NMR and other Instrumental Techniques in Chemistry and the proposed National Curriculum.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "NMR and other Instrumental Techniques in Chemistry and the proposed National Curriculum."

Transcription

1 NMR and other Instrumental Techniques in Chemistry and the proposed National Curriculum. Dr. John Jackowski Chair of Science, Head of Chemistry Scotch College Melbourne

2 Whilst not much of the content of Chemistry can change significantly, the use of ICT resources has moved ahead in gigantic leaps and bounds. I am not suggesting that simulation replace experimentation but it is my contention that the range of instruments and resources in 2011 should be able to deliver a much more stimulating and exciting brand of Chemistry in the greater part of the 21 st century.

3 In the first draft, teachers were to be given a choice of two techniques Colorimetry Chromatography including GLC/HPLC Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) UV-Visible Spectroscopy Mass Spectrometry (MS) - molecular Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Infrared Spectroscopy The experience of Chemistry teaching, learning and assessment in Victoria since 2008 would lead me to believe that we would be doing our students a great disservice if this narrow selection is maintained. We need to prune elsewhere and continue with the push for the areas involving instrumentation.

4 Why: (not in any particular order) Detective aspects of Chemistry excite and interest students Higher Level Thinking Skills Development of ICT teaching resources and the associated interactivity leading to more student centred learning with the teacher as a facilitator. Cheaper and simpler instruments on the market Greater access to tertiary institutions and their facilities; Mobile instruments - incursions already happening The lack of safe and relatively easy organic pracs. Not much point in learning about a multitude of functional groups at the expense of the instrumentation Why not? Too much in the courses already not enough time same old story Teachers do not like too much change Substantial PD and development of resources.

5 The New Year 12 Chemistry Study Design in Victorian school from the beginning of This included a more extensive organic section including production of synthesis of medicines eg aspirin, biological applications including DNA and proteins as markers for disease and production of biofuels. Structural analysis sections new to the course included 1 H and 13 C NMR Infrared Mass Spectrometry of molecules

6 April 2007 VCAA Bulletin NMR involves the interaction of nuclei(not electrons) with electromagnetic radiation. Students should appreciate the information that can be obtained from chemical shift measurements and the number of peaks in a spectrum. While an understanding of the theory of spin-spin coupling is not expected, students should be able to recognise equivalent and non- equivalent atoms in a molecule and apply the n+1 rule in simple cases. For example, they should be able to predict that the 1 H NMR spectrum of CH 3 CH 2 COOH would consist of a quartet, a triplet and a singlet. Only proton decoupled 13 C NMR spectra are studied and unlike 1 H NMR, the peak areas are not used to determine the number of C atoms present and no splitting patterns are present.

7 Marino Dereani Eutectic Educational Mob:

8

9 VCAA 2008 MC Question 5 The disease sickle cell anaemia is marked by the presence of an abnormal protein in the blood of people with this disease. The sixth position in the normal protein chain is occupied by the amino acid, glutamic acid. The sickle cell protein chain has the amino acid, valine, in the sixth position. This is the only difference between the two protein chains. A section of each protein chain containing glutamic acid and valine is shown below It is possible to determine the molecular mass of these proteins in a mass spectrometer. It is also possible to record their 1 H NMR spectra. Which one of the following alternatives is correct?

10 M= = 73 M= = 43 Glutamic acid Valine molecular mass 1H NMR spectrum A. Sickle cell protein chain has the greater molecular mass. Both protein chains have the same 1 H NMR spectrum. B. Sickle cell protein chain has the greater molecular mass. The protein chains have different 1 H NMR spectra. C. Normal protein chain has the greater molecular mass. Both protein chains have the same 1 H NMR spectrum. D. Normal protein chain has the greater molecular mass. The protein chains have different 1 H NMR spectra A.4 B. 14 C.13 D. 69

11 2008 Section B Question 4 A mixture contains several different organic liquids all of which boil at temperatures greater than 50 C. The compounds present in the mixture are separated. Three of the compounds, compounds X, Y and Z, are analysed as follows. Compound X is vaporised. At a temperature of 120 C and a pressure of 115 kpa, a g sample of the vapour occupies 124 ml. a. Calculate the molar mass, in g mol 1, of compound X. (2 marks) Av % b. Compound Y is an alkanol of molecular formula of C 4 H 10 O.

12 b. i. In the boxes below, draw the structural formulas, showing all bonds, of the four possible alkanols with a molecular formula of C 4 H 10 O. Alkanol 1 Alkanol 2 four C environments four C environments Alkanol 3 Alkanol 4 three C environments two C environments OH must be on the end

13 Compound Y shows 3 lines in the 13 C NMR spectrum and undergoes reaction with Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) in acid to produce a carboxylic acid. ii. What evidence about the structure of Y can be gained from this information? Evidence from 13 C NMR spectrum Evidence from reaction with Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) in acid solution iii. Based on the above evidence, identify compound Y by circling the structural formula in part i. that corresponds to compound Y writing below the systematic name of compound Y = 8 marks 4b Av %

14 Compound Z has the molecular formula C 5 H 10 O and shows a strong band in the infrared spectrum at about 1700 cm 1. The 1 H NMR spectrum of compound Z is given below. Adjacent to CH3 Adjacent to CH2 c. i. What information about the structure of Z can be deduced from the above spectral data? From IR data C= O From 1H NMR Two H environments ii. Draw a structure for compound Z that is consistent with the spectral data. 4c. Marks Av % = 3 marks

15 200 9 A B C D Question 20 The separation and identification of proteins that can be used as disease markers is an exciting area of research. Researchers must separate and identify proteins that could be used as disease markers from the many thousands of proteins that exist in our bodies. Which of the following sequence of techniques could be used to i. separate these molecules, then ii. accurately determine their molecular mass, and then iii. determine their molecular structure. A. NMR spectroscopy, followed by mass spectrometry, followed by HPLC B. HPLC, followed by mass spectrometry, followed by NMR spectroscopy C. HPLC, followed by infrared spectroscopy, followed by mass spectrometry D. mass spectrometry, followed by HPLC, followed by infrared spectroscopy A B C D no resp

16 2009 Question 5 The structure of an organic molecule, with empirical formula CH 2 O, is determined using spectroscopic techniques. The mass spectrum, infrared spectrum and 1 H NMR spectrum for this molecule are given below.

17 Use the information provided by these spectra to answer the following questions. What is the molecular formula of this molecule? How many different proton environments are there in this molecule? 2 different 1 H environments Marks 0 1 A % Marks 0 1 Av % c. Draw the structure of the unknown molecule, clearly showing all bonds. 1 mark 1 mark 1 mark d. Explain how the structure of the compound you have drawn in part c. is consistent with its IR spectrum. Marks 0 1 Average Broad peak at (cm -1 ) indicates O-H (acid)* bond. % mark e. Name the compound you have drawn in part c. Marks 0 1 Av % Marks 0 1 Av % In Section B, students overall performance was the best on Question 5. The majority of students were clearly comfortable with the interpretation of mass, NMR and IR spectra and linking together the information to deduce a molecular structure. 1 mark Total 5 marks

18 2010 Question 2 The molecular formula of an unknown compound, X, is C3H 6 O2. The infrared 13C NMR and 1 H NMR spectra of this compound are shown below.

19

20 The 1H NMR spectrum data is summarised in the following table. ii. Draw the grouping of atoms that would give rise to the triplet and quartet splitting patterns. a. Using the Infrared absorption data on page 7 of the Data Book, identify the atoms and the bonds between them that are associated with the absorption labelled A on the infrared spectrum. b. How many different carbon environments are present in compound X? 1 mark 1 mark c. How many different hydrogen environments are present in compound X? 1 mark d. i. The signal at 1.3 ppm is split into a triplet. What is the number of equivalent protons bonded to the adjacent carbon atom?

21 2010 Question 2 The molecular formula of an unknown compound, X, is C3H6O2. The infrared 13C NMR and 1 H NMR spectra of this compound are shown below. C = O Marks 0 1 Av %

22 Three C environments Question 2b. Marks 0 1 Av % Three adjacent H atoms ie CH3 Two adjacent H atoms ie CH2 2di. Marks 0 1 Av % Three H environments Marks 0 1 Av % One isolated H atoms Question 2dii. Marks 0 1 Av %

23 2011 Question 19 Petrol is a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules varying in size from six to ten carbon atoms. Forensic investigators suspect that traces of a substance found at a suspicious fire could be petrol that was used to start the fire. Which one of the following techniques could best be used to identify the substance? A. NMR spectroscopy B. UV-visible spectroscopy C. atomic absorption spectroscopy D. gas chromatography followed by mass spectroscopy Correct Ans: D

24 2011 CH 3 CH 2 + Almost equal % as peak heights at 108,110 almost same height

25 Adjacent to CH3 Adjacent to CHBr2

26 Structure 1 has two H environments Structure 2 has one H environments Ans: Structure 1 At 2.5 ppm, protons are adjacent to CHBr2 At approx 6 ppm, proton is adjacent to CH3

27 SIMPLY NMR Version 2 Software for teaching NMR Simply NMR 2 is the specialty software package of choice for teaching and learning about Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at a high school standard. It serves a dual role firstly a teaching support medium and secondly a student centered tool. The package has been engineered using the latest technologies with a focus on high quality. Its design demonstrates many features which provide an interactive diagnostic approach. The package has been custom built for teaching NMR in the Victorian VCE Chemistry course and can be used in association with the International Baccalaureate (IB) course. The product itself is built on a robust development platform and will provide you the teacher with a top quality support tool for teaching about NMR. It can be used as a template for assignment work, revision and exam preparation. Simply NMR 2 is a must have product.

28 Enthuse and stimulate your students by using Simply NMR 2 with its distinct diagnostic approach. Create an atmosphere of investigation in your classroom by utilizing cutting edge technology and thereby guiding your students into the world of chemical structures and how to analyse them by MNR spectroscopy. Simply NMR 2 is a genuine new generation approach to using technology in the modern classroom. Pricing The package is priced as a minimal 3-year contract which will be extended annually thereafter. The terms of contract include a compulsory 1 st year payment of product license. This is a once only payment in the 3-year period. The subsequent 2yr period will be controlled by an annual student subscription fee based on the student numbers. Use of Simply NMR 2 will be made available by internet connection and by school hardcopy. On entering the contract each school will be given access to the online facility and will be provided with a hardcopy of the program. It is advised that the hardcopy should be installed on the school network for backup purposes and student access both on and off campus. If you have any further enquiries about the package please contact Eutectic Educational on or by on Quotes will be provided on request.

VCE CHEMISTRY 2008 2011: UNIT 3 SAMPLE COURSE OUTLINE

VCE CHEMISTRY 2008 2011: UNIT 3 SAMPLE COURSE OUTLINE VCE CHEMISTRY 2008 2011: UNIT 3 SAMPLE COURSE OUTLINE This sample course outline represents one possible teaching and learning sequence for Unit 3. 1 2 calculations including amount of solids, liquids

More information

Analytical chemistry year 12

Analytical chemistry year 12 Analytical chemistry year 12 1) Consider the molecule on the right. a) How many sets of peaks are present in the 1 H NMR spectrum? 3 b) How many sets of peaks are present in the 13 C NMR spectrum? 4 c)

More information

(3)

(3) 1. Organic compounds are often identified by using more than one analytical technique. Some of these techniques were used to identify the compounds in the following reactions. C 3 H 7 Br C 3 H 8 O C 3

More information

Chapter 15 NMR Spectroscopy

Chapter 15 NMR Spectroscopy Chempocalypse Now! Chapter 15 NMR Spectroscopy Page 1 Chapter 15 NMR Spectroscopy Parts of Topics A5 and A9 from the IB HL Chemistry Curriculum A5 A.5.1 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry (2

More information

Interpretation of Experimental Data

Interpretation of Experimental Data Lab References When evaluating experimental data it is important to recognize what the data you are collecting is telling you, as well as the strengths and limitations of each method you are using. Additionally,

More information

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND INTRODUCTION TO MASS SPECTROMETRY

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND INTRODUCTION TO MASS SPECTROMETRY NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESNANCE AND INTRDUCTIN T MASS SPECTRMETRY A STUDENT SHULD BE ABLE T: 1. Identify and explain the processes involved in proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass

More information

Advanced GCE Chemistry A

Advanced GCE Chemistry A Advanced GCE Chemistry A Unit F324 Rings, Polymers and Analysis igh banded Candidate Style Answer Introduction CR has produced these candidate style answers to support teachers in interpreting the assessment

More information

H NMR (proton NMR): determines number and type of H atoms 13. C NMR (proton NMR): determines number and type of C atoms

H NMR (proton NMR): determines number and type of H atoms 13. C NMR (proton NMR): determines number and type of C atoms 14.1 An Introduction to NMR Spectroscopy A. The Basics of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy nuclei with odd atomic number have a S = ½ with two spin states (+1/2 and -1/2) 1 H NMR (proton NMR):

More information

Department of Chemistry College of Science Sultan Qaboos University. Topics and Learning Outcomes

Department of Chemistry College of Science Sultan Qaboos University. Topics and Learning Outcomes Department of Chemistry College of Science Sultan Qaboos University Title : CHEM 3326 (Applied Spectroscopy) Credits : 3 Course Format : 2 lectures and 2 tutorials Course Text : Spectrometric Identification

More information

By far the most important and useful technique to identify organic molecules. Often the only technique necessary.

By far the most important and useful technique to identify organic molecules. Often the only technique necessary. Chapter 13: NMR Spectroscopy 39 NMR Spectroscopy By far the most important and useful technique to identify organic molecules. Often the only technique necessary. NMR spectrum can be recorded for many

More information

Organic Chemistry Tenth Edition

Organic Chemistry Tenth Edition Organic Chemistry Tenth Edition T. W. Graham Solomons Craig B. Fryhle Welcome to CHM 22 Organic Chemisty II Chapters 2 (IR), 9, 3-20. Chapter 2 and Chapter 9 Spectroscopy (interaction of molecule with

More information

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Introduction: The NMR Spectrum serves as a great resource in determining the structure of an organic compound by revealing the hydrogen and carbon skeleton.

More information

NMR Spectroscopy. Introduction

NMR Spectroscopy. Introduction Introduction NMR Spectroscopy Over the past fifty years nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, commonly referred to as nmr, has become the most important technique for determining the structure of organic

More information

Used to determine relative location of atoms within a molecule Most helpful spectroscopic technique in organic chemistry Related to MRI in medicine

Used to determine relative location of atoms within a molecule Most helpful spectroscopic technique in organic chemistry Related to MRI in medicine Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance CHEM 241 UNIT 5C 1 The Use of NMR Spectroscopy Used to determine relative location of atoms within a molecule Most helpful spectroscopic technique in

More information

Shielding and Chemical Shift. Figure 14.3

Shielding and Chemical Shift. Figure 14.3 Shielding and Chemical Shift Figure 14.3 1 Summary of Shielding Figure 14.4 2 Shielding and Signal Position 3 Characteristic Chemical Shifts Protons in a given environment absorb in a predictable region

More information

Chapter 16: NMR Spectroscopy (i.e., the most exciting thing on the planet)

Chapter 16: NMR Spectroscopy (i.e., the most exciting thing on the planet) Chapter 16: NMR Spectroscopy (i.e., the most exciting thing on the planet) ne day (soon), the following will make a lot of sense to you: 16.1-16.3 The Proton: An Unexpected Journey NMR: Like electrons,

More information

How to Quickly Solve Spectrometry Problems

How to Quickly Solve Spectrometry Problems How to Quickly Solve Spectrometry Problems You should be looking for: Mass Spectrometry (MS) Chemical Formula DBE Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) Important Functional Groups o Alcohol O-H o Carboxylic Acid

More information

CHEM1002 Worksheet 4: Spectroscopy Workshop (1)

CHEM1002 Worksheet 4: Spectroscopy Workshop (1) CHEM1002 Worksheet 4: Spectroscopy Workshop (1) This worksheet forms part of the Spectroscopy Problem Solving Assignment which represents 10% of the assessment of this unit. You should use the support

More information

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy CHEM 334L Organic Chemistry Laboratory Revision 2.0 Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy In this laboratory exercise we will learn how to use the Chemistry Department's Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

More information

PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (H-NMR)

PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (H-NMR) PROTON NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (H-NMR) WHAT IS H-NMR SPECTROSCOPY? References: Bruice 14.1, 14.2 Introduction NMR or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a technique used to determine

More information

13C NMR Spectroscopy

13C NMR Spectroscopy 13 C NMR Spectroscopy Introduction Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is the most powerful tool available for structural determination. A nucleus with an odd number of protons, an odd number

More information

NMR SPECTROSCOPY A N I N T R O D U C T I O N T O... Self-study booklet NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE. 4 3 2 1 0 δ PUBLISHING

NMR SPECTROSCOPY A N I N T R O D U C T I O N T O... Self-study booklet NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE. 4 3 2 1 0 δ PUBLISHING A N I N T R O D U T I O N T O... NMR SPETROSOPY NULEAR MAGNETI RESONANE 4 3 1 0 δ Self-study booklet PUBLISING NMR Spectroscopy NULEAR MAGNETI RESONANE SPETROSOPY Origin of Spectra Theory All nuclei possess

More information

Chapter 13 Spectroscopy NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis

Chapter 13 Spectroscopy NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis Chapter 13 Spectroscopy NMR, IR, MS, UV-Vis Main points of the chapter 1. Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance a. Splitting or coupling (what s next to what) b. Chemical shifts (what type is it) c. Integration

More information

The Four Questions to Ask While Interpreting Spectra. 1. How many different environments are there?

The Four Questions to Ask While Interpreting Spectra. 1. How many different environments are there? 1 H NMR Spectroscopy (#1c) The technique of 1 H NMR spectroscopy is central to organic chemistry and other fields involving analysis of organic chemicals, such as forensics and environmental science. It

More information

CHAPTER 12 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. and MASS SPECTROSCOPY

CHAPTER 12 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. and MASS SPECTROSCOPY KOT 222 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II CHAPTER 12 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY and MASS SPECTROSCOPY Part I Infrared Spectroscopy What is Spectroscopy? Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of matter and electromagnetic

More information

For example: (Example is from page 50 of the Thinkbook)

For example: (Example is from page 50 of the Thinkbook) SOLVING COMBINED SPECTROSCOPY PROBLEMS: Lecture Supplement: page 50-53 in Thinkbook CFQ s and PP s: page 216 241 in Thinkbook Introduction: The structure of an unknown molecule can be determined using

More information

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION. 37 74 20 40 60 80 m/e

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION. 37 74 20 40 60 80 m/e CHM111(M)/Page 1 of 5 INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION SECTION A Answer ALL EIGHT questions. (52 marks) 1. The following is the mass spectrum

More information

Determination of Molecular Structure by MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY

Determination of Molecular Structure by MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY Determination of Molecular Structure by MOLEULAR SPETROSOPY hemistry 3 B.Z. Shakhashiri Fall 29 Much of what we know about molecular structure has been learned by observing and analyzing how electromagnetic

More information

INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (IR)

INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (IR) INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (IR) Theory and Interpretation of IR spectra ASSIGNED READINGS Introduction to technique 25 (p. 833-834 in lab textbook) Uses of the Infrared Spectrum (p. 847-853) Look over pages

More information

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY NMR Spectroscopy F34 1 NULEAR MAGNETI RESONANE SPETROSOPY Involves interaction of materials with the low-energy radiowave region of the electromagnetic spectrum Origin of Spectra Theory All nuclei possess

More information

Lecture Topics: I. IR spectroscopy

Lecture Topics: I. IR spectroscopy IR and Mass Spectrometry Reading: Wade chapter 12, sections 12-1- 12-15 Study Problems: 12-15, 12-16, 12-23, 12-25 Key Concepts and Skills: Given an IR spectrum, identify the reliable characteristic peaks

More information

Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀

Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀 Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀 Introduction Spectroscopy is an analytical technique which helps determine structure. It destroys little or no sample (nondestructive method). The amount of light absorbed

More information

Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Organic Chemistry, 6 th Edition L. G. Wade, Jr. Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Jo Blackburn Richland College, Dallas, TX Dallas County Community College District 2006, Prentice Hall

More information

NMR is the most powerful structure determination tool available to organic chemists.

NMR is the most powerful structure determination tool available to organic chemists. Nuclear Magnetic esonance (NM) Spectrometry NM is the most powerful structure determination tool available to organic chemists. An NM spectrum provides information about: 1. The number of atoms of a given

More information

Organic Spectroscopy

Organic Spectroscopy Organic Spectroscopy Chem 744 / 754 Spring 2013 Gregory R. Cook Web Page cook.chem.ndsu.nodak.edu 2 Resources Books on reserve in the Library Introduction to Spectroscopy 3rd Ed., Pavia, Lampman, Kriz;

More information

A LEVEL. Type of resource H433 CHEMISTRY B. Theme: Carbon-13 MMR. October 2015

A LEVEL. Type of resource H433 CHEMISTRY B. Theme: Carbon-13 MMR. October 2015 A LEVEL Type of resource H433 CHEMISTRY B (SALTERS) Theme: Carbon-13 MMR October 2015 We will inform centres about any changes to the specification. We will also publish changes on our website. The latest

More information

CHE334 Identification of an Unknown Compound By NMR/IR/MS

CHE334 Identification of an Unknown Compound By NMR/IR/MS CHE334 Identification of an Unknown Compound By NMR/IR/MS Purpose The object of this experiment is to determine the structure of an unknown compound using IR, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Infrared

More information

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H-NMR) Spectroscopy

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H-NMR) Spectroscopy Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H-NMR) Spectroscopy Theory behind NMR: In the late 1940 s, physical chemists originally developed NMR spectroscopy to study different properties of atomic nuclei,

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique used to characterize organic molecules by identifying carbonhydrogen frameworks within

More information

Chapter 11 Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. 11.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Chapter 11 Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. 11.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance John E. McMurry http://www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 11 Structure Determination: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 11.1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Many atomic nuclei behave

More information

1) A compound gives a mass spectrum with peaks at m/z = 77 (40%), 112 (100%), 114 (33%), and essentially no other peaks. Identify the compound.

1) A compound gives a mass spectrum with peaks at m/z = 77 (40%), 112 (100%), 114 (33%), and essentially no other peaks. Identify the compound. 1) A compound gives a mass spectrum with peaks at m/z = 77 (40%), 112 (100%), 114 (33%), and essentially no other peaks. Identify the compound. First, your molecular ion peak is 112 and you have a M+2

More information

Solving Spectroscopy Problems

Solving Spectroscopy Problems Solving Spectroscopy Problems The following is a detailed summary on how to solve spectroscopy problems, key terms are highlighted in bold and the definitions are from the illustrated glossary on Dr. Hardinger

More information

SIGNAL SPLITTING: Why are there so many peaks all in one area? This is called signal splitting. Example: (image from Illustrated Glossary, splitting)

SIGNAL SPLITTING: Why are there so many peaks all in one area? This is called signal splitting. Example: (image from Illustrated Glossary, splitting) Proton NMR Spectroscopy: Split the signals, not your brain! Before we can understand signal splitting, we have to understand what NMR is. This tutorial will first discuss a few concepts about NMR and then

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Introduction NMR is the most powerful tool available for organic structure determination. It is used to study a wide variety of nuclei: 1 H 13 C 15 N 19 F 31 P 2

More information

j. SO 3, SO 2, NaCl, Na 2 O (1 mark each) Total 10 a) 525 kj mol -1 per mole of Mg (2 marks) (-1 for incorrect sign or unit)

j. SO 3, SO 2, NaCl, Na 2 O (1 mark each) Total 10 a) 525 kj mol -1 per mole of Mg (2 marks) (-1 for incorrect sign or unit) ANSWERS RUND 1 1. This is a question about trends in chemistry a. Na, S 8, Al, Si b. 2, 4, N 3, Li c. Mg, Na, a, K d. Mg 2+, Na +, F -, l - e. K, Na, l, F f. Si, S, P, l g. Br 2, l 2, 2, N 2 h. XeF 4,

More information

Determining the Structure of an Organic Compound

Determining the Structure of an Organic Compound Determining the Structure of an Organic Compound The analysis of the outcome of a reaction requires that we know the full structure of the products as well as the reactants In the 19 th and early 20 th

More information

CHEMISTRY 251 Spectroscopy Problems

CHEMISTRY 251 Spectroscopy Problems EMISTRY 251 Spectroscopy Problems The IR below is most likely of a: aldehyde alkane alkene alkyl bromide alkyne The IR below is most likely of a: acyl chloride alcohol 3 amide ether nitrile The IR spectrum

More information

AP Chemistry. Unit #3. Chapter 3 Zumdahl

AP Chemistry. Unit #3. Chapter 3 Zumdahl AP Chemistry Unit #3 Chapter 3 Zumdahl Stoichiometry C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O Students should be able to: Calculate the atomic weight (average atomic mass) of an element from the relative abundances

More information

Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Ultraviolet Spectroscopy The wavelength of UV and visible light are substantially shorter than the wavelength of infrared radiation. The UV spectrum ranges from 100 to 400 nm. A UV-Vis spectrophotometer

More information

Nuclear Structure. particle relative charge relative mass proton +1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass

Nuclear Structure. particle relative charge relative mass proton +1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass Protons, neutrons and electrons Nuclear Structure particle relative charge relative mass proton 1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass Protons and neutrons make up

More information

Molecular spectroscopy III: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

Molecular spectroscopy III: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Molecular spectroscopy III: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which magnetic nuclei in a magnetic field absorb electromagnetic radiation at a

More information

Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space

Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space BACKGROUND INFORMATION Infrared Spectroscopy Before introducing the subject of IR spectroscopy, we must first review some aspects of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is composed

More information

Chemistry 201. Quantitative Analysis

Chemistry 201. Quantitative Analysis Chemistry 201 Lecture 4 Quantitative Analysis NC State University Focus on energy The work done in the internal combustion engine is called pressure volume work. For a simple irreversible stroke the work

More information

CORK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY INSTITIÚID TEICNEOLAÍOCHTA CHORCAÍ

CORK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY INSTITIÚID TEICNEOLAÍOCHTA CHORCAÍ CORK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY INSTITIÚID TEICNEOLAÍOCHTA CHORCAÍ Module Title: Topics in Organic Chemistry Module Code: CHEO 7003 School : Science Programme Title: Bachelor of Science in Analytical & Pharmaceutical

More information

SPECTROSCOPY. NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) AND INFRARED (IR)

SPECTROSCOPY. NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR) AND INFRARED (IR) EXPERIMENT 9 SPETRSPY. NULEAR MAGNETI RESNANE (NMR) AND INFRARED (IR) Materials Needed approx 100 mg of an ester synthesized in Expt #7 - (octyl acetate, benzyl acetate, or isopentyl acetate) approx 1

More information

Spectra Interpretation of Organic Compounds

Spectra Interpretation of Organic Compounds Ernö Pretsch, Jean Thomas Clerc Spectra Interpretation of Organic Compounds VCH A Wiley Company Contents 1 Problem 1 1 1.1 Elemental Composition and Structural Features 4 1.2 Structural Assembly 6 1.3

More information

Chemistry 307 Chapter 10 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Chemistry 307 Chapter 10 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Chemistry 307 Chapter 10 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of three spectroscopic techniques that are useful tools for determining the structures of organic

More information

Identifying an Unknown Substance using Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 13 C NMR), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic

Identifying an Unknown Substance using Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 13 C NMR), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Identifying an Unknown Substance using Infrared Spectroscopy (I), arbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic esonance ( 13 NM), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic esonance ( 1 NM) Identifying an Unknown Substance using Infrared

More information

Chemical Shift (δ) 0 (by definition) 0.8-1.0 1.2-1.4 1.4-1.7 1.6-2.6 2.0-3.0 2.2-2.5 2.3-2.8 0.5-6.0 3.4-4.0 3.3-4.0 0.5-5.0

Chemical Shift (δ) 0 (by definition) 0.8-1.0 1.2-1.4 1.4-1.7 1.6-2.6 2.0-3.0 2.2-2.5 2.3-2.8 0.5-6.0 3.4-4.0 3.3-4.0 0.5-5.0 Chemical Shifts 1 H-NMR Type of Hydrogen (CH 3 ) 4 Si RCH 3 RCH 2 R R 3 CH R 2 C=CRCHR 2 RC CH ArCH 3 ArCH 2 R ROH RCH 2 OH RCH 2 OR R 2 NH O RCCH 3 O RCCH 2 R Chemical Shift (δ) 0 (by definition) 0.8-1.0

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

Organic Chemistry Nuclear Magnetic Resonance H. D. Roth. Chemistry 307 Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Organic Chemistry Nuclear Magnetic Resonance H. D. Roth. Chemistry 307 Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Chemistry 307 Chapter 13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of three spectroscopic techniques that are useful tools for determining the structures of organic

More information

Introduction. Chapter 12 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Types of Spectroscopy 8/29/2011

Introduction. Chapter 12 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Types of Spectroscopy 8/29/2011 Organic Chemistry, 6 th Edition L. G. Wade, Jr. Chapter 12 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy Introduction Spectroscopy is an analytical technique which helps determine structure. It destroys

More information

UNR Chemistry Courses Changes to implement the UCCSN Common Course Numbering Initiative Effective beginning with Summer 2003 term

UNR Chemistry Courses Changes to implement the UCCSN Common Course Numbering Initiative Effective beginning with Summer 2003 term UNR Chemistry Courses Changes to implement the UCCSN Common Course Numbering Initiative Effective beginning with Summer 2003 term Old CHEM courses (2002-2003 catalog) 100 MOLECULES AND LIFE IN THE MODERN

More information

Chemical shift = observed chemical shift in MHz/ frequency of spectrometer (MHz)

Chemical shift = observed chemical shift in MHz/ frequency of spectrometer (MHz) Chapter 4. Physical Basis of NMR Spectroscopy. Today the most widely used method for determining the structure of organic compounds is nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. NMR spectroscopy involves

More information

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS: IR SPECTROSCOPY AND 13C NMR. The peak at 1720 indicates a C=O bond (carbonyl). One possibility is acetone:

HOMEWORK PROBLEMS: IR SPECTROSCOPY AND 13C NMR. The peak at 1720 indicates a C=O bond (carbonyl). One possibility is acetone: HMEWRK PRBLEMS: IR SPECTRSCPY AND 13C NMR 1. You find a bottle on the shelf only labeled C 3 H 6. You take an IR spectrum of the compound and find major peaks at 2950, 1720, and 1400 cm -1. Draw a molecule

More information

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Exam Name SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 1) Calculate the magnetic field that corresponds to the proton resonance frequency of 300.00

More information

Organic Spectroscopy. UV - Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. !! 200-800 nm. Methods for structure determination of organic compounds:

Organic Spectroscopy. UV - Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. !! 200-800 nm. Methods for structure determination of organic compounds: Organic Spectroscopy Methods for structure determination of organic compounds: X-ray rystallography rystall structures Mass spectroscopy Molecular formula -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

Georgia Institute of Technology CHEM 1310 Fall Semester 2009 Recitation Assignment! Fundamental Principles and Terminology

Georgia Institute of Technology CHEM 1310 Fall Semester 2009 Recitation Assignment! Fundamental Principles and Terminology The Fundamentals and Stoichiometry Recitation Worksheet Week of 25 August 2008. Fundamental Principles and Terminology Avogadro s Number: Used to represent the amount of a given atom as a basis for comparison

More information

Information contained in an NMR spectrum includes: 1. number of signals. Interpreting 1 H (Proton) NMR Spectra

Information contained in an NMR spectrum includes: 1. number of signals. Interpreting 1 H (Proton) NMR Spectra Information contained in an NMR spectrum includes: Interpreting 1 (Proton) NMR Spectra 1. number of signals 2. their intensity (as measured by area under peak) 3. splitting pattern (multiplicity) Number

More information

Element of same atomic number, but different atomic mass o Example: Hydrogen

Element of same atomic number, but different atomic mass o Example: Hydrogen Atomic mass: p + = protons; e - = electrons; n 0 = neutrons p + + n 0 = atomic mass o For carbon-12, 6p + + 6n 0 = atomic mass of 12.0 o For chlorine-35, 17p + + 18n 0 = atomic mass of 35.0 atomic mass

More information

1 H NMR and 13 C NMR spectra interpretation

1 H NMR and 13 C NMR spectra interpretation 1 NMR and 13 C NMR spectra interpretation Ewa Dudziak Introduction Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful method for organic molecule structure determination. Moreover, NMR allows

More information

Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: The Core Principles of Chemistry

Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: The Core Principles of Chemistry Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GCE Centre Number Chemistry Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: The Core Principles of Chemistry Candidate Number Thursday 13 January 2011 Morning Time: 1 hour

More information

Organic Spectroscopy

Organic Spectroscopy 1 Organic Spectroscopy Second Year, Michaelmas term, 8 lectures: Dr TDW Claridge & Prof BG Davis Lectures 1 4 highlight the importance of spectroscopic methods in the structural elucidation of organic

More information

Infrared Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry

Infrared Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry Infrared Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry Introduction It is fundamental for an organic chemist to be able to identify, or characterize, the new compound that he/she has just made. Sometimes this can

More information

Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography

Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography Chromatography is a common technique for separating chemical substances. The prefix chroma, which suggests color, comes from the fact that some of the

More information

Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas. AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights.

Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas. AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights. 1 Introduction to Chemistry Atomic Weights (Definitions) Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights.

More information

12.4 FUNCTIONAL-GROUP INFRARED ABSORPTIONS

12.4 FUNCTIONAL-GROUP INFRARED ABSORPTIONS 552 APTER 12 INTRODUTION TO SPETROSOPY. INFRARED SPETROSOPY AND MASS SPETROMETRY PROBLEM 12.9 Which of the following vibrations should be infrared-active and which should be infrared-inactive (or nearly

More information

CHEM 51LB EXP 1 SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS: INFRARED AND NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY

CHEM 51LB EXP 1 SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS: INFRARED AND NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY CHEM 51LB EXP 1 SPECTRSCPIC METHDS: INFRARED AND NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESNANCE SPECTRSCPY REACTINS: None TECHNIQUES: IR Spectroscopy, NMR Spectroscopy Infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

More information

Chapter 13 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy

Chapter 13 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy Chapter 13 Mass Spectrometry and Infrared Spectroscopy Copyright 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Overview of Mass Spectrometry Mass spectrometry

More information

Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Chapter 4 Objectives Explain how carbon s electron configuration accounts for its ability to form large, complex, and diverse organic molecules. Describe how

More information

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7.

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7. Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance (mol) the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (N A ) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1.

More information

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance notes

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance notes Reminder: These notes are meant to supplement, not replace, the laboratory manual. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance notes Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a spectrometric technique which provides information

More information

MEMORANDUM GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Paper 2

MEMORANDUM GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Paper 2 MEMORANDUM GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Paper 2 MARKS: 150 TIME: 3 hours Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards LO1 LO2 LO3 AS 11.1.1: Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to collect

More information

Building Macromolecules

Building Macromolecules Building Macromolecules NGSSS: SC.A.912.L.18.1 Describe the basic molecular structures and primary functions of the four major categories of biological macromolecules. (AA) Background: Biological macromolecules

More information

Yin and Yang in Chemistry Education: The Complementary Nature of FT-IR and NMR Spectroscopies

Yin and Yang in Chemistry Education: The Complementary Nature of FT-IR and NMR Spectroscopies Yin and Yang in Chemistry Education: The Complementary Nature of FT-IR and NMR Spectroscopies Matthew Gundlach, Katherine Paulsen, Michael Garry, Steve Lowry, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Madison, WI USA

More information

Suggested solutions for Chapter 3

Suggested solutions for Chapter 3 s for Chapter PRBLEM Assuming that the molecular ion is the base peak (00% abundance) what peaks would appear in the mass spectrum of each of these molecules: (a) C5Br (b) C60 (c) C64Br In cases (a) and

More information

ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION

ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION Chem 306 Section (Circle) M Tu W Th Name Partners Date ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION Materials: prepared acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), stockroom samples

More information

Examination of Proton NMR Spectra

Examination of Proton NMR Spectra Examination of Proton NMR Spectra What to Look For 1) Number of Signals --- indicates how many "different kinds" of protons are present. 2) Positions of the Signals --- indicates something about magnetic

More information

Determination of Equilibrium Constants using NMR Spectrscopy

Determination of Equilibrium Constants using NMR Spectrscopy CHEM 331L Physical Chemistry Laboratory Revision 1.0 Determination of Equilibrium Constants using NMR Spectrscopy In this laboratory exercise we will measure a chemical equilibrium constant using key proton

More information

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure.

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Nucleus- positively charged contains protons (p+), neutrons(n0),

More information

Polysulfated Xanthones: Multipathway Development of a New Generation of Dual Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Agents

Polysulfated Xanthones: Multipathway Development of a New Generation of Dual Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Agents Supporting Information Polysulfated Xanthones: Multipathway Development of a New Generation of Dual Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Agents Marta Correia-da-Silva, Emília Sousa, Bárbara Duarte, Franklim Marques,

More information

Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 7 Spectroscopy

Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 7 Spectroscopy Q1. Potassium chloride can be used instead of salt by people suffering from high blood pressure. Suppose, while cooking, someone spilt some potassium chloride in the flame of a gas stove. a What colour

More information

The Mole Concept. A. Atomic Masses and Avogadro s Hypothesis

The Mole Concept. A. Atomic Masses and Avogadro s Hypothesis The Mole Concept A. Atomic Masses and Avogadro s Hypothesis 1. We have learned that compounds are made up of two or more different elements and that elements are composed of atoms. Therefore, compounds

More information

The Experiment Some nuclei have nuclear magnetic moments; just as importantly, some do not

The Experiment Some nuclei have nuclear magnetic moments; just as importantly, some do not Chemistry 2600 Lecture Notes Chapter 15 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Page 1 of 23 Structure Determination in Organic Chemistry: NMR Spectroscopy Three main techniques are used to determine the

More information

Wave Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation

Wave Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation Wave Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation Two options are available for analytical utility when an analyte interacts with a beam of electromagnetic radiation in an instrument 1. We can monitor the changes

More information

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions. Dalton s Atomic Theory ( ) Postulates

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions. Dalton s Atomic Theory ( ) Postulates Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions The topics in this chapter should be review from a previous course. It is expected that you are able to review and master this material quickly and somewhat independently.

More information

Chemistry CHEM1. Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry. Surname. Other Names. Centre Number. Candidate Number. Candidate Signature

Chemistry CHEM1. Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry. Surname. Other Names. Centre Number. Candidate Number. Candidate Signature Surname Other Names Centre Number Candidate Number Candidate Signature General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Examination January 2013 Chemistry Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry CEM1 Thursday

More information

AS1 MOLES. oxygen molecules have the formula O 2 the relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 so the molar mass will be 32g mol -1

AS1 MOLES. oxygen molecules have the formula O 2 the relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 so the molar mass will be 32g mol -1 Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (L) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.023 x 10 23 mol -1. Example

More information

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to:

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to: Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including

More information

Trans Fats. What is a trans fat? Trans fatty acids, or trans fats as they are known, are certain

Trans Fats. What is a trans fat? Trans fatty acids, or trans fats as they are known, are certain Trans Fats What is a trans fat? Trans fatty acids, or trans fats as they are known, are certain fats found in such foodstuffs as vegetable shortenings, margarines, crackers, candies baked goods and many

More information