options for Optical Localization Techniques. C. Boit TU Berlin Chair of Semiconductor Devices berlin Nanoscale Resolution Options for Optical Localization Techniques C. Boit TU Berlin Chair of Semiconductor Devices EUFANET Workshop on Optical Localization Techniques Toulouse, Jan 26, 2009 Jan 26,

More information

Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy for Measuring Materials Properties at the Nanoscale

Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy for Measuring Materials Properties at the Nanoscale Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy for Measuring Materials Properties at the Nanoscale Outline Background Research Design Detection of Near-Field Signal Submonolayer Chemical Sensitivity Conclusions

More information

Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606

Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606 Report on the Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606 This report presents the results of phenol diffusivity, specific heat and calculated thermal

More information

Why Using Laser for Dust Removal from Tokamaks

Why Using Laser for Dust Removal from Tokamaks 1 FTP/P1-25 Why Using Laser for Dust Removal from Tokamaks Ph. Delaporte 1), A. Vatry 1), 2), D. Grojo 1), M. Sentis 1), C. Grisolia 2) 1) Laboratoire Lasers, Plasmas et Procédés Photoniques, campus de

More information

Basic principles and mechanisms of NSOM; Different scanning modes and systems of NSOM; General applications and advantages of NSOM.

Basic principles and mechanisms of NSOM; Different scanning modes and systems of NSOM; General applications and advantages of NSOM. Lecture 16: Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) Background of NSOM; Basic principles and mechanisms of NSOM; Basic components of a NSOM; Different scanning modes and systems of NSOM; General

More information

Confocal Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) A very brief primer...

Confocal Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) A very brief primer... Confocal Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) of biofilms A very brief primer... Fundamentals of Confocal Microscopy Based on a conventional fluorescence microscope Fluorescent Microscope Confocal

More information

PHYSICAL METHODS, INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS Vol. IV Femtosecond Measurements Combined With Near-Field Optical Microscopy - Artyom A.

PHYSICAL METHODS, INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS Vol. IV Femtosecond Measurements Combined With Near-Field Optical Microscopy - Artyom A. FEMTOSECOND MEASUREMENTS COMBINED WITH NEAR FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY Artyom A. Astafiev, Semyonov Institute of Chemical Physics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Keywords: diffraction limit nearfield scanning

More information

ADVANTAGES OF USING DPSS NANOSECOND LASER WITH A GAUSSIAN BEAM SHAPE FOR SCRIBING THIN FILM PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS Paper #M1101

ADVANTAGES OF USING DPSS NANOSECOND LASER WITH A GAUSSIAN BEAM SHAPE FOR SCRIBING THIN FILM PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS Paper #M1101 ADVANTAGES OF USING DPSS NANOSECOND LASER WITH A GAUSSIAN BEAM SHAPE FOR SCRIBING THIN FILM PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS Paper #M1101 Ashwini Tamhankar 1, James Bovatsek 1, Gonzalo Guadano 2, Rajesh Patel 1 1 Spectra

More information

Longwave IR focal-plane binary optics

Longwave IR focal-plane binary optics Longwave IR focal-plane binary optics Z. Sikorski, H. Polakowski Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., -98 Warsaw, e-mail: zsikorsk@wat.waw.pl Abstract In

More information

Ultrashort Pulse Lasers. Rofin Baasel Benelux B.V. Hans Matser

Ultrashort Pulse Lasers. Rofin Baasel Benelux B.V. Hans Matser Ultrashort Pulse Lasers Rofin Baasel Benelux B.V. Hans Matser Presentation Agenda Ultrashort Pulse Laser Basics When to use Ultrashort Pulse Lasers? Femtosecond or Picosecond? Which Wavelength is best

More information

Biophotonics. Basic Microscopy. NPTEL Biophotonics 1

Biophotonics. Basic Microscopy. NPTEL Biophotonics 1 Biophotonics Basic Microscopy NPTEL Biophotonics 1 Overview In this lecture you will learn Elements of a basic microscope Some imaging techniques Keywords: optical microscopy, microscope construction,

More information

Nano Optics: Overview of Research Activities. Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi SENSE, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DENMARK

Nano Optics: Overview of Research Activities. Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi SENSE, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DENMARK Nano Optics: Overview of Research Activities SENSE, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DENMARK Optical characterization techniques: Leakage Radiation Microscopy Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy

More information

Semiconductor Laser Diode

Semiconductor Laser Diode Semiconductor Laser Diode Outline This student project deals with the exam question Semiconductor laser diode and covers the following questions: Describe how a semiconductor laser diode works What determines

More information

integrated grating couplers

integrated grating couplers Technische Universität Berlin Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik/Photonik Optische Nachrichtentechnik Praktikum Laboratory manuskript: integrated grating couplers Created by: Dipl. Ing. Adrian Juarez Dr.

More information

Power and Energy Characteristics of Continuous Waves / Pulsed CO 2 Laser Application in CNG-DI Ignition

Power and Energy Characteristics of Continuous Waves / Pulsed CO 2 Laser Application in CNG-DI Ignition Proceedings of the th WSEAS International Conference on Applications of Electrical Engineering, Istanbul, Turkey, May 7-9, 7 17 Power and Energy Characteristics of Continuous Waves / Pulsed CO Laser Application

More information

Depth Profiling of Materials and Coatings by Laser Ablation ICP-MS

Depth Profiling of Materials and Coatings by Laser Ablation ICP-MS Depth Profiling of Materials and Coatings by Laser Ablation ICP-MS 031LSX+0301 March 2001 Benefits of Laser Ablation for ICP Spectrometry Laser sampling using modern UV laser ablation systems provides

More information

!!!!! Optical Fibres

!!!!! Optical Fibres Optical Fibres 12 Optical Fibres In its most simple form an optical fibre is composed of two concentric layers, termed the core and the cladding, which, for protection, are frequently encased by a plastic

More information

Application Considerations in Specifying High Frequency Ultrasonic Transducers

Application Considerations in Specifying High Frequency Ultrasonic Transducers ECNDT 2006 - We.4.6.1 Application Considerations in Specifying High Frequency Ultrasonic Transducers Grant REIG, Dan KASS and Tom NELLIGAN, Olympus NDT, Waltham, USA Abstract: Ultrasonic NDT applications

More information

BIOMEDICAL ULTRASOUND

BIOMEDICAL ULTRASOUND BIOMEDICAL ULTRASOUND Goals: To become familiar with: Ultrasound wave Wave propagation and Scattering Mechanisms of Tissue Damage Biomedical Ultrasound Transducers Biomedical Ultrasound Imaging Ultrasonic

More information

Pump-probe experiments with ultra-short temporal resolution

Pump-probe experiments with ultra-short temporal resolution Pump-probe experiments with ultra-short temporal resolution PhD candidate: Ferrante Carino Advisor:Tullio Scopigno Università di Roma ƒla Sapienza 22 February 2012 1 Pump-probe experiments: generalities

More information

A More Efficient Way to De-shelve 137 Ba +

A More Efficient Way to De-shelve 137 Ba + A More Efficient Way to De-shelve 137 Ba + Abstract: Andrea Katz Trinity University UW REU 2010 In order to increase the efficiency and reliability of de-shelving barium ions, an infrared laser beam was

More information

Pulsewidth and noise properties of external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers:

Pulsewidth and noise properties of external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Pulsewidth and noise properties of external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Simulations and experiments Josep Mulet IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Palma de Mallorca, Spain Center COM, Technical University

More information

Lecture 4 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM)

Lecture 4 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) Lecture 4 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) General components of SPM; Tip --- the probe; Cantilever --- the indicator of the tip; Tip-sample interaction --- the feedback system; Scanner --- piezoelectric

More information

Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) Writing with Excimer Lasers. Fiber Optic Smart Structures on the Rise.

Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) Writing with Excimer Lasers. Fiber Optic Smart Structures on the Rise. White Paper Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) Writing with Excimer Lasers. Fiber Optic Smart Structures on the Rise. Fiber optical sensors and instruments have moved from research applications to widespread industrial

More information

Enhanced performance of large 3ω optics using UV and IR lasers

Enhanced performance of large 3ω optics using UV and IR lasers UCRL-CONF-155395 LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY Enhanced performance of large 3ω optics using UV and IR lasers R.R. Prasad, J.R. Bruere, J.E. Peterson, J.M. Halpin, M.R. Borden, and R.P. Hackel

More information

Reactive Fusion Cutting When gas used reacts with gas (usually oxygen) burn reaction adds energy to effect Steel typically 60% added energy Titanium

Reactive Fusion Cutting When gas used reacts with gas (usually oxygen) burn reaction adds energy to effect Steel typically 60% added energy Titanium Reactive Fusion Cutting When gas used reacts with gas (usually oxygen) burn reaction adds energy to effect Steel typically 60% added energy Titanium 90% added energy However can reaction can chemically

More information

Laser Frequency Stabilization with Optical Cavities. Abstract

Laser Frequency Stabilization with Optical Cavities. Abstract Laser Frequency Stabilization with Optical Cavities Anya M. Davis Walla Walla University University of Washington Quantum Computing with Trapped Ions Group INT REU 2009 (Dated: September 17, 2009) Abstract

More information

TopHat StableTop Beamshaper

TopHat StableTop Beamshaper TopHat StableTop Beamshaper The top-hat beam shaper is a diffractive optical element (DOE) used to transform a near-gaussian incident laser beam into a uniform-intensity spot of either round, rectangular,

More information

Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures

Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures CHINESE JOURNAL OF PHYSICS VOL. 49, NO. 1 FEBRUARY 2011 Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures Markus Schmotz, 1, Dominik Gollmer, 1 Florian Habel, 1 Stephen Riedel, 1 and

More information

- thus, the total number of atoms per second that absorb a photon is

- thus, the total number of atoms per second that absorb a photon is Stimulated Emission of Radiation - stimulated emission is referring to the emission of radiation (a photon) from one quantum system at its transition frequency induced by the presence of other photons

More information

Coating Technology: Evaporation Vs Sputtering

Coating Technology: Evaporation Vs Sputtering Satisloh Italy S.r.l. Coating Technology: Evaporation Vs Sputtering Gianni Monaco, PhD R&D project manager, Satisloh Italy 04.04.2016 V1 The aim of this document is to provide basic technical information

More information

RAY TRACING UNIFIED FIELD TRACING

RAY TRACING UNIFIED FIELD TRACING RAY TRACING Start to investigate the performance of your optical system using 3D ray distributions, dot diagrams of ray positions and directions, and optical path length. GEOMETRIC FIELD TRACING Switch

More information

Laser hole drilling and texturing (for joining) of composites

Laser hole drilling and texturing (for joining) of composites AILU Workshop: Laser processing of polymer, metal and cerramic composites Laser hole drilling and texturing (for joining) of composites Dr Paul French Photonics in Engineering Research Group General Engineering

More information

Welding with High Power Diode Lasers

Welding with High Power Diode Lasers White Paper Welding with High Power Diode Lasers by Keith Parker, Sr. Business Development Manager Direct Diode & Fiber Laser Systems Laser welding with CO 2, fiber and various types of solidstate lasers

More information

Laser-induced modification of metal nanoparticles formed by laser ablation technique in liquids

Laser-induced modification of metal nanoparticles formed by laser ablation technique in liquids Applied Surface Science 247 (2005) 418 422 www.elsevier.com/locate/apsusc Laser-induced modification of metal nanoparticles formed by laser ablation technique in liquids N.V. Tarasenko *, A.V. Butsen,

More information

Acousto-optic modulator

Acousto-optic modulator 1 of 3 Acousto-optic modulator F An acousto-optic modulator (AOM), also called a Bragg cell, uses the acousto-optic effect to diffract and shift the frequency of light using sound waves (usually at radio-frequency).

More information

Fine Micro-welding of Thin Stainless Steel Sheet by High Speed Laser Scanning

Fine Micro-welding of Thin Stainless Steel Sheet by High Speed Laser Scanning Fine Micro-welding of Thin Stainless Steel Sheet by High Speed Laser Scanning Yasuhiro OKAMOTO *, Arnold GILLNER **, Alexander OLOWINSKY **, Jens GEDICKE ** and Yoshiyuki UNO * * Nontraditional Machining

More information

12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by

12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by 12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by rejecting much of the out of focus light via a pinhole. The image is reconstructed serially, i.e. point

More information

F L E X F L E X. Each year worldwide flex circuit demand increases, due primarily LA S E R PRO C E S S I N G O F. Polyimide requires special methods,

F L E X F L E X. Each year worldwide flex circuit demand increases, due primarily LA S E R PRO C E S S I N G O F. Polyimide requires special methods, Polyimide requires special methods, LA S E R PRO C E S S I N G O F F L E X F L E X BY SRI VENKAT Each year worldwide flex circuit demand increases, due primarily to the advantages flex offers in space

More information

An Overview of Fiber Optic Technology

An Overview of Fiber Optic Technology Fiber Optic Technology Overview - 1/6 An Overview of Fiber Optic Technology The use of fiber optics in telecommunications and wide area networking has been common for many years, but more recently fiber

More information

Laserbearbeitung von dünnen Schichten auf Rolle-zu-Rolle-Anlagen

Laserbearbeitung von dünnen Schichten auf Rolle-zu-Rolle-Anlagen Laserbearbeitung von dünnen Schichten auf Rolle-zu-Rolle-Anlagen Dr. Frank Allenstein 3D-Micromac AG 3D-Micromac At a Glance 141 employees in R&D, manufacturing and service Worldwide more than 300 industrial

More information

Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems

Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Lecture : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Attenuation (Loss)

More information

High Power Fiber Laser Technology

High Power Fiber Laser Technology High Power Fiber Laser Technology Bill Shiner VP Industrial September 10, 2013 IDOE LSO Workshop Global Production Facilities Production Facilities and World Headquarters Oxford, Massachusetts Production

More information

Magneto-optical microscopy (incl. time-resolved)

Magneto-optical microscopy (incl. time-resolved) Magneto-optical microscopy (incl. time-resolved) J. McCord (abstract in cooperation with R. Schäfer) IFW Dresden - Institute for Metallic Materials Helmholtzstr. 20 01169 Dresden j.mccord@ifw-dresden.de

More information

Andreas Siewert, IPG Laser GmbH, Germany AIME on High Energy Lasers, DESY, Hamburg, November 2014

Andreas Siewert, IPG Laser GmbH, Germany AIME on High Energy Lasers, DESY, Hamburg, November 2014 High Power Industrial Grade Fiber Lasers Andreas Siewert, IPG Laser GmbH, Germany AIME on High Energy Lasers, DESY, Hamburg, 12-13 November 2014 Agenda Introduction High Power Industrial Grade Fiber Lasers

More information

Simulation of Gaussian Pulses Propagation Through Single Mode Optical Fiber Using MATLAB . MATLAB

Simulation of Gaussian Pulses Propagation Through Single Mode Optical Fiber Using MATLAB . MATLAB Iraqi Journal of Science, 213, Vol.4, No.3, pp.61-66 Simulation of Gaussian Pulses Propagation Through Single Mode Optical Fiber Using MATLAB Salah Al Deen Adnan Taha *, Mehdi M. Shellal, and Ahmed Chyad

More information

PHOTO-ELASTIC VISUALISATION OF PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC PULSES IN SOLIDS

PHOTO-ELASTIC VISUALISATION OF PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC PULSES IN SOLIDS PHOTO-ELASTIC VISUALISATION OF PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC PULSES IN SOLIDS E. Ginzel 1, D. Stewart 2 1 Materials Research Institute - Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; 2 Oceaneering Inspection, Edmonton, Alberta,

More information