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1 Chapter 15 Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The first Aztecs were a. fishers from the west coast of Mexico. b. shepherds from the mountains of Mexico. c. Europeans who settled in central Mexico. d. farmers from what is now northern Mexico. 2. After the Aztecs discovered that there was no good farmland, they a. sewed fine textiles to trade. b. raised llamas and other animals. c. became laborers for another tribe. d. hired themselves out as skilled fighters. 3. A tribute was a. a payment to a more powerful ruler or country. b. a special musical ceremony performed by the citizens of conquered cities. c. the name given to the ruler of the Aztec Empire. d. a rare gem found along the shores of Lake Texcoco. 4. Other than trading their goods, what key role did many merchants perform for the Aztec emperors? a. They were spiritual advisers. b. They were spies, alerting the emperors to possible troubles in other regions. c. They controlled the distribution of all money in the empire. d. They were the official scribes, or historians, for the empire. 5. Which of the following is the name for the type of floating gardens the Aztecs built? a. malinchista c. chinampas b. quipus d. causeway

2 6. These great towns and pyramids and buildings rising from the water, all made of stone, seemed like an enchanted vision.... It was all so wonderful that I do not know how to describe this first glimpse of things never heard of, seen, or dreamed of before. The speaker in the passage above is a. describing his first view of a European city. b. retelling a dream told to him by Moctezuma II. c. describing his first visit to Tenochtitlán. d. explaining how the towns in the empire were organized. 7. What were the key factors in the rise of the Aztec Empire? a. geographic location, large population, and superior weapons b. very literate citizens, restricted borders, and tightly enforced laws c. fertile farmland and access to plenty of drinking water and gold d. war, tribute, and trade 8. Which of the following was not a reason the Spanish explorers and soldiers came to the Americas? a. to explore new lands c. to spread the Catholic religion b. to search for gold d. to gain religious freedom 9. What did the Spaniards unknowingly bring with them that helped them conquer the Aztecs? a. small insects that ate the Aztecs main crops b. deadly diseases, such as smallpox c. stowaway slaves that helped the Spaniards in battle d. horses 10. What prompted Moctezuma II to welcome Hernán Cortés? a. Moctezuma thought that Cortés was the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl. b. Moctezuma knew that Cortés had a more powerful army. c. Moctezuma wanted to trick Cortés into believing he was welcome. d. Moctezuma planned to make a secret alliance with Cortés. 11. How did Tenochtitlán s location help lead to the fall of the Aztec Empire? a. The conquistadors could easily cut off the Aztecs access to supplies. b. Tenochtitlán was too large to defend. c. Tenochtitlán s buildings and defenses sank into the swampy terrain. d. Native insects spread deadly diseases that weakened the Aztecs.

3 12. Which of the following best describes the role that horses played in the conquest of the Aztecs? a. Horses drank much of the water that the Aztecs needed to survive. b. Horses ate crops that were necessary for the Aztecs to survive. c. Horses slowed the conquistadors, which delayed the conquest. d. Horses were large and powerful and the Aztecs were terrified of them. 13. Who was the Aztec woman who helped Cortés defeat the Aztecs? a. Huitzilopochtli c. Malintzin b. Tlaloc d. Pachacuti 14. An Aztec community of families that shared land, schools, and a temple was called a. a codex. c. a chinampa. b. the mita. d. a calpulli. 15. Finally, all was based on ostentation [extravagance] and vain glory, with the object of being feared, as the owners of all the riches of the earth and of its finest provinces. The speaker of the passage above is describing a. a slave auction. b. a ceremony honoring Huitzilopochtli. c. a ceremony crowning a new Aztec king. d. a human sacrifice. 16. The sons of Aztec nobles were sent to special schools to learn a. how to grow and sell the best crops. b. to be government officials, military leaders, or priests. c. how to make and sell Aztec goods to other empires. d. to be builders and soldiers. 17. Which of the following groups of people were the lowest class in Aztec society? a. farmers and slaves c. priests and warriors b. merchants and artisans d. slaves and warriors 18. A codex a. is the Aztec calendar. c. is the Aztec religion. b. is the type of temple the Aztecs d. is a book of historical records. built.

4 19. What role did human sacrifices play in Aztec society? a. They were used to inspire warriors before important battles. b. They were made when a new city or territory was conquered. c. They were believed to be necessary to keep the gods happy. d. They were performed by nobles to honor warriors. 20. What was the main difference between the Aztecs religion and the Catholic religion? a. The Aztecs believed in hundreds of gods and the conquistadors believed in only one. b. The Aztecs only worshipped in times of great trouble. c. Only kings and nobles could practice the Aztec religion, while all conquistadors could follow the Catholic religion. d. Unlike the Catholic Spaniards, Aztecs did not have any religious ceremonies. 21. The capital city of the Inca Empire was a. Chimú. c. Cuzco. b. Nazca. d. Machu Picchu. 22. Establishing Quechua as the official language of the Inca Empire was important because a. only Inca leaders could speak it, which helped them hold on to their power. b. it was the only way the Incas could keep their religion secret. c. it helped them communicate with the conquistadors. d. it helped unify the empire. 23. Which Inca ruler led a great expansion of the empire and established an official religion? a. Huamán Poma c. Pachacuti b. Huáscar d. Atahualpa 24. Which of the following statements does not describe life for the lower-class Incas? a. Parents taught their children how to work. b. Most lower-class children did not go to school. c. Lower-class Incas lived in apartment-like buildings in Cuzco. d. Inca law forced lower-class citizens to wear plain clothes.

5 25. Which of the following best describes the similarity between the Aztec and Inca religions? a. Both religions limited membership to only the upper class. b. The Aztecs and Incas worshipped many different gods. c. Both religions involved ceremonies with many human sacrifices. d. The Aztecs and Incas worshipped only one god. 26. The Inca labor tax system called the mita required a. all Inca children to become laborers and travel to distant villages. b. Inca citizens to pay the government in labor instead of money. c. all citizens to serve in the army. d. each household to determine how best to support the government. 27. What event took place soon before the Spaniards arrived and led to the fall of the Inca Empire? a. a devastating earthquake c. a civil war b. a drought that caused a terrible d. an outbreak of small pox famine 28. Who was the leader of the Spanish conquistadors who invaded the Inca Empire? a. Hernán Cortés c. Pachacuti b. Francisco Pizarro d. Huamán Poma 29. Unlike people in the lower class of Inca society, upper-class Incas a. did not have to pay the labor tax. b. were not allowed to travel outside Cuzco. c. were required to serve in the army. d. were responsible for managing the slaves in the empire. 30. Which Inca ruler refused to convert to Christianity, prompting the Spaniards to attack? a. Huáscar c. Moctezuma II b. Pachacuti d. Atahualpa 31. Why were the mummies of former kings treated with such respect? a. Incas believed that the kings would one day come back to life. b. Incas thought the mummies helped their crops grow. c. Incas believed that their rulers never really died. d. The mummies were thought to prevent natural disasters and defeats in battle.

6 32. Why was the Inca road system important? a. The roads connected all parts of the empire. b. The roads all led to Machu Picchu. c. The roads were used as part of religious ceremonies. d. The roads formed a ring around Cuzco. 33. Machu Picchu a. was a school where young girls learned to weave and cook. b. was a royal retreat for Inca rulers. c. is the name of a character from a famous Inca story. d. was the most skilled Inca musician. 34. How were Inca stories passed on to future generations? a. Government workers wrote many stories that were saved in the great library in Cuzco. b. Each family told their own stories and passed those on to their children. c. Official memorizers learned long poems about Inca history and passed them on orally. d. Artisans carved images for the Inca stories into mountainsides. 35. Which of the following does not describe Inca buildings? a. Inca buildings are so tight that it is nearly impossible to fit a knife blade between stones. b. The stone cutting was so precise that no cement was needed. c. Inca builders learned their craft from the Spanish conquistadors. d. Many Inca buildings are still being used.

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