Norton Media Library. Give Me Liberty! AN AMERICAN HISTORY THIRD EDITION. by Eric Foner

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1 Norton Media Library Give Me Liberty! AN AMERICAN HISTORY THIRD EDITION by Eric Foner

2 Norton Media Library Chapter 1 A New World Eric Foner

3 Introduction Columbus 1492: interaction between continents, new crops change diets, transform environment, germs cause epidemics, Africa supplies cheap labor Europeans look to new world as magical place to cure problems, greater chance for land ownership and worship Interactions between eruo, nat americans, Africans shape colonial era

4 The Village of Secoton

5 A 1544 engraving of the Western Hemisphere by Sebastian Cabot

6 Map 1.1 The first Americans

7 The First Americans: Numerous tribes and languages Bering Strait - 15k to 60k years ago Hunter gatherers Agriculture spreads making settled civilizations possible - maize, corn, beans

8 Map of the Aztec capital

9 Indian Societies Tenochtitlan- 250k pop capital of Aztec Empire in current day Mexico Inca kingdom in current Peru has 12 million people spread out Indian civilizations in current US had not developed to extent of S America lack technologies of Euro metal tools, machines, gunpowder scientific knowledge long distance travel, literacy, wheeled vehicles lack of horses Indians perfect hunting fishing have power structures and religions and take part in far-reaching trade

10 A modern aerial photograph of the ruins of Pueblo Bonita

11 Cliff dwellings

12 Another drawing by the artist John White

13 Map 1.2 Native ways of life, ca.1500

14 Mound builders of Mississippi Valley: Present day Louisiana Trade routes along Mississippi and Ohio river valleys Copper and flint Cahokia largest community in current US till NY and Phillip surpass around little is known of political and economic structure

15 Western Indians: Present day Arizona- Hopi and Zuni settled village life for 3k years Dams and canals Pueblo Bonita in Chaco Canyon- five stories over six hundred rooms largest structure in north America till 1880s Drought leads to decline forces move S and E called Pueblo Indians by Spanish Small villages w Irrigation farming corn beans cotton Fishes of Columbia rivers supply Indians of the west w food along with buffalo on GP

16 Indians of Eastern North America : Hundreds of tribes from gulf of Mexico to Canada corn squash beans fish deer turkey Tribes war with each other conduct diplomacy make peace Little centralized power In South East - Choctaw Cherokee and Chickasaw unite in towns into loose alliances around 15th century Present day NY and Penn five Iroquois tribes form Great League of Peace Native Americans extremely diverse at time of European arrival each group has own political system and religious beliefs languages Indians do not think of themselves as a single entity but rather immediate social structure - tribe village chiefdom confederacy When Europeans arrive Indians attempt to use them to gain leverage against other tribes rather then unite against them

17 A seventeenth-century engraving

18 Native American Religion: Some common characteristics Ceremonies related to farming hunting Sacred spirits could be found in all living and inanimate things Ceremonies meant to harness powers for their benefit Shamans medicine men religious leaders hold positions of respect and authority Most believe in a single creator Europeans want to convert them to Christian faith

19 Land and Property: Village leaders assign plots to families for a season or more Tribes claim specific areas for hunting Unclaimed land free to anyone Land equals common resource not economic commodity Black Hawk quote pg 9 god gave land for necessary subsistence No real-estate market till Europeans Indians not devoted to accumulation of wealth and material goods but status within the tribe was important but leaders share goods rather then horde them Generosity among most valued social quality - gift giving essential and forms bonds of mutual obligation Indians do not suffer from want or hunger like the inequalities of European societies

20 A Catawba map

21 Indians fishing

22 Indian women planting crops

23 Gender Relations: Differs from euro Women have premarital sex and can divorce husbands Matrilineal centered on klans groups in which children become part of women's family not fathers Village leaders almost always men but women take part in religious ceremonies and sometimes help to pick leaders Take part in tribal meetings Under English law man controlled all property and women had no legal independent identity Indian women own dwellings tools and husbands move in w family of wife Men were off hunting so women take responsibility for household and agriculture

24 European views of Indians: Noble savages or brutal savages & Overtime negative image hardens Barbaric because of religion, land views, role of women Herbal men = witch doctors & Ceremonies = superstition Indians view world and nature as spirits and souls while Europeans view land and resources as potential commodities Europeans use belief that Indians had never used the land and therefore had no right to it as reason for taking it as their own Viewed Indians as nomads and land as vacant wilderness ready to be claimed by newcomers who would cultivate and improve it. Indian sexual division of labor and matrilineal family is viewed as weak men who mistreated women Hunting and fishing viewed as leisure activities in Europe not real work Women working in field lack freedom and compared to slaves Euro view = women role in household and authority lays with the husband Euro view subduing Indians as Freeing them

25 An engraving

26 Indian Liberty vs. Christian Liberty Indian Freedom: No established governments or fixed laws Euro view them as two free lacking in order and discipline of a true civilization Some Indians own slaves resent European attempts to make them slaves Indians place importance in kinship ties, spiritual values, and well being of ones community Mutual obligation and connectedness were more more important to Indians then individual freedom Christian Liberty: Freedom not one single idea but collection of distinct rights and privileges many of which were only enjoyed by small portion of population Moral and spiritual freedom - abandoning life of sin and embracing Christ - new testament quote Each nation in Europe has established church that determined what forms of worship and beliefs were acceptable Religious uniformity essential to public order - dissenters punished by state and shunned from church Religion as a private choice did no exist back then. Wars of 16th 17th century Europe were wars to determine what religion would dominate a region not wars for religious freedom

27 Freedom and Authority Freedom = obedience to law Aristotle law is liberty salvation not enemy Rigid social structure in Europe Less then 5% of pop controlled English Econ and political power Coverture - when women marry they surrender legal identity to husband, no property no contracts, no separate will, no court divorce Mans authority over wife = kings authority over subjects New testament quote pg. 15 Liberty & liberties: No ones place in society and fulfill your duties No religious freedom, govt. censorship over press, imprisonment for govt critique Freedom of speech during parliament sessions but not for the masses

28 Map 1.3 The old world on the eve of American colonization, ca.1500

29 Expansion of Europe: Discovery of America was a mistake looking for quick route to Asia for silk tea spices Portugal takes advantage of new sailing and navigation techniques to explore Atlantic Portugal travels further down tip of Africa then a very wealthy nation w gold Portuguese sugar plantations off coast of Africa worked by slaves Other countries in euro take notice and want in Freedom and slavery in Africa: Existed before arrival of Europe but Europeans accelerated slave trade Slaves in west indies set precedent for slaves in NW

30 A Detail from the Cantino World Map

31 Columbus s Landfall

32 Voyages of Columbus: Things world is much smaller then it is wants to find quick route to Asia looks across Europe for financing finds it from Spain King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella 1469 marry and unite warring kingdoms Defeat Moors African Muslims and complete re-conquest of Spain Territorial and religious unification Muslims and Jews either convert to Catholicism or leave Spain Bankers and merchants who wanted to trade in Asia with out paying middlemen Muslims also help to finance Columbus voyage Columbus in the NW: 1492 lands in Bahamas 1493 euro colonization begins 1499 & 1502 Amerigo Vespucci travels down coast of south America proving this was a new continent unknown to Europeans and new world gets his name America Columbus thinks Indians are from east indies and this is why they are known as Indians

33 Map 1.4 Voyages of Discovery

34 Exploration and conquest: Gutenberg moveable type spreads info much quicker and news of discovery spreads throughout euro Counties all across euro follow in Columbus foot steps but it is Spain who takes lead in exploration and conquest Wealth national glory desire to spread Catholicism = conquistadors Cortes arrives in Tenochtitlan in 1519 Aztecs = violent warriors whose religious ceremonies included human sacrifice helps to ingrained belief that NW inhabitants are brutal barbarians Cortes has iron weapons and gunpowder and disease smallpox devastate Aztecs Pizarro does the same to Inca kingdom in Peru Gold from Mexico and Peru enrich Spanish crown

35 Engravings, from the Florentine Codex

36 Another scene from the Florentine Codex

37 Europeans bring germs and disease that devastate native people of the new world The demographic disaster: Columbian Exchange: this new massive exchange of goods and people across the Atlantic reverses millions of years of evolution Plants animals and cultures are now thrown together for first time New products from America include corn tomato potato tobacco and cotton Old world supplies wheat rice sugar cane horses cattle pigs and sheep

38 An eighteenth-century

39 An illustration from the Huexotzinco Codex

40 The Spanish Empire: Stretching from anise mountains up to present day Florida with Mexico city it main center in NW Lawyers and bureaucrats take place of conquistadors to run a stable govt. King rules with catholic church No elective bodies or native born officials At first but as Spain's power weakens the natives gain more control No large import of African slaves instead ins lave the Indians to work in mines Unlike English colonies Indians still out populated the Spanish and enjoyed many rights with idea of eventual assimilation

41 Many Spanish who came to NW were single men and with small Spanish female population they begin to marry Indians these are recognized by Spanish crown in 1514 as way to bring Christianity Offspring known as Mestizo Virgin of Guadalupe becomes symbol of mixing between Indian and Spanish cultures Four Racial Groups

42 A banner carried by the forces of Cortés

43 Justifications for conquest: Superiority of culture: failure of natives to abandon their own beliefs and customs reinforces the idea that natives are heathens Spreading the Faith: Missionary spread Catholicism Protestant reformation divides catholic church in 1517 when Martin Luther accuses church of worldliness and corruption. He wants to cleanse church of wrongdoing such as selling the forgiveness of sins believes all followers should read bible themselves instead of having priests interpret it for them This leads to new Protestant churches that were independent of Rome and plunges Europe into more then century of religious and political strife Spain's main goal in the NW becomes turn the Indians into Catholics save the from heathenism and keep them from becoming Protestants Even enslaving them in brutal gold and silver mines is viewed as liberating the Indians

44 Las Casas's complaint 1537 pope Paul 3 outlaws Indian enslavement 15 years later Dominican priest Bartolome de la Casas publishes A Very Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies 1514 he frees his own Indian slaves and begins to preach against their treatment Writes about the massacres at hands of Spanish and the brutal enslavement says Indians are not barbarians and need to be treated equally since they are subjects of the Spanish crown Also argues that African slaves should be brought in to help protect Indians from exploitation

45 Dominican priest Bartolome de la Casas

46 Reforming the Empire: Las Casas believes that cruelty undermines the goal of converting the indians to Christianity 1542 Spain passes New Laws that say Indians can not be enslaved 1550 Spain abolishes encomienda system which gave first conquerors right to take native land and force them into slavery Replace it with Repartimiento system which makes Indians legally free entitles them to wages and access to land but says they have to spend a certain amount of time each year working for the Spanish Leads to a system of forced wage labor Las Casas's writing helps lead to Black Legend belief that Spain was uniquely brutal and exploitive as a colonizer. This idea gives other Europeans a reason to challenge Spain NW dominance

47 A benign view of Spanish colonization.

48 Spanish conquistadores murdering

49 A 1791 view of Mission San Carlos

50 Spanish Exploration: map on pg 29 Many were unsuccessful and extremely brutal killing of entire civilizations Establish Spanish claims to large parts of south and southwest US First US region Spain colonized was Florida want to establish a military base that can stop pirate ships that are looting treasure sailing from Havana to Europe St Augustine in Florida becomes oldest site in US to be continually inhabited by European settlers and their descendants But Florida never attracts great number of settlers while under Spanish rule Not till 1598 Spain makes permanent settlement in southwest north of Mexico Present day New Mexico Destroy Acoma Indians there kill 800 of 1500 force women and children into servitude and cut off one foot of each surviving adult male Santa Fe is first permanent European capital in south west America

51 Table 1.1 Estimated Regional Populations: The Americas, ca.1500

52 Table 1.2 Estimated Regional Populations

53 Map 1.5 A Spanish Conquests and Explorations in The New World,

54 The Pueblo Revolt: New Mexico Spanish population were mostly Mestizo and numbered less then 3k Indians dwindle from 60k in 1600 to 17k only 8 years later Relations deteriorated because of exploitation and constant efforts to convert Indians Missionaries attempt to stomp out symbols of Indian religious practices and anger more Indians then they convert 1680 after long draughts the Pueblo Indians finally unite together against the Spanish Leader is Indian named Pope who was arrested along with 47 others in 1675 for practicing "sorcery" traditional ceremonies. 4 were hung the rest were public ally whipped in Santa Fe Pueblo tribes spoke 6 separate languages and Spanish becomes their primaries means of communication Destroy farms villages kill missionaries and colonists and then surround Santa Fe and force Spain to abandon town This uprising was the most complete victory for Indians over Europeans and the only wholesale expulsion of settlers in the history of North America By 1680s Pueblo villages begin to fight each other and unity dies. In 1690 Pope dies and in 1692 the Spanish reconquer New Mexico having learned a lesson they were more tolerant of Indians religious practices and less demanding on labor

55 Acoma, the sky city, as it appeared in 1904.

56 St.Anthony and the Infant Jesus

57 A Native American

58 The French and Dutch Empires: Treasures of the NW inspire other Euro countries to try and match Spain's success Atlantic is now major route of trade replacing former Asian land route New France and New Netherlands were commercial ventures that never attracted the number of settlers that England did therefore they were more friendly with and reliant upon the Indians Map 1.6 The New World-New France and New Netherland, ca. 1650

59 French Canada fails to attract large numbers of settlers, govt feared too many immigrants would weaken France in Europe and hurt trade relations with the Indians French Colonization: Hopes of gold and northwest passage sea route to Asia Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608 financed by fur company Jacques Marquette and Louis Joilet find the Mississippi River in 1643 In 1681 Robert Cavelier and Sieur de La Salle explore all the way down to Gulf of Mexico and claim Miss River for France

60 New France and Indians: Small white population and dependence on fur trade leads to friendlier relations between French and Indians Work out military commercial and diplomatic connections together Did not take land like the English or force them into servitude like the Spanish Did attempt to convert but did not suppress all traditional religious practices Spread of disease: Atlantic fur trade changes Indian hunting from a search for food to a quest for marketable goods Indians drown into European conflicts and conflicts amongst separate tribes Huron armed by France vs the Iroquois armed by the Dutch Metis children of Indians and French become guides, traders, and interpreters Indians who converted to Catholicism were promised full citizenship More often it was French settlers who were attracted to "free life" of Indians then Indians to be attracted by French ways

61 This engraving, which appears in Samuelde Champlain s 1613

62 The Dutch Empire: 1609 Henry Hudson employee of Dutch East India company sails into NY harbor and claims area for the Netherlands 12 years later after being awarded a monopoly Dutch trade with America the company settled colonists on Manhattan Island Amsterdam was Europe's biggest shipping and banking center The seal of Netherland Dutch invent Joint Stock Company way in which investors pool resources and share the risk of maritime voyages. This is very important to the development of modern capitalism

63 Dutch Freedom: Two freedoms not recognized anywhere else in Europe: Freedom of press and Religious toleration Amsterdam becomes haven for people wishing to separate from the Church of England Freedom in New Netherlands: No elected assembly no town council Government was established and run by the West India Company Slaves possessed some rights required to pay annual fee to company and work when needed but given land to support families Settlers employed slaves to work on small family farms unlike the plantations of English settlement Women more freedom. When married they retained their legal identity could go to court borrow money and own property Religious toleration makes New Amsterdam one of the most diverse populations in the world Africans, Belgians, English, French, German Irish...later on NYC same way When Jews arrive they are ordered to leave by the Governor Peter Stuyvesant but company over rules him because of the large investment that Jews had made in shares in the company

64 Visions of Freedom

65 A view of New Amsterdam

66 Dutch establish friendly commercial and diplomatic relations with the Iroquois Confederacy of the upper Hudson Valley Settling New Netherlands: Company offers free livestock and land ownership after 6 years of labor Offer large estates to Patroons - stock holders who would bring their tenants to the NW and have them cultivate the land. These Patroons would be given 10 % of their tenants annual income and have complete authority over law enforcement in their domain Fails to become heavily populated by Dutch New Netherlands and the Indians: Dutch there to trade not to conquer Identify with Indians as fellow victims of Spanish cruelty want to liberate new world from tyranny of Spain and the Catholic church Recognize Indian sovereignty forbidding settlement until land had been purchased from Indians Tribes did have to make payments to colonial authorities and their were clashes between tribes and colonists

67 A map of the Western Hemisphere

68 Similarities between Spain, Christianity French, and Dutch: New forms of technology and learning New legal systems and family structures New forms of economic enterprise and wealth creation Savage warfare and widespread disease

69 Norton Media Library Independent and Employee-Owned This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set for Chapter 1 Give Me Liberty! AN AMERICAN HISTORY THIRD EDITION by Eric Foner

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