1 E35 SPECTRSCPIC TECNIQUES IN RGANIC CEMISTRY TE TASK To use mass spectrometry and IR, UV/vis and NMR spectroscopy to identify organic compounds. TE SKILLS By the end of the experiment you should be able to: explain how modern spectroscopic methods work, use a variety of complementary spectroscopic techniques to determine the structure of an unknown organic compound. TER UTCMES You will develop generic scientific skills including using evidence to solve problems. You will develop an appreciation of the spectroscopic techniques used to identify organic and pharmaceutical compounds. INTRDUCTIN These notes are designed to introduce you to the basic spectroscopic techniques which are used for the determination of the structure (constitution and stereochemistry) of organic compounds. Complementary material and problems in spectroscopy will be found in the relevant chapters of your textbook. Mass Spectroscopy Mass spectrometry is a technique by which the molecular weight of a compound may be determined. A small sample of the compound is vaporised in a mass spectrometer under high vacuum and then subjected to bombardment by a beam of high-energy electrons. The impact of the electrons on the molecule (M) causes the ejection of an electron from the molecule to form a positively charged ion called the molecular ion or parent ion (M + ). In principle, more than one electron can be removed from a molecule, so that the ion is characterised by its massto-charge ratio, m/z (or m/e). In practice multiply charged ions are rare in mass spectrometry. M + e M + + 2e The positively charged ions are accelerated through an electric field before passing into a magnetic field. This causes the ions to travel a curved path whose curvature is dependent upon the m/z ratio and the speed at which the ions enter the magnetic field. Lighter ions have less momentum and are deflected more strongly than are heavier ions. The m/z ratio is calibrated in atomic mass units. Molecular ions arriving at the detector produce a peak in the mass spectrum at the molecular weight on the mass scale (horizontal axis). The peak height is proportional to the number of ions arriving in a given time. The symbol for the molecular ion (also called the parent ion) is M + or more exactly M + (since it also has an unpaired electron). E35-1
2 E35-2 During the initial ionization process, some molecular ions are formed with an excess of internal energy. These ions break up in the ion chamber (see diagram on page E35-3) to produce fragment ions or daughter ions (m + ). M + m + + neutral fragment Such ions appear in the mass spectrum as peaks at the relevant masses, with the peak heights corresponding to their relative populations. The most abundant ion, be it the parent or a fragment ion, produces the tallest peak in the spectrum. This peak is called the base peak and is arbitrarily assigned a relative intensity (height) of 100% on the vertical axis. eights of all the other peaks are then expressed as percentages of the base peak. The pattern of fragment peaks is characteristic of the original molecular constitution, because different kinds of bonds vary in strength; the weaker bonds break first during fragmentation. Different molecules have different weak spots, and so the molecular weight and fragmentation pattern give a lot of information on the structure of an unknown organic compound. As most elements exist as more than one isotope, these will be resolved in a mass spectrum of a compound containing that element. Thus, the molecular weight of a compound as determined by mass spectrometry will correspond to the sum of the masses of the most abundant isotopes of the elements which constitute that compound. A table of isotopic abundances of elements common in organic compounds is given below. Isotope % Relative Abundance Isotope % Relative Abundance Cl 37 Cl C 13 C Br 81 Br Mass spectrometers can operate in either low or high resolution modes. In the low resolution mode, a mass spectrometer gives masses of ions to the nearest integral values. In high resolution mode, the mass of an ion can be determined to of a mass unit. Thus, whereas at low resolution, each of C, N 2 and C 2 4 has M + at m/z 28, a high resolution mass spectrum would distinguish each of the foregoing on the basis of their exact molecular weights. By using the accurate masses below, calculate the exact molecular weights of these compounds. 1 = , 12 C = , 14 N = , 16 = Molecular formula Molecular Weight C N 2 C 2 4
3 SCEMATIC DIAGRAM F AN ELECTRN-IMPACT MASS SPECTRMETER E35-3
4 E35-4 Absorption Spectroscopy Absorption spectroscopy measures the frequencies and intensities of electromagnetic radiation that are absorbed by a molecule. The electromagnetic spectrum spans the range of frequencies from about 10 6 z to about z. These frequencies correspond to the range of wavelengths from about 300 metres to about metres, according to the relationship v = c/λ where v is the frequency of the radiation c is the speed of light λ is the wavelength of the radiation. Electromagnetic radiation can be described in terms of its energy according to the relationship E = hv where v is the frequency of the radiation h is the Planck constant E is the energy of the radiation. wavelength (m) frequency (z) energy (kj) gamma rays x-rays ultraviolet light visible light infrared light microwaves television waves radio waves The Electromagnetic Spectrum The absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a molecule excites the molecule from one energy state to a higher energy state. From experimental observations and from theories of molecular structure we know that the energy states of a molecule are sharply defined (quantised). The energy of radiation which is absorbed by a molecule corresponds to the energy difference between energy states of a molecule. For organic compounds, the absorption of radiation is of most use in three main regions of the electromagnetic spectrum: the infrared (i.r.) region, the ultraviolet-visible (u.v.- vis.) region and the radiofrequency (r.f.) region. Molecule in an excited energy state electromagnetic radiation E = hν Molecule in a low energy state
5 E35-5 Infrared Spectroscopy Radiation in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponds to the energy required to excite vibrations in covalent bonds. The absorption of infrared radiation causes the stretching and bending of bonds within a molecule. The stretching vibration occurs along the axis of the bond such that the bond length increases or decreases. The bending vibration involves a change in bond angle. C N C N Bond Stretching Bond Bending The stretching or bending of each type of covalent bond (C,, N, C=, etc.) requires absorption of radiation at a characteristic frequency in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In general, the absorption of infrared radiation by a particular type of covalent bond is not greatly influenced by the rest of the molecule. This means that particular functional groups in a molecule can be detected by the absorption of infrared radiation at frequency ranges which are characteristic for the bonds contained in those particular groups. Typically, infrared absorption frequencies are reported in wavenumbers (the number of complete wavecycles per centimetre). Wavenumbers (ν ) are expressed in units of cm 1 (reciprocal centimetres) and are calculated from the wavelength (λ) of the radiation, according to the relationship ν = 1 where λ is expressed in centimetres. λ The bond stretching vibrations most useful from a diagnostic viewpoint fall approximately within the region of cm 1. The most important of these frequencies are the following. Bond type Frequency (cm 1 ) Comments C sharp, intense, in most spectra or N very broad C= sharp, intense C=C (aromatic) 1600 may be weak signal Although the above values are good enough for most purposes, a slightly more accurate table is presented on the next page.
6 E35-6 CARACTERISTIC INFRARED ABSRPTIN FREQUENCIES Functional Group Bond Stretching Absorptions (cm 1 ) Alkane C Alkene C C=C Alkyne C 3300 C C Arene C C=C Amine N two bands, 2 one band Alcohol hydrogen bonded Aldehyde C= Ketone Carboxylic Acid C= Ester C= Amide 1, 2, 3 C= N two bands, 2 one band Nitrile C N The region from cm 1 contains absorptions due to complex vibrational energy changes involving motion of the molecule as a whole or combining bending, stretching and internal rotation. The bands in this region are complicated in appearance because there are many overlapping absorptions. This so-called "fingerprint" region can be used to check the identity of two samples by establishing that the same complex band pattern is shown by both.
7 E35-7 Basic instrumentation for both infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy (see next page) consists of an energy source, a sample cell, a dispersing device (prism or grating), a detector and a recorder. The solvent and the sample cell must be as transparent as possible in the relevant region of the electromagnetic spectrum because the amount of energy available for absorption by the sample must be maximised. In infrared spectroscopy sample cells are usually made of sodium chloride, and the solvent used is normally chloroform, carbon tetrachloride or carbon disulfide. For liquids, the neat sample as a liquid film between sodium chloride plates is often used. source sample dispersing device. slit detector I λ spectrum SCEMATIC DIAGRAM F A UV R IR SPECTRMETER The infrared spectrum of butanone is given below. Identify by the letters "a" and "b" in the spectrum the stretching absorptions due to the C and C= bonds. Give ν max for the absorptions. C ν max C= ν max
8 E35-8 Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy Ultraviolet radiation to 400 nm Visible radiation to 800 nm Ultraviolet radiation corresponds to the energy required to excite electrons in the bonds of organic molecules from a low energy level to a higher energy level. Electrons in σ-bonds are bound too tightly to be excited by radiation in the range of wavelengths from 200 to 400 nm. owever, π-electrons in conjugated carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen double bonds are easily excited to higher energy levels by ultraviolet radiation. As in the case of infrared spectroscopy, an ultraviolet spectrometer records a plot of absorbance against wavelength. The spectra of organic compounds in solution are quite simple, consisting of broad regions of absorption. The compound is dissolved in a solvent which is transparent to ultraviolet radiation - ethanol, water, cyclohexane and dioxan are commonly used, whilst the sample cell is usually made of quartz. If the molecule absorbs strongly in the ultraviolet region in the range of wavelengths between 200 and 400 nm, then this indicates that the molecule contains a conjugated π-bond system within its structure. The greater the extent of conjugation within a molecule, the less energy required to excite the π-electrons and therefore the compound will absorb radiation at longer wavelength. Extensively conjugated compounds such as β-carotene absorb blue light and consequently appear orange. (β-carotene is the colouring pigment in carrots.) λ max 135 nm C 2 C nm outside normal u.v. range 188 nm C 2 C C C2 217 nm λ max 463 nm β-carotene The intensity of the absorption of the ultraviolet radiation at a given wavelength is a characteristic property of a molecule, and can be used to determine quantitatively the amount of absorbing species in a solution.
9 E35-9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance or n.m.r. spectroscopy involves the absorption of radiation in the radiofrequency range ( to z) of the electromagnetic spectrum. The nuclei of certain isotopes, for example 1, 13 C, 19 F, etc., behave as if they were spinning charges. A spinning charge creates a magnetic field and thus acts as if it were a small bar magnet. When placed in a strong magnetic field, the spinning charge can adopt either one of two allowed orientations: with its "north" pole aligned with the direction of the strong magnetic field or against it. N axis of spin direction of spin N S S A spinning charge behaves like a small bar magnet. Radiofrequency radiation corresponds to the energy required to flip a nucleus which is aligned in the direction of a strong magnetic field to the orientation opposed to the direction of the magnetic field. Nuclear magnetic resonance differs from other forms of spectroscopy in that an organic compound must be placed in a strong magnetic field before electromagnetic radiation can be absorbed. The sample is normally dissolved in a solvent, whose nuclei are not affected by the radiofrequency radiation, in a narrow glass tube which is placed between the poles of a large electromagnet and subjected to the radiofrequency radiation. By far the most important nuclei which absorb radiofrequency radiation when placed in a magnetic field are 1 (i.e. the proton) and 13 C. 1 n.m.r. spectra are usually run in solution. Solvents that contain hydrogen are unsuitable as the signal from the solvent totally swamps all the signals from the compound being studied. Most n.m.r. solvents are simple organic liquids in which the usual 1 isotope has been replaced with the 2 isotope. 2 is also known as deuterium (symbol D) and these deuterated solvents are commercially available. The most common n.m.r. solvents are: CDCl 3 deuterated chlorform CCl 4 carbon tetrachloride D 2 heavy water C 6 D 6 deuterated benzene
10 E35-10 BASIC CMPNENTS F AN NMR SPECTRMETER The frequency (measured in Mz) at which nuclei absorb radiofrequency radiation depends mainly on the strength of the applied magnetic field as shown below. The magnetic field experienced by each nucleus, however, is not exactly the same as the applied magnetic field because the electrons in the bonds very slightly alter the magnetic field in their immediate vicinity. Nuclei in different environments thus absorb at different frequencies - an effect which is measured in z. Atoms (and therefore their nuclei) in exactly the same surroundings (by symmetry analysis) are called chemically equivalent. All chemically equivalent atoms absorb at the same frequency in an n.m.r. spectrum Magnetic field strength (in Tesla) 1.4 T Absorption frequencies in Mz (not to scale) T 2 13C Nucleus 13C n.m.r. spectrum is a giant expansion of this absorption signal. 19F T 1 n.m.r. spectrum is a giant expansion of this absorption signal.
11 E NMR Spectroscopy In reporting the frequencies where groups of chemically equivalent protons absorb, all signals are reported in terms of how far they are shifted from a reference signal. The difference between the reference signal and the signal of interest is termed the chemical shift and given the symbol δ. For 1 n.m.r. spectroscopy, the reference signal is usually the single absorption of tetramethylsilane (TMS), Si( ) 4. Chemical shifts are reported in dimensionless units of ppm (parts per million) which are independent of the magnetic field strength at which the spectrum is obtained. The signals from protons in organic compounds usually fall within the range of 0 to 13 ppm from TMS. The chemical shifts (δ in ppm) of 1 in common organic environments are as follows: Tetramethylsilane Si( ) 4 0 (By definition) Protons attached to sp 3 hybridised carbon atoms ( C) Protons attached to sp hybridised carbon atoms ( C C ) 2-3 Protons attached to sp 2 hybridised carbon atoms ( C=C) 5-8 Protons attached to aromatic rings 6-9 Aldehydic protons ( C=) 9-10 Protons attached to an oxygen-bound carbon ( C ) Protons attached to a carbonyl-bound carbon ( C=) 2.1 Labile protons (, N 2, S, C etc.) have variable chemical shift ranges, depending upon the exact experimental conditions of concentration, temperature etc., which influence the amount of hydrogen-bonding. The 1 n.m.r. spectrum of a mixture composed of differing concentrations of acetone (a), benzene (b), dimethyl ether (d), 1,1-dichloroethylene (e) and tetramethylsilane (t) is given below. Use the above list of chemical shifts to identify and label the signals due to each component of the mixture.
12 E35-12 Fine structure is evident in many n.m.r. signals. This fine structure or splitting pattern of each signal is due to the presence of other protons in the vicinity (i.e. those which are attached to adjacent atoms) of the proton giving rise to the signal. The degree of signal splitting (or multiplicity) is given by the "n + 1 rule". The signal from a proton with "n" chemically equivalent neighbours will be split into "n + 1" peaks. Note, however, that chemically equivalent protons do not split each other. Neighbours Peaks Multiplicity Internal Intensities 0 1 singlet doublet triplet quartet quintet sextet septet The relative intensity of each signal (as measured by its relative area) is directly proportional to the number of protons giving rise to that signal. An example of a 1 n.m.r. spectrum illustrating all these points is given below. (a) (b) C 2 (c) (c) (b) (a) C 2 (a) (c) (b) (a) These protons have two neighbours and thus appear as a triplet. (b) These protons have three neighbours and thus appear as a quartet. (c) These protons are chemically equivalent. Although they are neighbours, they do not split each other. This signal will appear as a singlet. The relative intensities of the signals are calculated by determining the number of protons giving rise to each signal. (a) : (b) : (c) = 6 : 4 : 2 = 3 : 2 : 1
13 E C NMR Spectroscopy In reporting the frequencies where groups of chemically equivalent carbons absorb, all signals are reported in terms of how far they are shifted from a reference signal. The difference between the reference signal and the signal of interest is termed the chemical shift and given the symbol δ. For 13 C n.m.r. spectroscopy, the reference signal is usually the single absorption of tetramethylsilane (TMS), Si( ) 4 taken to be 0.0 ppm Chemical shifts are reported in dimensionless units of ppm (parts per million) which are independent of the magnetic field strength at which the spectrum is obtained. In 13 C n.m.r. spectra there is one absorption for each different carbon environment in a molecule. If more than one carbon is in an identical environment within the molecule, the signals in the spectrum are coincident. For example, in the spectrum of propane ( C 2 ), the two carbons appear as one line which is in a different place to the signal from the C 2. In the 13 C n.m.r. spectrum the frequency of absorption is represented by the δ scale which runs from 0 to 200 with units of parts per million (ppm). A particular carbon environment results in a signal in a characteristic region of the spectrum, summarised below: δ (ppm) 50 0 C C C C C (aromatic rings) (alkenes) C C C C (alkanes) TMS Demonstrator's Initials LABRATRY WRKSP : PRBLEMS IN SPECTRSCPY Mass Spectrometry 1. What are the masses of the following ions? [ ] + [C 2 5 ] + [C 6 5 ] + [N 2 ] + 2. At what m/z ratios would the parent ions derived from the following molecules appear in a mass spectrum?
14 E A compound containing carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen displays a molecular ion peak in its mass spectrum at m/z 41 and a fragment ion at m/z 15. Give the structure of a compound which is consistent with these data. 4. The mass spectrum of butanone is given below. n the diagram, identify (a) the parent peak and (b) the base peak. Give the formulas of the parent ion and the base peak ion. butanone Parent Ion Base Peak Ion C C 2 5. The mass spectrum of chloroethane is given below. Give the molecular formulas of the ions at m/z 66 and 64. Molecular weight 66 Molecular formula 64 Why is the peak at m/z 64 approximately three times the height of the peak at 66?
15 E35-15 Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy 1. The infrared spectrum of 2-butanol is given below. Identify the stretching absorptions due to (a) the C and (b) the bonds. Write the letters "a" and "b" next to the relevant absorptions in the spectrum. Give ν max for the absorptions. IR spectrum (liquid film) C ν max ν max 2. The infrared spectrum of 2,6-dibromoaniline is given below. Identify with the letters "a" and "b" in the spectrum the stretching absorptions due to (a) the N and (b) the C=C bonds in the aromatic ring. Give ν max for the absorptions. IR spectrum (CCl 3 solution) N ν max C=C ν max
16 E The infrared spectrum of a carboxylic acid is given below. Identify with the letters "a" and "b" in the spectrum the stretching absorptions due to (a) the C= and (b) the bonds of the carboxyl group. Give ν max for the absorptions. IR spectrum (CCl 3 solution) C= ν max ν max 4. A substance has a molecular formula of C 2 5 N and has infrared absorptions at 3500, 3380, 2925 and 1675 cm 1. Give a structure for the compound which is consistent with these data. Structure 5. A substance has a molecular formula of C It has an infrared spectrum with a broad peak at cm 1 and an intense sharp peak at 1715 cm 1. Give a structure consistent with these data. Demonstrator's Initials
17 E Which of the following compounds would be expected to absorb radiation in the ultraviolet region ( nm)? C (A) C 2 C C (B) (C) C (D) C C C C 2 (E) (F) (G) N C () CCl 3 (J) (I) A B C D E F G I J Demonstrator's Initials
18 E NMR Spectroscopy 1. By using the letters a, b, c, etc., label the equivalent sets of protons in the following compounds. The first compound has been done as an example. a b a C C Br a b C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C 2. ow many signals would you expect to find in the 1 n.m.r. spectrum of the following compounds? C 4 (a) (b) ( ) 3 CBr (c) C 2 (d) C (e) C( ) 3 (f) C 2 CC 2 (g) (h) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Demonstrator's Initials
19 E The 1 n.m.r. spectrum of acetone is given below. Give the chemical shifts of the signals due to (a) TMS and (b) acetone. Explain why the signals for each compound appear as singlets (single peaks). C a: δ TMS = ppm b: δ acetone = ppm 4. The 1 n.m.r. spectrum of methyl formate is given below. Give the chemical shifts of the signals due to (a) the group and (b) the proton attached to the carbonyl group. Give the relative intensities of the signals. C a = ppm; b = ppm Relative Intensities a:b =
20 E The 1 n.m.r. spectrum of butanone is given below. Using the letters "a", "b" and "c", identify the signals due to (a) the group attached to the carbonyl group, (b) the C 2 group and (c) the group attached to the C 2 group. C C 2 6. Give the chemical shifts for and identify the signals in the 1 n.m.r. spectrum of triethylamine. ne of these signals is termed a triplet, the other a quartet. Explain the origin of the quartet. C 2 N C 2 C 2 a = ppm; b = ppm a is due to b is due to Quartet is due to
21 E Assign the signals in the 1 n.m.r. spectrum of 2-bromoethyl acetate. C C 2 C 2 Br a is due to b is due to c is due to 8. The compound A has a molecular formula of C and its 1 n.m.r. spectrum is given below. Give a structure of compound A consistent with these data. A:
22 E The 1 n.m.r. spectrum of one of the isomers of trichloroethane is given below. Which isomer is it? What are the relative areas of the signals in the spectrum? Isomer: Relative Areas: Demonstrator's Initials 13 C NMR Spectroscopy 1. By using the letters a, b, c, etc., label the equivalent sets of carbon atoms in the following compounds. The first compound has been done as an example. a b C 2 Br C 2 C 2 C C C C
23 E ow many signals would you expect to find in the 13 C n.m.r. spectrum of the following compounds? C 4 ( ) 3 CBr C 2 C (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) C( ) 3 C 2 CC 2 (f) (g) (h) Cl Cl C C 2 Cl (i) Cl (j) (k) (l) Cl Cl (m) (n) (o) (p) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p)
24 E The 13 C n.m.r. spectrum of acetone is given below. Give the chemical shifts of the signals due to (a) carbonyl carbon and (b) methyl groups. C a) δ C= = ppm b) δ methyl = ppm 4. The 13 C n.m.r. spectrum of diethyl ether ( C 2 C 2 ) is given below. Give the chemical shifts of the signals due to (a) the groups and (b) the C 2 groups. a) δ methyl = ppm b) δ methylene = ppm
25 E The 13 C n.m.r. spectrum of ethyl acetate is given below. Mark clearly on the spectrum which carbon is assigned to each signal. (int: compare this spectrum with that of acetone and diethyl ether.) C C 2 6. A compound has the molecular formula C 3 8 and has the 13 C n.m.r. spectrum given below. Give a structure for this molecule.
26 E A compound has the molecular formula C 3 8 and has the 13 C n.m.r. spectrum given below. Give a structure for this molecule. 8. The 13 C n.m.r. spectrum of one of the isomers of pentanone, C 5 10, is given below. Give a structure for this molecule.
27 E Anisol is an aromatic ether. Is the 13 C n.m.r. spectrum below, what you would predict for this molecule? Justify your answer. Answer: Demonstrator's Initials
28 E35-28 The Combined Use of Spectroscopic Techniques (including 1 NMR). 1. A compound has a strong absorption near 1720 cm 1 in its infrared spectrum and a parent ion at m/z 86 in its mass spectrum. Its 1 n.m.r. spectrum is given below. Give a structure consistent with these data. Structure:
29 E A compound of molecular formula C has a strong absorption in the ultraviolet spectrum around 265 nm, and strong absorptions in the infrared spectrum at 1670 cm 1 and 2900 cm 1. The mass spectrum and 1 n.m.r. spectrum are given below. Give a structure consistent with these data. Structure: Demonstrator's Initials
30 E35-30 The Combined Use of Spectroscopic Techniques (including 13 C NMR). 1. A compound has a strong absorption near 1720 cm 1, but no absorptions above 3000 cm 1 in its infrared spectrum. It has a parent ion at m/z 86 in its mass spectrum and its 13 C n.m.r. spectrum is given below. Give a structure consistent with these data.
31 E A compound of molecular formula C has a strong absorption in the ultraviolet spectrum around 265 nm, and strong absorptions in the infrared spectrum at 1670 cm 1 and 2900 cm 1. The mass spectrum and 13 C n.m.r. spectrum are given below. Give a structure consistent with these data.
32 E A compound of molecular formula C has strong absorptions in the infrared spectrum at 1670 cm 1 and 3400 cm 1. The 13 C n.m.r. spectrum is given below. Give a structure consistent with these data. Demonstrator's Initials
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