Paper Airplanes. Linsey Fordyce. Fall TEFB 413 Section # 504

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1 Model- Based Inquiry Learning Lesson Plan Paper Airplanes Linsey Fordyce Fall 2014 TEFB 413 Section # 504

2 1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF LESSON LESSON OBJECTIVES Students will investigate through model- based inquiry learning how to create the best paper airplane. The students will be able to demonstrate safe science practices, design investigations, collect and analyze data, create tables or graphs, know the value of repeating during experimental procedures and construct arguments based on evidence from their experimental design. Students will be able to evaluate and make decisions on a new system that will require them to identify variables and investigate them while holding certain variables as a control. Students will compare and contrast different laboratory materials needed for the airplanes based upon physical characteristics and develop predictions upon these materials after an immersive experience. Students will be able to compare and contrast the forces and motions of the air plane. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS (TEKS) Grade: 2nd Included: 1 (A), 2 (A,B,C,D,E,), 3 (A,B), 4 (A,B), 5 (A,C,D), 6 (C,D) Descriptive: (1) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures. The student is expected to: (A) identify and demonstrate safe practices as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including wearing safety goggles, washing hands, and using materials appropriately; (2) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student develops abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry in classroom and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to: (A) Ask questions about organisms, objects, and events during observations and investigations; (B) Plan and conduct descriptive investigations such as how organisms grow; (C) Collect data from observations using simple equipment such as hand lenses, primary balances, thermometers, and non- standard measurement tools; (D) Record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words; (E) Communicate observations and justify explanations using student- generated data from simple descriptive investigations; and

3 (3) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows that information and critical thinking, scientific problem solving, and the contributions of scientists are used in making decisions. The student is expected to: (A) Identify and explain a problem in his/her own words and propose a task and solution for the problem such as lack of water in a habitat; (B) Make predictions based on observable patterns (4) Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses age- appropriate tools and models to investigate the natural world. The student is expected to: (A) collect, record, and compare information using tools, including computers, hand lenses, rulers, primary balances, plastic beakers, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, and safety goggles; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; weather instruments such as thermometers, wind vanes, and rain gauges; and materials to support observations of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and (B) Measure and compare organisms and objects using non- standard units that approximate metric units (5) Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has physical properties and those properties determine how it is described, classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to: (A) Classify matter by physical properties, including shape, relative mass, relative temperature, texture, flexibility, and whether material is a solid or liquid; (C) Demonstrate that things can be done to materials to change their physical properties such as cutting, folding, sanding, and melting; and (D) combine materials that when put together can do things that they cannot do by themselves such as building a tower or a bridge and justify the selection of those materials based on their physical property (6) Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to: (C) Trace the changes in the position of an object over time such as a cup rolling on the floor and a car rolling down a ramp; and (D) Compare patterns of movement of objects such as sliding, rolling, and spinning. RATIONALE Overall Why do they need to learn this? Students need to understand and comprehend that physical properties, such as shape or size can affect how far or how long an airplane can fly. The reason students

4 need to understand this because matter, energy, force, and motion are all around us. By creating an air plane, the students are able to understand how physical properties, as well as force and motion, can affect how the student s airplane can fly. The students will be able to demonstrate how cutting and folding will affect how their airplane may fly. The students could also be demonstrating how building on the airplane will affect their experiment. The reason students need to understand this is because building airplanes can relate to everyday things in life. Every plane, car, jet, etc. needs to be constructed in order for it to be the best plane, car, or jet it can possibly be. By creating a paper airplane, students will be able to manipulate its physical properties as well as the forces exerted upon it and the motion in which it flies. They will be able to demonstrate which physical properties they are changing and identify different motion and forces that will be exerted on each paper airplane In this project, it is very open ended. They are to create a paper airplane in which they believe is the best airplane. This could mean which airplane can fly the farthest, highest, longest etc. Inquiry is being used to allow for authentic learning to occur and by having the students manipulate different types of paper to create an airplane, they will learn kinesthetically through a natural process of discovery. MATERIALS Types of Paper or base material (50 pieces of each): Printer paper Newspaper Wax paper Foil Wrapping paper Other materials: Tennis ball Yoyo Spinning top 4 boxes of Paper clips 20 Glue sticks 20 Scissors Measuring tape Masking Tape Stop watch

5 MODIFICATIONS ESL Students with limited English proficiency will be given definitions, including pictures ahead of time to better understand topics and words in the activity. The teacher will provide these students with a template for experimental design and he/she will also provide guiding prompts (in their native language) and examples to help them through the inquiry process. GT Students will be required to explore further examples of airplanes. They will be required to understand and be able to create an airplane that can fly, with multiple objects on the plane, just like people on a plane. They will have to record and explain which objects worked and how they placed them on the plane. They will also have to explain how mass on their paper plane affected the plane s flight. RESOURCES makes- paper- airplanes- fly /airplane/forces.html PREPARATION Teachers will need to bring all types of paper and other materials to class Teachers will need to precut the wax paper and foil into paper size o Cut wax paper 8 1/2 X 11 o Cut newspaper 8 1/2 X 11 o Cut wrapping paper 8 1/2 X 11 Make sure each table group receives that same amount of each type of paper material as well as the same amount of paper clips, glue sticks, and scissors Make sure all the students have a science notebook to copy their observations, predictions, etc. Teacher will have notebook paper or scrap paper accessible. Teachers will allow students to have access to something hard to write on BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE Physical changes, Properties of matter, forces, and motion all affect the way

6 objects move. A physical change is when some extensive properties (like shape, phase, etc.) of the material change, the material itself is the same before and after the change. The change can be undone (Annenberg Learner). Physical changes on an object can affect the way an object may move. For example, if I poked a hole in my basketball, it is still a basketball, but it won t bounce the same or roll as fast anymore. Also students should have a basic background of force and motion. A force may be thought of as a push or pull in a specific direction. Students should also understand that weight is a force. SAFETY ISSUES Safety concerns are not very high for this lab, since it only involves regularly used materials in the classroom. Proper safety precautions and rules need to be set in place prior to IMMERSION. Students need to understand they will only throw paper airplanes out of the way of students, so students will not be hit. Also students will keep scissors at their desk, not carry them around the room. Students who are not following proper safety procedures will be retaught lab safety and will have to demonstrate safe lab practices before returning to their inquiry group. The teacher needs to be constantly walking around watching and engaging with student discovery process to ensure the safety of all students. BEGINNING IMMERSION Students will watch a review fun video: Teachers will then give a short demonstration of a physical change, by ripping paper, bending a paper clip, and breaking a Popsicle stick. The students will understand what a physical change is because even though you can rip, bend, or break an object, it is still the same object. The teacher will then give each table group a different object, such as a tennis ball, yoyo, spinning top, etc. The teacher will ask the students to make a physical change to the objects, such as cutting, breaking, bending etc. The students will discuss amongst their groups about how the object is supposed to work and how it works after the physical change. Students should ask themselves why this happens. After giving the students a little idea of what s to come, this is when the teacher will show the supplies that will allow them to create their own airplanes. Students will be immersed in the system after the teacher introduces the system by giving them a brief overview of the materials they have. Students will be introduced to the topic of making paper airplanes.

7 Students guiding direction/question will be: Students may raise questions such as: Does the physical change affect the objects movement? Why? Do you think you could add something to your object to make it move/work better? Students will then create the best paper airplane. MIDDLE Student Immersion Activity Each table group will be able to choose from Printer paper, Newspaper, Wax paper, Foil, and Wrapping paper. Each table will also receive four glue sticks, four scissors, measuring tape, masking tape, stop watch, and scale (used for weighing materials). Students will have 45 minutes to explore the different types of material and create, what they believe is the best paper airplane, with minimal teacher intervention. If students have continued struggles, the teacher can sit down and give them leading questions that may allow the students help creating the paper airplane. Students may figure out that mass as well as physical changes (ex: folding) could help or hurt the paper plane s flight. The teacher will introduce vocabulary words (matter, mass, Physical changes, forces). Raise Questions Students should ask themselves questions about the system, including but not limited to. Why do some types of paper stay in the air longer? Can all types of paper make a flyable airplane? How do I create an airplane that moves the farthest? How do I create an airplane that goes the highest? Does cutting/folding/bending the paper affect the airplanes flight? Is there more than one way to make the best airplane? Example of Student Work NOTES/Thoughts/Questions:

8 I noticed that physical properties can change the way an object moves. When we cut a hole into the tennis ball, it wasn t able to bounce as well as before. What does he/she mean by best paper airplane o Farthest? o Prettiest? o Stay in the air the longest? Wrapping paper: could possibly be too heavy to stay in the air the longest, but would cut through the air well. Foil: doesn t cut through the air, but it is light weight Newspaper is also very lightweight which could help the plane stay in the air for a longer period of time. Also we can cut/fold/bend and make other physical changes to the paper END Instructions for Modeling

9 1. Beginning - Teachers would provide basic safety precautions at the beginning, as well as an engaging demonstration to grab students attention and raise curiosity. The teacher will provide a guiding direction of creating a working paper airplane. 2. Middle Teachers will minimally assist students with building a paper airplane. Teachers will introduce vocabulary to students at this time, to the class. 3. End- Teachers will introduce new Inquiry in which the students have to add cargo to their plane. This will lead into student research questions. Formative Assessment The teacher throughout the immersion will formatively assess students. Students will be required to create drawings of their airplanes, describe what they did to make their airplane work and write down questions they have about paper airplanes, in their science notebooks. RESEARCH QUESTIONS, PREDICTIONS *Notice the samples are in the nature you would expect from a 2nd grader, not a Senior Methods student Sample Research Questions (Please have at least 2 research questions) 1. What type of paper makes the airplane stay in the air the longest? 2. Which paper create an airplane that goes the highest? Sample Predictions (Please have at least 2 predictions that go with the research questions above) 1. The foil airplane will fly in the air the longest because it weighs the least.

10 2. The wrapping paper airplane will fly the highest because it is more sturdy and will cut through the air better. Teacher Scaffolding during Research Questions and Predictions Phases BEGINNING At the beginning of Research Questions/Predictions the teacher will inform ask for components and variables that the students can explore. The students will then aid the teacher in creating a list of all the variables, what they can control and what they can manipulate on the board for the entire class to see. Variables may include types of paper, size of the paper plane, shape of the plane, mass, cutting/folding/bending and many more. The teacher may choose to limit the amount of variables for the research phase development to help guide the novice inquiry learners of the classroom, so that they may develop better and more experimental friendly questions. The teacher will then refer to this as a list of ideas the students can use to come up with something they want to explore or investigate through inquiry design. The teacher will also make references to the relationship between certain variables and use this as an instructional time to clarify any misconceptions that may have occurred during the immersion. Different methods of building an airplane will be demonstrated, but not shown their conclusions, and the teacher will ask questions about why the different types of paper acted differently, why different folding/cutting/bending changed the paper airplane s flight, etc. If the class is more experienced in inquiry, the teacher may not bring up these points as they may limit the more advanced inquiry students, thus limiting their creativity. Predictions for the beginning phase will be monitored to make sure that they are in line with the research question asked. The teacher will make sure the students have testable variables and that the predictions are aligned with the research questions they developed. MIDDLE Teachers will make minimal input during the research question development. Students will be expected to do group discussions, make concept maps, or drawings of what they want to explore. Students will be expected to identify 2 variables that they want to

11 explore from the class list on the board and be trying to develop questions. The teacher will make sure the groups are not stuck and the research questions are testable. The prediction phase in the middle requires more teacher input because they should be trying to engage the learners in more critical thought. The teacher will try to get students to review their notes/explanations/question/thoughts from immersion and prior background knowledge to develop a well thought out prediction. The teacher will manage the classroom by making sure students are not only creating a possible prediction, but are also justifying their predictions with evidence or background knowledge. END The end for both the research questions and prediction phases are very simply where the teacher will check- off each group s research questions as testable or untestable and predictions as adequate or inadequate.

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