# LESSON ASSIGNMENT. After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 7-1. Solve basic titration problems.

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1 LESSON ASSIGNMENT LESSON 7 Titration. TEXT ASSIGNMENT Paragraphs 7-1 through 7-5. LESSON OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 7-1. Solve basic titration problems Convert concentrations and calculate dilutions for titration problems. SUGGESTION After completing the assignment, complete the exercises at the end of this lesson. These exercises will help you to achieve the lesson objectives. MD

2 LESSON 7 TITRATION 7-1. DISCUSSION One of the basic methods of analytical chemistry is titration. Titration is the incremental addition of a titrant into a known volume of titrating fluid in the presence of an indicator that identifies the neutralization point. Titration is based on the following principle: "One equivalent weight of a substance will react exactly with one equivalent weight of another substance." Equivalent weight refers to the reacting ability of a substance. When performing a titration, the concentration of the solutions involved MUST be expressed in terms of the concentration units that indicate reacting strength, Eq/L or meq/l. a. The number of equivalents or milliequivalents present in a given volume of solution indicates the reacting strength of a solution. Since titration is based on the reacting strength of one solution versus the reacting strength of another solution (usually an acid versus a base), the Eq/L concentration of the acid times the volume of the acid is equal to the Eq/L concentration of the base times the volume of the base. A familiar formula that states these facts is given below. C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 Where: C 1 = Eq/L or meq/l concentration of the acid V 1 = Volume of the acid C 2 = Eq/L or meq/l concentration of the base V 2 = Volume of the base NOTE: It is not crucial that the variables follow the above format. However, it is crucial that the appropriate concentration and volume be multiplied. b. Associated Terms. (1) Acidimetry. Acidimetry is defined as the determination of the concentration of an unknown acid by using a standard base (a base in which the exact concentration is known). MD

3 (2) Alkalimetry. Alkalimetry is defined as the determination of the concentration of an unknown base by using a standard acid. (3) Endpoint. The endpoint is defined as the point where equivalent amounts of two reactants have been brought together, the point of neutralization. (4) Indicator. An indicator is a dye that changes color at the endpoint INDICATORS AND GENERAL RULES OF USE a. Shown below (table 7-1) are some of the indicators that may be used in acidbase titrations. These indicators vary in sensitivity and ph range and are chosen according to the equivalence point or stoichiometric endpoint of the reactants used in the titration. Color In: Indicator ph Range Acid Base Methyl violet 6B Blue Violet Methyl orange Red Yellow Ethyl orange Red Yellow Bromcresol green Yellow Green Methyl red Red Yellow Bromthymol blue Yellow Blue Phenol red Yellow Red Phenolphthalein Colorless Red Table 7-1. Indicators used in acid-base titrations. b. The following general rules apply in choosing the proper indicator for titrations unless a special indicator is specified. (1) When titrating a strong acid with a strong base, use phenolphthalein. (2) When titrating a weak acid with a strong base, use phenolphthalein. (3) When titrating a weak base with a strong acid, use methyl red. (4) Never titrate a weak base with a weak acid because indicators will not give a sharp color change (when the endpoint is reached) in this combination. (5) When titrating using phenolphthalein or other colorless indicators, it is practical to arrange the titration based upon the appearance of color and NOT the disappearance of color. MD

4 7-3. PERFORMING AN ACID-BASE TITRATION The general method that is normally used in performing acid-base titrations is outlined as follows: a. Place a specific volume of unknown into an Erlenmeyer flask and record the volume. b. Place two to three drops of indicator into the solution to be titrated. The amount of indicator to be used may be stated in a specific procedure. c. Fill a buret or serological pipet with the titrating solution of known concentration (Eq/L) and adjust the solution level until the bottom of the meniscus is at zero. d. Add the titrant from the buret or pipet dropwise to the solution being titrated. It is extremely important to continuously swirl the titration reaction flask as the titrant is added; this allows the specialist to observe the endpoint. If you have sufficient unknown to perform the titration several times, it is recommended that you add the titrant quite rapidly the first time to obtain a rough approximation of the endpoint. This will save a considerable amount of time if several titrations have to be performed. e. When the endpoint is reached (indicator changes color), record the volume of titrant used by reading the bottom of the meniscus in the buret or pipet SOLVING TITRATION PROBLEMS a. Basic Rules for Solving Titration Problems. (1) Three of the four values must be known. (2) The units of concentration MUST be Eq/L or meq/l. (3) The units of volume and concentration must be the same respectively. (4) It is crucial that the volume and concentration that relate to one another are identified. b. Example 1. It took 5.2 ml of a 0.10 Eq/L NaOH to titrate 5.0 ml of a HCl solution. What is the meq/l concentration of the acid? MD

5 Solution. Read the problem carefully and select the expression that will allow you to solve the problem for the unknown quantity. C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 Ensure that the solution concentrations are expressed in terms of their normality and the units of volume are the same. Substitute the given information into the appropriate expression. C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 (0.10 Eq/L)(5.2 ml) = (C 2 )(5.0 ml) Solve for the unknown quantity. (0.10 Eq/L)(5.2 ml) C 2 = = 0.10 Eq/L 5.0 ml Convert the concentration to meq/l to satisfy the problem using the appropriate conversion factor Eq 1000 meq X = 100 meq/l L 1 Eq Solution. Solving the problem with dimensional analysis yields the same results. Determine the equivalents of base used in the titration. 1 L 0.10 Eq 5.2 ml X X = Eq 1000 ml L According to the "Rule of Equivalence," an equal amount of acid is needed to neutralize the solution. The desired number of equivalents of acid per given volume of acid used in the titration times the appropriate conversion factors yield the desired results Eq 1000 ml 1000 meq X X = 100 meq/l 5.0 ml 1 L 1 Eq MD

6 c. Example 2. A 0.25 mol/l H 2 SO 4 solution was used to titrate 4.0 ml of a 1.0 Eq/L NaOH solution. What volume of acid was required to perform the titration? Solution. Read the problem carefully and select the expression that will allow you to solve the problem for the unknown quantity. C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 The concentration of the sulfuric acid in this problem is in mol/l and must be converted to Eq/L. Convert 0.25 mol/l H 2 SO 4 to Eq/L. Initial inspection reveals an inconsistent unit (mol/l). Convert the mol/l concentration of the acid to Eq/L mol 2 Eq X = 0.50 Eq/L L mol Substitute the information into the problem solving expression. C 1 V 1 = C 2 V 2 (0.50 Eq/L)(V 2 ) = (1.0 Eq/L)(4.0 ml) Solve for the unknown quantity. (1.0 Eq/L)(4.0 ml) V 2 = = 8.0 ml 0.50 Eq/L 7-5. CALCULATING THE REACTING STRENGTH OF A SOLUTION At times it may be necessary to calculate the reacting strength of a solution in order to adjust its concentration. For example, potassium acid phthalate (a primary standard) is often used to prepare secondary standards such as sodium hydroxide. In order to adjust a dilute NaOH solution to a higher concentration, it is necessary to determine the reacting strength of the dilute solution so that the proper adjustment can be made. Use the problem given below to answer the questions in paragraphs a, b, and c. Example. You are preparing 100 ml of a 1.0 Eq/L NaOH standard solution. After titrating this solution against KHC 8 H 4 O 4, you discover that the concentration of the NaOH solution is actually 0.90 Eq/L. The flask containing the NaOH has 90 ml of solution remaining. MD

8 EXERCISES, LESSON 7 INSTRUCTIONS: Answer the following exercises by writing the answer in the space provided at the end of the question. After you have completed all the exercises, turn to "Solutions to Exercises" at the end of the lesson and check your answers. For each exercise answered incorrectly, reread the material referenced with the solution. 1. A 100 meq/l mercuric solution was used in a chloride determination. The assay required 4.0 ml of the specimen, whose concentration was determined to be Eq/L. What volume of mercuric solution was used? 2. How much 0.50 Eq/L HCl is required to titrate 4.0 ml of a 0.75 mol/l Ba(OH) 2 solution? ml of a 3.65 g/dl HCl was used to titrate 5.0 ml of Ca(OH) 2. What is the mol/l concentration of the base? MD

9 4. You are directed to prepare 100 ml of a 500 meq/l KOH standard. The primary standard used has a concentration of Eq/L. When titrating your KOH solution, you discover that 4.0 ml of the primary standard reacted exactly with 5.0 ml of the KOH solution. a. What is the actual Eq/L concentration of the KOH solution? b. How many meq are required to adjust the volume and concentration of the remaining 85 ml of KOH solution to 100 ml of a 500 meq/l KOH solution? c. How many ml of 12 Eq/L KOH stock must be added in order to adjust the concentration of the KOH standard to 500 meq/l? 5. Calculate the amount of Eq/L NaOH needed to neutralize 8.0 ml of 2.0 mol/l H 3 PO 4 solution. 6. In a titration, 7.2 ml of HCl of unknown strength neutralized 5.0 ml of Eq/L NaOH. What is the concentration of the acid? 7. What is the reacting strength in milliequivalents of 85 ml of a 0.92 Eq/L HCl solution? MD

10 8. How many equivalents of NaCl are contained in 6.0 dl of a 0.85 g/dl NaCl solution? 9. A secondary standard, whose initial volume was 100 ml, was titrated against a primary standard. The concentration of the secondary standard was determined to be 0.46 Eq/L and 7.3 ml of this secondary standard was used in the titration. How many meq of compound remain in the flask? 10. How many ml of 1.5 Eq/L Ca(OH) 2 are required to titrate 7.0 ml of a 5.0 g/dl HCl solution? Check Your Answers on Next Page MD

11 SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES, LESSON ml (para 7-4) ml (para 7-4) mol/l (para 7-4) 4. a Eq/L (para 7-4) b meg (para 7-5) c. 1.9 ml (para 7-5) ml (para 7-4) Eq/L (para 7-4) meq (para 7-5) Eq (para 4-6) meq (para 7-5) ml (para 7-4) End of Lesson 7 MD

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