Plants and Photosynthesis

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1 Plants and Photosynthesis Original Authors: Jennifer Michnowicz and Lois Kiraly Revision June 2006: Jennifer Michnowicz and Rebecca Shomo Farmington Public Schools 11 th Grade Biology Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 1

2 Table of Contents Unit Summary....page(s )( 3) Stage One: Standards Stage One identifies the desired results of the unit including the broad understandings, the unit outcome statement and essential questions that focus the unit, and the necessary knowledge and skills. The Understanding by Design Handbook, page(s)( 4-6) Stage Two: Assessment Package Stage Two determines the acceptable evidence that students have acquired the understandings, knowledge and skills identified in Stage One. page(s) (7-8) Stage Three: Curriculum and Instruction Stage Three helps teachers plan learning experiences and instruction that aligns with Stage One and enables students to be successful in Stage two. Planning and lesson options are given, however teachers are encouraged to customize this stage to their own students, maintaining alignment with Stages One and Two... page(s)( 9-11) Appendices.... page(s) (12-end) Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 2

3 Unit Summary This 5 week unit on Plants and the process of Photosynthesis is designed to be used in grade 11 Biology with level 2 or 3 students. It is part of a larger unit on Cell Energetics taught in the fall. As a result of this unit, students should be able to explain the role that photosynthesis plays in the delicate relationship between plants and animals. Students will ultimately describe how animals rely on plants for their survival. Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 3

4 Stage One: Standards Stage One identifies the desired results of the unit including the broad understandings, the unit outcome statement and essential questions that focus the unit, and the necessary knowledge and skills. The Understanding by Design Handbook, 1999 Essential Understandings and Content Standards ESU #1 Scientific inquiry is an ongoing process building knowledge about events and phenomena frame, hypothesize, design, conduct, analyze, and communicate and defend the results of a controlled scientific experiment ESU #4 The behavior of the physical world can be interpreted, understood and predicted in terms of a few fundamental principles interpret and make predictions about the physical world by recognizing that waves, sound, and light pervade the physical world, and by applying their properties and behaviors ESU #7 There is unity among the diverse types of life on Earth. * 7.24 describe life functions necessary to maintain homeostasis * 7.25 explain energy flow and transformations among living systems, including respiration and photosynthesis * 7.26 recognize how structure and function compliment each other and enable organisms to adapt to their environments ESU #9 Constancy, patterns, change, and evolution permeate all systems. * 9.16 identify some factors that can disturb equilibrium and demonstrate their effects *9.17 illustrate that during the process of evolution, the present system arises from forms of the past * 9.19 interpret trends and evaluate patterns of change using tables, graphs, and equations 9.20 formulate predictions based upon identified patterns Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 4

5 Unit Outcome Statement Consistently aligning all instruction with this statement will maintain focus in this unit. As a result of this unit on Plants and Photosynthesis, students will know and understand the role and process of photosynthesis: that plants convert light energy to chemical energy that plants (from their smallest to largest components) have specialized structures for carrying on photosynthesis (production of ATP, sugar and other molecules) photosynthesis (carried on by autotrophs) is the fundamental process that supports all other living organisms that different types of plants have different adaptations Essential Questions These questions help to focus the unit and guide inquiry. HOW DO PLANTS LIGHT UP YOUR LIFE? What do plants make "Out of Thin Air"? What role does photosynthesis play in the delicate relationship between plants and animals? How do we get from sun to sandwich? Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 5

6 Knowledge and Skills The Knowledge and Skills section includes the key facts, concepts, principles, skills, and processes called for by the content standards and needed by students to reach desired understandings. The Understanding by Design Handbook, 1999 Knowledge Directions: The student will know: That different types of plants exist, from mosses to maple trees. Land adaptations that evolved in plants such as: Pollen to prevent sperm from drying out Vascular system to transport water from the ground up to entire plant Cuticle on the leaf surface to prevent drying out. That the visible wavelengths are the only portion of the electromagnetic spectrum used in photosynthesis Plant pigments capture light energy for photosynthesis Photosynthesis includes the conversion of light energy to chemical potential energy The anatomy of the following photosynthetic structures: a leaf, plant cells, and chloroplast How the reactants of photosynthesis get to the reaction site and how the products get out. The structure and function of ATP as the energy carrier in cells. The effects of environmental changes upon photosynthesis (the concept of limiting factors for sugar production) Skills/Processes The student will be able to: Apply the scientific method and write a laboratory report Ability to organize data Microscope use to view cross section view of a leaf Wet mount preparation of a Leek leaf Use of a graduated cylinder to measure liquid volume Be able to generate a biological drawing (using pencil, labels without crossing lines, etc.) Use a spectrophotometer and record meaningful data Measure with a metric ruler Carry out basic algebraic functions to compute rf values Thinking Skills Categorizing photosynthetic terms and structures by identifying the associations among them Predicting guard cell responses to environmental changes Analysis of a graph of the electromagnetic spectrum of visible light Infer and evaluate spectrophotometer data concerning the dependence of photosynthetic activity on light Distinguish between cause and effect in the simulation of environmental influences on photosynthesis Identify significant limiting factors for photosynthesis Infer how plants are essential for the survival of all living organisms by recognizing long range consequences of their destruction Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 6

7 Stage Two: Assessment Package Stage Two determines the acceptable evidence that students have acquired the understandings, knowledge and skills identified in Stage One. Directions: Authentic Performance Task Goal: Your task is to work with a partner and help solve the problem Luke is having in his greenhouse on the surface of Mars so he can survive. Role: You are a member of a botany support team on earth responsible for helping, the astronaut survive within his greenhouse on Mars. Audience: Luke Situation: A member of the research team, Luke, has been living successfully in a greenhouse on Mars. As a member of the rescue mission you travel to Mars to rescue Luke and bring him home. When you arrive, you find that the plants are dying and notice that Luke is confused and having a difficult time breathing. You have 26 hours to figure out what is going wrong before the plants, Luke AND all of you die. The key is the plants your task is to figure out why the plants are dying. Product: A. Organize and analyze the data from the greenhouse in order to determine the problem. B. Describe the process of Photosynthesis and how the plant is affected. C. Discuss how the death of the plants causes the symptoms seen in Luke. D. Determine how the problem can be fixed. Standards & Criteria for Success: See attached rubric The following standards will be addressed in the performance assessment: ESU #1 Scientific inquiry is an ongoing process building knowledge about events and phenomena ESU #7 There is unity among the diverse types of life on Earth. * ESU #9 Constancy, patterns, change, and evolution permeate all systems. * 9.16, 9.19, 9.20 Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 7

8 Tests Quizzes Quizzes: Leaf Anatomy, Reactants and Products of Light Dependent and Light Independent Reactions (ESU# 4.17, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26) Test: Fundamental Processes of Photosynthesis with specialized structures (ESU # 1.25, 4.17, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 9.16, 9.19, 9.20) Projects, Reports, Etc. Lab Reports: 1) Pigments of Photosynthesis (ESU # 4.17) 2) Stomata Opening and Closing (ESU # 7.26, 9.16) 3) Microscopic Study of the Leaf (ESU # 7.26) 4) Spectrophotometry/ Light Absorption Lab (ESU # 4.17, 9.19, 9.20) Computer Simulation: The Limiting Factor (s) of Photosynthesis (ESU# 1.25, 4.17, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 9.16, 9.19, 9.20) Video of The Secret Life of Plants: note-taking guide and follow-up questions (ESU# 9.17) Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 8

9 Stage Three: Learning Experiences and Instruction A Suggested Sequence Middle Grades and High School Guiding Questions Instructional Strategies Period 1: Characteristics of Plants How are plants different - Brainstorming answers to from animals? this question Checking for Understanding Why don t plants need a digestive system but animals do? How do plants light up your life? Period 2-4: Different Types of Plants How is moss different from a - Discuss characteristics maple tree? different plant types. Why do some plants have flowers? What is fruit? How do you know a monocot when you see one? Period 5: Plant Diversity Why are desert plants different from rainforest plants? - Discuss adaptations to land - Lab: Flower dissection. ID the parts of the flower and determine the difference between monocots and dicots. - Video: The private life of plants Period 6: What a plant needs to survive How do plants light up your life? Why do people suggest that you talk to your plants? - Brainstorming answers to this question - Establish what plants give us and what they need (individual student drawings and diagrams) Periods 7-10: Light Spectrum and Plant Pigments - Why do plants need sun? - How do plants soak up the sun they need for photosynthesis? - It s not easy being green, so why are plants? - What do plants need to survive? - Ask students to recall the spectrum from their physics class - Focus on the visible light spectrum (use a prism to show the spectrum and their wavelengths) - Conduct the plant pigment lab using spinach leaves and paper chromatography (includes computing Rf factors for each pigment) - Computer simulation - Discuss major factors needed for plant survival and how these factors get into leaf. Explorer: Lesson on what is photosynthesis and why are leaves green? -Chart on characteristics of plants - Collect Flower Dissection Lab Worksheet with questions from movie - Worksheet for homework - Quiz: Light Spectrum & Plant Pigments - Computer Simulation Packet *Performance Assessment* Exit Questions: 1) What wavelengths of light are most important? 2)How do the photosynthetic products enter the leaf? Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 9

10 Period 11: Spectrophotometer How do we really know that - Introduction to light is being absorbed? Is it spectrophotometer use, measurable? determine the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll Period 12-13: Leaf Structure and Function -Why does water drip off a leaf, don t they need it to survive? -If water can t get in through the leaf, how does it get into a plant? - Use a leaf diagram for each student to label - Textbook references to complete a chart of leaf parts and their functions - Use of the microscope to examine and generate a biological drawing of a leaf cross section -Leek Stomata Lab - Spectrophotometer Lab Quiz: Leaf Structure & Function Leek Stomata Lab Questions *Performance Assessment* Exit Question: 1) What controls the opening/closing of the stomata? Period 14: Chloroplast Structure and Function Where in the leaf does photosynthesis occur? - Use a diagram of a chloroplast to discover its structure and function - Review reactants and products of photosynthesis - Discuss where in the chloroplast the light dependent and independents reactions take place. Period 15: The Light Dependent Reaction How do plants light up your life? How do plants use the energy of sunlight? Why do we compare ATP to a rechargeable battery? -List specific reactants and products of the light reaction -Introduction of ATP as a molecule that stores energy. Period 16: The Light Independent Reaction How do we get from sun to -List specific reactants and sandwich? products of the light independent reaction. What do plants get out of thin air? *Performance Assessment* Exit Question: 1) Where does the light dependent reaction take place? 2) Where does the light independent reaction take place? Prompt: What happens to the energy from the sunlight? Where does it go? *Performance Assessment* Exit Question: 1) Where does the waste product Oxygen come from? 2) *Performance Assessment* Exit Question: -Where does most of the mass of a tree come from? -Quiz: Reactants and products for both light dependent and independent reactions. - Focus? s to check for understanding of major concepts Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 10

11 Periods 17-18: Limiting Factors of Photosynthesis Do autotrophs photosynthesize 24/7? In all kinds of weather? It s hot today, do plants care? - Computer simulation Explorer lesson on altering factors and evaluating their effect on the photosynthesis process - Discussion of the limiting factors the students discovered during the simulation - Worksheets will be used to evaluate the student work done during the simulation - It s hot today... Do the plants care? (This could be done as a pre and post simulation activity) *Performance Assessment* Exit Question: What are the limiting factors of photosynthesis? Period 19: Photosynthesis: A Fundamental Process For All Living Things How does the energy from the sun end up in your sandwich? -Think/Pair/Share 1. Individuals will reflect and jot down ideas to answer this question. 2. Small group discussion on how the energy gets from the sun to their sandwich. 3. Each group will share ideas with class. REVIEW answers to Focus Questions. Period 20-22: Summative Assessments Unit Test on Photosynthesis Assessment: Mission to Mars Understanding will be assessed through monitoring small group and class discussion. Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 11

12 Appendices Complete set of Essential understandings for your discipline (located in Biology binder in science office) Any student work sheets (located in Biology binder in science office) Performance Assessment (attached) Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 12

13 Name Date Plant Paradox Form A 1. Movie Sit back and relax while you watch five minutes of a movie. 2. Task explanation You have just seen a scene from the movie, Mission to Mars, in which scientists on the rescue mission find their buddy, Luke, living successfully in a greenhouse on Mars. Imagine that you are one of those scientists, but when you arrive, you find the plants dying and Luke is having a hard time breathing. You have 26 hours to figure out what is going wrong before the plants, Luke AND all of you die. The key is the plants your task is to figure out why the plants are dying. 3. Day 1 procedure With your fellow scientists, hypothesize about what COULD be going wrong. Fill out form A below and hand it in by the end of class today. This counts as part of your assessment. I will look at them tonight and return them tomorrow so you have them as you work on your final assessment. Research Team names: Hypothesis: What could cause the plants to die that also makes it difficult for Luke to breathe. The answer can include anything, but the explanation must make sense. Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 13

14 Name Date Plant Paradox Form B Day 2. While you have been hypothesizing about what could go wrong, your colleague has been doing research and has found the environmental data that Luke has been collecting over the past two weeks. Examine the data below. Then follow the directions to complete your task and save the plants and your lives! Table 52: Week 52 in Mars greenhouse: Environmental data at 12:00 p.m. (noon) all seems normal. Temp. ( C) Light (nm) CO2 (%of air) Water intake rate Stomatal opening factor Photosyn. rate Table 53: Week 53 in Mars greenhouse. Environmental data at 12:00 p.m. (noon) Something is wrong. Note from Luke: I don t think the urine/water recycler is working properly need to check that out. Temp. ( C) Light (nm) CO2 (%of air) Water intake rate Stomatal opening factor Photosyn. rate Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 14

15 Name Hand in the following: Date 1. For each of the columns in Tables 52 and 53, write a sentence which describes the trend of the data. There is a line below for each sentence. Write under the line if you need more room. Example: The temperature in the greenhouse remained constant at 25 for weeks 52 and 53. Now write five more sentences for the five remaining factors. Light: CO2: Water intake: Stomatal opening factor: Photosynthesis rate: 2. Graphs: On the graph paper provided, graph the data of the photosynthetic rate and one other factor which YOU think is affecting the photosynthetic rate. Each graph should have a title, labeled axis and a key. Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 15

16 Name Date 3. Explanation for the plant death and Luke s breathing problem. Having examined the data, make a statement of your inferences as to what is killing the plants. Fully describe the factor(s) causing the plant death and Luke s breathing problem. Be sure to support this with data. Write a detailed explanation of how the factor(s) affects the photosynthetic rate. Include as much detail as you can on the process of photosynthesis. Recommend how to fix the problem in the greenhouse. Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 16

17 Graphs PS rate plotted accurately Correct Factor Plotted Title and axis labeled properly on both graphs Analysis Sentences Accurately describes trends for both week of data Trends are supported with specific numeric data All factors are described fully and correctly Paragraph Factor(s) causing plant death and Luke s breathing problem is fully described and supported with data Detailed explanation of how factor affects PS rate. Details of PS process are included Recommendation to fix the greenhouse problem is correct Plant Paradox Rubric Exceeds Meets Near Below PS rate plotted accurately Related Factor Plotted Title and axis labeled properly on both graphs Accurately describes trends for one or both weeks Trends are supported with general data Factors are described correctly Factor(s) causing plant death and Luke s breathing problem is identified and supported with data Explanation of how factor has an affect on PS rate is included. Some details of PS process are stated, but needs clarification Recommendation to fix greenhouse problem is related to the actual correction needed. PS rate plotted Incorrect factor plotted Title or label may be missing on one graph Trends for both weeks are discussed Trends are not supported with data Some factors are correctly described Factor(s) causing plant death and Luke s breathing problem is stated, but not supported with data Explanation of how factor affects PS rate is limited. Details of PS process are missing OR limited Recommendation for correction is misleading PS rate plotted incorrectly Incorrect factor plotted Title or label may be missing on one or both graphs Incorrect trends are discussed OR trends not discussed at all Trends not supported with data OR supported with incorrect data Most factors described incorrectly Factor(s) causing plant death and Luke s breathing problem is not clearly identified OR incorrectly identified Explanation of how factor affects PS rate is incorrect. Details of PS process are incorrect or missing Recommendation is incorrect or missing Rebecca Shomo/Jennifer Michnowicz (revision) DRAFT: 7/21/06 Farmington Public Schools 17

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