Effect of temperature and ph on the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Effect of temperature and ph on the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase"

Transcription

1 Effect of temperature and ph on the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase Gae Khalil Rodillas, Nonia Carla Ysabel Samson, Raphael Jaime Santos* and Brylle Tabora Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines Salivary amylase, found in human saliva, is an enzyme used to hydrolyze starch molecules. Its enzymatic activity is affected by several factors, such as temperature and ph. The rates of enzymatic activity of salivary amylase in different temperatures and ph were measured. Optimum temperature for the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase ranges from 32 C to 37 C and its optimum ph ranges from 6 to 7. A graph of the time reciprocal against temperature and ph both produced bell-shaped curves. I. Introduction An enzyme is a protein molecule that is a biological catalyst with three characteristics. First, the basic function of an enzyme is to increase the rate of a reaction. Second, most enzymes act specifically with only one reactant, called a substrate, to produce products. The third and most remarkable characteristic is that enzymes are regulated from a state of low activity to high activity and vice versa [1]. The activity of enzymes is strongly affected by changes in ph and temperature. Each enzyme works best at a certain ph and temperature, its activity decreasing at values above and below that point due to denaturation. For enzymes, denaturation can be defined as the loss of enough structure rendering the enzyme inactive. This is not surprising considering the importance of tertiary structure in enzyme function and noncovalent forces in determining the shape of enzymes [2]. Salivary amylase is the enzyme produced by the salivary glands. Formerly known as ptyalin, it breaks down starch into maltose and isomaltose. Amylase, like other enzymes, works as a catalyst. All catalysts are enzymes, but not all enzymes are catalysts. A catalyst is a substance that hastens a chemical reaction but does not become part of the end product. Amylase digests starch by catalyzing hydrolysis, which is splitting by the addition of a water molecule. The presence and absence of starch can be confirmed by several tests such as the iodine test, Benedict s and Fehling s test. In general, a blue-black color indicates the presence of starch [3].

2 The objectives of this experiment are to examine the enzymatic activity and specificity of salivary amylase depending on changes temperature and ph. This experiment also aims to determine the narrow range of temperature and ph values at which salivary amylase exhibits its optimum activity. II. Materials and Methodology A. Effect of Temperature An enzyme solution was prepared by mixing one ml saliva with nine ml distilled water and thirty ml 0.5% sodium chloride. Two ml of the enzyme solution was put in a large test tube and labeled as 4 C. Two ml of the buffered starch solution (1% stach in phosphate buffer ph 6.7) was added in a separate large test tube. Both the test tubes were incubated for ten minutes in an ice bath (4 C). The solutions were immediately mixed. Three drops of the mixture was taken quickly and two drops of the M iodine solution was added simultaneously onto a spot plate (first well). This was the zero minute. After one minute interval (incubation continued), three drops of the mixture was taken again and two drops of the iodine solution was added simultaneously onto the second well. This was the one minute. Step 5 was repeated until a light yellow-colored solution was observed. The time (t) was noted. For the other temperatures (room temperature, 37, 50 & 70 C), steps 1 to 6 were repeated following the desired incubation temperature. The reciprocal of time (1/time, min -1 ) in step 6 versus the temperature (T) was plotted. The optimum temperature of the amylase was determined. B. Effect of ph One ml of acetate buffer (ph 4) and one ml 2% unbuffered starch were mixed in a large test tube. Two ml of the enzyme solution was added in a separate large test tube. Both the test tubes were incubated for ten minutes in a 37 C water bath. The solutions were immediately mixed. Three drops of the mixture was taken quickly and two drops of the M iodine solution was added simultaneously onto a spot plate (first well). This was the zero minute. After

3 one minute interval (incubation continued), three drops of the mixture was taken again and two drops of the iodine solution was added simultaneously onto the second well. This was the one minute. Step 5 was repeated until a light yellow-colored solution was observed. The time (t) was noted. For the other ph (5, 6.7, 8 & 10), steps 1 to 6 were repeated using the appropriate buffer. Acetate buffer solution for ph 5, phosphate buffer solution for ph 6.7 and 8, and bicarbonate buffer for ph 10 were used. The reciprocal of time (1/time, min -1 ) in step 6 versus the buffer ph was plotted. The optimum ph of the amylase was determined. III. Results and Discussion The effect of temperature and ph on the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase was determined by measuring the rates of reaction in varying temperatures and ph. The 0.5% NaCl added in the enzyme solution activates the salivary amylase to perform its function to hydrolyze starch. The hydrolysis or breakdown of starch due to the action of salivary amylase is indicated by the change in color of the starch solution from a blue-black color to a light yellowcolored solution. A. Effect of Temperature Each enzyme has an optimum temperature at which it performs best. Below or above this temperature, the enzyme loses its functionality. Table 1 shows the results obtained on how enzyme activity of salivary amylase is affected by temperature. Table 1. Results for the effect of temperature on salivary amylase activity Temperature (T) C time (t) min 1/t (min -1 ) 4 0 Room temperature, Extreme temperatures cause the native folded structure of proteins to uncoil into random configuration. As a result, the protein loses its biological enzymatic activity. This denaturization

4 1/time (min-1) consequently leads to loss of activity. Figure 1 shows the graph of the reciprocal of time against temperature based on the data from Table temperature ( C) Figure 1. Plot of the reciprocal of time against temperature for the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase The graph produced a bell-shaped curve with the highest peak indicating the optimum temperature for enzymatic activity. At 4 C, enzymatic reaction of salivary amylase occurs slowly or not at all due to lack of energy and heat. As the temperature increases, its enzymatic also increases up until the optimum temperature. Figure 1 shows that the optimum temperature of salivary amylase ranges from 32 C to 37 C.This applies to the human body since salivary amylase is suitable to function within these temperatures. After 37 C, the graph then steeply declines as a result of loss of activity. At 50 C and 70 C, salivary amylase is denatured. The molecular conformation of the enzyme becomes altered as the hydrogen bonds responsible for its secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures are broken [4]. B. Effect of ph Most enzymes are active only over a narrow ph range and have an optimal ph, at which reaction is the fastest. An increase or decrease in ph also causes denaturation in enzymes, thereby affecting their activity. Table 2 shows the results obtained on how enzyme activity of salivary amylase is affected by ph.

5 1/time (min-1) Table 2. Results for the effect of ph on salivary amylase activity ph time (t) min 1/t (min -1 ) Figure 2 shows the graph of the reciprocal of time against ph based on the data from Table 2.The graph produced a bell-shaped curve and the highest peak should indicate the optimum ph for enzymatic activity ph Figure 2. Plot of the reciprocal of time against ph for the enzymatic activity of salivary amylase At ph 4, the salivary amylase is in a too acidic environment to function. As ph decreases, certain amino acids like aspartate and glutamate are protonated, causing them to lose their net negative charge which consequently denatures the enzyme. The optimum ph for the action of salivary amylase ranges from 5.6 to 6.9 (Talwar & Srivastava, 2006). This is consistent with the peak found between ph 4 and 6 in Figure 2. However, the curved peaked highest at ph 10. Inconsistencies with the results obtained can be attributed to human error such as inaccuracies in measurement and timing during the experiment. Ideally at ph 10, salivary amylase is denatured due to high alkalinity. As ph increases, certain amino acids such as lysine and arginine are deprotonated, causing them to lose their net positive charge which also results to enzyme denaturation.

6 The activity of enzymes may be markedly changed by any alteration in ph, which in turn, alters electrical charges on the enzyme. Changes in charge affect the ionic bonds that contribute to the enzymes tertiary and quaternary structure, thereby changing the proteins conformation and activity. Thus, ph-activity relationship of enzymes is dependent on the amino acid side chains present in the enzyme [5]. IV. Conclusion Several factors affect the activity of enzymes. Among these are the temperature and ph. At optimum levels of these factors, enzymes perform their function best. Optimum temperature and ph differ from one enzyme to another. Salivary amylase is an enzyme found in human saliva which functions to break down starch to simpler compounds. Through the experiment, it was found out that the optimum temperature of salivary amylase ranges from 32 C to 37 C and its optimum ph ranges from 5.6 to 6.9. Inconsistencies of the results obtained with literature on the topic were met. These errors can be attributed to inaccuracies in measurement and timing. Due to time constraints, the experiment was not repeated to be able to compare and obtain more accurate results. V. References [1] Role of Enzymes in Biochemical Reactions. (2003). Retrieved on January 3, 2012 from [2] Enzymes. (2011). Retrieved on January 3, 2012 from [3] Sethi, R. (2009). Biology. Rachna Sagar Pvt. Ltd.: New Delhi [4] Solomon E., Berg, L. & Martin, D. (2005). Biology. Thomson Learning Inc.: USA [5] Talwar G.P. & Srivastava L.M. (2006). Textbook of biochemistry and human biology, 3 rd Ed. Prentice-Hall:New Delhi

Experiment 10 Enzymes

Experiment 10 Enzymes Experiment 10 Enzymes Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts for biological reactions. Enzymes, like all catalysts, speed up reactions without being used up themselves. They do this by lowering the

More information

Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch

Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch Introduction Enzymes are proteins composed of amino acid building blocks. Enzymes catalyze or increase the rate of metabolic

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP BIOLOGY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES AP BIOLOGY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme α- amylase. Ten ml of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 ml of α-amylase

More information

Chemical Processes of Digestion

Chemical Processes of Digestion Chemical Processes of Digestion Objective: To explain in short essays or diagrams how carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are digested into end products that can be absorbed into the blood, at the level

More information

Absorption and Transport of Nutrients

Absorption and Transport of Nutrients Page1 Digestion Food travels from mouth esophagus stomach small intestine colon rectum anus. Food mixes with digestive juices, moving it through the digestive tract Large molecules of food are broken into

More information

Enzymes: Amylase Activity in Starch-degrading Soil Isolates

Enzymes: Amylase Activity in Starch-degrading Soil Isolates Enzymes: Amylase Activity in Starch-degrading Soil Isolates Introduction This week you will continue our theme of industrial microbiologist by characterizing the enzyme activity we selected for (starch

More information

LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES

LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES INTRODUCTION Enzymes are a special class of proteins that lower the activation energy of biological reactions. These biological catalysts change the rate of chemical

More information

General Properties Protein Nature of Enzymes Folded Shape of Enzymes H-bonds complementary

General Properties Protein Nature of Enzymes Folded Shape of Enzymes H-bonds complementary Proteins that function as biological catalysts are called enzymes. Enzymes speed up specific metabolic reactions. Low contamination, low temperature and fast metabolism are only possible with enzymes.

More information

Enzymes: Practice Questions #1

Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 1. Compound X increases the rate of the reaction below. Compound X is most likely A. an enzyme B. a lipid molecule C. an indicator D. an ADP molecule 2. The equation below

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

Do not put any wastes down the sink! All materials will be collected as-is at the end of class.

Do not put any wastes down the sink! All materials will be collected as-is at the end of class. Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion Exercise 39A / 39 (begins page 597 in 9 th &10 th eds, page 595 in 11 th edition, page 599 in 12 th edition) Lab 7 Objectives Read lab Exercise 39A / 39 Do

More information

Biology 3A Laboratory: Enzyme Function

Biology 3A Laboratory: Enzyme Function Biology 3A Laboratory: Enzyme Function Objectives To be able to list the general characteristics of enzymes. To study the effects of enzymes on the rate of chemical reactions. To demonstrate the effect

More information

Experiment 7 (Lab Period 8) Quantitative Determination of Phosphatase Activity

Experiment 7 (Lab Period 8) Quantitative Determination of Phosphatase Activity Experiment 7 (Lab Period 8) Quantitative Determination of Phosphatase Activity Phosphatases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of organic-phosphate compounds, releasing inorganic phosphate from the

More information

LAB TOPIC 4: ENZYMES. Enzyme catalyzed reactions can be expressed in the following way:

LAB TOPIC 4: ENZYMES. Enzyme catalyzed reactions can be expressed in the following way: LAB TOPIC 4: ENZYMES Objectives Define enzyme and describe the activity of enzymes in cells. Discuss the effects of varying enzyme concentrations on the rate of enzyme activity. Discuss the effects of

More information

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. How Sweet It Is: Enzyme Action in Seed Germination

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. How Sweet It Is: Enzyme Action in Seed Germination The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens How Sweet It Is: Enzyme Action in Seed Germination Overview This experiment is intended to familiarize students with the macromolecule starch,

More information

Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity

Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity INTRODUCTION Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity The chemical reactions occurring in living things are controlled by enzymes. An enzyme is a protein in the cell which lowers the activation energy of a catalyzed

More information

Name Date Period. Keystone Review Enzymes

Name Date Period. Keystone Review Enzymes Name Date Period Keystone Review Enzymes 1. In order for cells to function properly, the enzymes that they contain must also function properly. What can be inferred using the above information? A. Cells

More information

Enzymes. A. a lipid B. a protein C. a carbohydrate D. a mineral

Enzymes. A. a lipid B. a protein C. a carbohydrate D. a mineral Enzymes 1. All cells in multicellular organisms contain thousands of different kinds of enzymes that are specialized to catalyze different chemical reactions. Given this information, which of the following

More information

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity Experiment 6A Many organisms can decompose hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) enzymatically. Enzymes are globular proteins, responsible for most of the chemical activities

More information

Sample Liver Enzyme Lab

Sample Liver Enzyme Lab Sample Liver Enzyme Lab Design Aspect 1: Research Question This lab will be driven by the research question, Do changes in temperature have an effect on the activity of the enzyme catalase? Pearson Baccalaureate:

More information

pencil. Vocabulary: 1. Reactant 2. Product 3. Activation energy 4. Catalyst 5. substrate 6. Chemical reaction Keep your textbooks when you are done

pencil. Vocabulary: 1. Reactant 2. Product 3. Activation energy 4. Catalyst 5. substrate 6. Chemical reaction Keep your textbooks when you are done Objectives Students will explore the importance of chemical reactions in biology Students will discuss the role of enzymes as catalysts in biological reactions. Students will analyze graphs showing how

More information

Figure 5. Energy of activation with and without an enzyme.

Figure 5. Energy of activation with and without an enzyme. Biology 20 Laboratory ENZYMES & CELLULAR RESPIRATION OBJECTIVE To be able to list the general characteristics of enzymes. To study the effects of enzymes on the rate of chemical reactions. To demonstrate

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Most components of energy conversion systems evolved very early; thus, the most fundamental aspects of energy metabolism tend to be: A. quite different among a diverse group

More information

This laboratory explores the affects ph has on a reaction rate. The reaction

This laboratory explores the affects ph has on a reaction rate. The reaction Joy Paul Enzyme Catalyst lab Abstract: This laboratory explores the affects ph has on a reaction rate. The reaction studied was the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by the enzyme peroxidase. Three

More information

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity Experiment 6A Many organisms can decompose hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) enzymatically. Enzymes are globular proteins, responsible for most of the chemical activities

More information

1. The diagram below represents a biological process

1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set

More information

PRACTICAL 3: DIGESTIVE ENZYMES, SPECIFICITY AND ph

PRACTICAL 3: DIGESTIVE ENZYMES, SPECIFICITY AND ph PRACTICAL 3: DIGESTIVE ENZYMES, SPECIFICITY AND ph 3.1 Introduction The aims of this practical are: to illustrate the different ph dependence of gastric and pancreatic digestive proteases to illustrate

More information

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Name Biology 3 ID Number Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Section 1 - Organic Molecules Section 2 - Functional Groups Section 3 - From Building Blocks to Macromolecules Section 4 - Carbohydrates

More information

1. A covalent bond between two atoms represents what kind of energy? a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy c. Mechanical energy d.

1. A covalent bond between two atoms represents what kind of energy? a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy c. Mechanical energy d. 1. A covalent bond between two atoms represents what kind of energy? a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy c. Mechanical energy d. Solar energy A. Answer a is incorrect. Kinetic energy is the energy of

More information

Ann.wellhouse@TouchStoneScience.net 1. Enzyme Function

Ann.wellhouse@TouchStoneScience.net 1. Enzyme Function Ann.wellhouse@TouchStoneScience.net 1 Enzyme Function National Science Standards Science as Inquiry: Content Standard A: As a result of activities in grades 9-12, all students should develop: Abilities

More information

Enzymes and Metabolism

Enzymes and Metabolism Enzymes and Metabolism Enzymes and Metabolism Metabolism: Exergonic and Endergonic Reactions Chemical Reactions: Activation Every chemical reaction involves bond breaking and bond forming A chemical reaction

More information

Catalase. ***You will be working with hot water, acids and bases in this laboratory*** ****Use Extreme Caution!!!****

Catalase. ***You will be working with hot water, acids and bases in this laboratory*** ****Use Extreme Caution!!!**** AP BIOLOGY BIOCHEMISTRY ACTIVITY #9 NAME DATE HOUR CATALASE LAB INTRODUCTION Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a poisonous byproduct of metabolism that can damage cells if it is not removed. Catalase is

More information

2(H 2 O 2 ) catalase 2H 2 O + O 2

2(H 2 O 2 ) catalase 2H 2 O + O 2 Enzyme Model Catalase Student Guide Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions that otherwise proceed slowly. The enzyme called catalase is a catalyst. It exists in plant and animal cells and breaks down

More information

Evaluation copy. Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity (Method 1 O 2 Gas Sensor) Computer 2

Evaluation copy. Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity (Method 1 O 2 Gas Sensor) Computer 2 Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity (Method 1 O 2 Gas Sensor) Computer 2 Many organisms can decompose hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) enzymatically. Enzymes are globular proteins, responsible for most

More information

Laboratory 5: Properties of Enzymes

Laboratory 5: Properties of Enzymes Laboratory 5: Properties of Enzymes Technical Objectives 1. Accurately measure and transfer solutions with pipettes 2. Use a Spectrophotometer to study enzyme action. 3. Properly graph a set of data. Knowledge

More information

CHAPTER 4: Enzyme Structure ENZYMES

CHAPTER 4: Enzyme Structure ENZYMES CHAPTER 4: ENZYMES Enzymes are biological catalysts. There are about 40,000 different enzymes in human cells, each controlling a different chemical reaction. They increase the rate of reactions by a factor

More information

The Chemistry of Carbohydrates

The Chemistry of Carbohydrates The Chemistry of Carbohydrates Experiment #5 Objective: To determine the carbohydrate class of an unknown by carrying out a series of chemical reactions with the unknown and known compounds in each class

More information

Investigation 2- ENZYME ACTIVITY BACKGROUND catalase Learning Objectives

Investigation 2- ENZYME ACTIVITY BACKGROUND catalase Learning Objectives Investigation 2-13 ENZYME ACTIVITY How do abiotic or biotic factors influence the rates of enzymatic reactions? BACKGROUND Enzymes are the catalysts of biological systems. They speed up chemical reactions

More information

1. 4. 1: Biochemistry of macromolecules and metabolic pathways

1. 4. 1: Biochemistry of macromolecules and metabolic pathways 1. 4 Investigating enzymes Many factors affect the activity of enzymes and it is very easy to investigate these factors using common enzymes. Enzymes work at their optimum temperature and ph. Any changes

More information

ENZYME KINETICS ENZYME-SUBSTRATE PRODUCTS

ENZYME KINETICS ENZYME-SUBSTRATE PRODUCTS ENZYME KINETICS INTRODUCTION The study of reaction rates catalyzed by enzymes and the factors affecting them is generally referred to as enzyme kinetics. The basic components of an enzyme catalyzed reaction

More information

CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM. Section B: Enzymes

CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM. Section B: Enzymes CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM Section B: Enzymes 1. Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers 2. Enzymes are substrate specific 3. The active site in an enzyme s catalytic

More information

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity 50 Points

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity 50 Points Names: LabQuest Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity 50 Points 6A Many organisms can decompose hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) enzymatically. Enzymes are globular proteins, responsible for most of the

More information

Investigating cells. Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells).

Investigating cells. Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). SG Biology Summary notes Investigating cells Sub-topic a: Investigating living cells Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). Cells

More information

Table of Content. Enzymes and Their Functions Teacher Version 1

Table of Content. Enzymes and Their Functions Teacher Version 1 Enzymes and Their Functions Jeisa Pelet, Cornell University Carolyn Wilczynski, Binghamton High School Cornell Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering (CLIMB) Table of Content Title Page Abstract..

More information

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter

More information

6 Characterization of Casein and Bovine Serum Albumin

6 Characterization of Casein and Bovine Serum Albumin 6 Characterization of Casein and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Objectives: A) To separate a mixture of casein and bovine serum albumin B) to characterize these proteins based on their solubilities as a function

More information

Working With Enzymes. a world of learning. Introduction. How Enzymes Work. Types and Sources of Enzymes

Working With Enzymes. a world of learning. Introduction. How Enzymes Work. Types and Sources of Enzymes Working With Enzymes a world of learning Presented by Peter J Ball, Southern Biological. For further information, please contact the author by phone (03) 9877-4597 or by email peterjball@southernbiological.com.

More information

Chemistry 20 Chapters 15 Enzymes

Chemistry 20 Chapters 15 Enzymes Chemistry 20 Chapters 15 Enzymes Enzymes: as a catalyst, an enzyme increases the rate of a reaction by changing the way a reaction takes place, but is itself not changed at the end of the reaction. An

More information

ENZYME ACTION: TESTING CATALASE ACTIVITY

ENZYME ACTION: TESTING CATALASE ACTIVITY ENZYME ACTION: TESTING CATALASE ACTIVITY LAB ENZ 1.CALC From Biology with Calculators, Vernier Software & Technology, 2000 INTRODUCTION Many organisms can decompose hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) enzymatically.

More information

Running Head: ACTION OF CATALASE IN DIFFERENT TISSUES 1. Action of Catalase in Different Tissues. San Nguyen. SanNguyen2@my.unt.edu. Biol 1730.

Running Head: ACTION OF CATALASE IN DIFFERENT TISSUES 1. Action of Catalase in Different Tissues. San Nguyen. SanNguyen2@my.unt.edu. Biol 1730. Running Head: ACTION OF CATALASE IN DIFFERENT TISSUES 1 Action of Catalase in Different Tissues San Nguyen SanNguyen2@my.unt.edu Biol 1730.537 October 12, 2012 Aswad Khadilka October 12, 2012; 8:00 am

More information

What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down!

What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down! Enzymes Essential Questions: What is an enzyme? How do enzymes work? What are the properties of enzymes? How do they maintain homeostasis for the body? What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down!

More information

Honors 227 Fall 2007 Laboratory with Ms. Clark. Enzymes, Reactions, Metabolism and Homeostasis

Honors 227 Fall 2007 Laboratory with Ms. Clark. Enzymes, Reactions, Metabolism and Homeostasis 1 Name: Honors 227 Fall 2007 Laboratory with Ms. Clark Enzymes, Reactions, Metabolism and Homeostasis Background Enzymes, which are comprised of amino acids, are very important macromolecules found in

More information

Lecture 3: Enzyme kinetics

Lecture 3: Enzyme kinetics Computational Systems Biology Lecture 3: Enzyme kinetics Fri 19 Jan 2009 1 Images from: D. L. Nelson, Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, IV Edition, W. H. Freeman ed. A. Cornish-Bowden Fundamentals

More information

Energy & Enzymes. Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy.

Energy & Enzymes. Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy. Energy & Enzymes Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy. 1 Energy exists in two forms - potential and kinetic. Potential

More information

Name. Lab 3: ENZYMES. In this lab, you ll investigate some of the properties of enzymes.

Name. Lab 3: ENZYMES. In this lab, you ll investigate some of the properties of enzymes. Name Lab 3: ENZYMES In this lab, you ll investigate some of the properties of enzymes. So what are enzymes? Enzymes are large protein molecules (macromolecules) They catalyze or speed up chemical reactions

More information

green B 1 ) into a single unit to model the substrate in this reaction. enzyme

green B 1 ) into a single unit to model the substrate in this reaction. enzyme Teacher Key Objectives You will use the model pieces in the kit to: Simulate enzymatic actions. Explain enzymatic specificity. Investigate two types of enzyme inhibitors used in regulating enzymatic activity.

More information

Paper: 6 Chemistry 2.130 University I Chemistry: Models Page: 2 of 7. 4. Which of the following weak acids would make the best buffer at ph = 5.0?

Paper: 6 Chemistry 2.130 University I Chemistry: Models Page: 2 of 7. 4. Which of the following weak acids would make the best buffer at ph = 5.0? Paper: 6 Chemistry 2.130 University I Chemistry: Models Page: 2 of 7 4. Which of the following weak acids would make the best buffer at ph = 5.0? A) Acetic acid (Ka = 1.74 x 10-5 ) B) H 2 PO - 4 (Ka =

More information

How to write a formal lab report correctly. This is based off a lab done in AP biology and all examples are taken from student lab write-ups.

How to write a formal lab report correctly. This is based off a lab done in AP biology and all examples are taken from student lab write-ups. How to write a formal lab report correctly. This is based off a lab done in AP biology and all examples are taken from student lab write-ups. Title: Potato Catalase Enzyme Lab (1 point). * Objective, variables,

More information

Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography

Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography Separation of Amino Acids by Paper Chromatography Chromatography is a common technique for separating chemical substances. The prefix chroma, which suggests color, comes from the fact that some of the

More information

Activity Sheets Enzymes and Their Functions

Activity Sheets Enzymes and Their Functions Name: Date: Activity Sheets Enzymes and Their Functions amylase What are Enzymes? starch glucose Enzymes are compounds that assist chemical reactions by increasing the rate at which they occur. For example,

More information

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary

Worksheet 13.1. Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary Worksheet 13.1 Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary α-helix Refers to a secondary structure of a protein where the chain is twisted to form a regular helix, held by hydrogen bonds between peptide bonds

More information

The digestive system, also called the gastrointestinal

The digestive system, also called the gastrointestinal exercise 8 Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion Objectives 1. To define digestive tract, accessory glands, digestion, hydrolases, salivary amylase, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, bile salts,

More information

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity DataQuest 12 Many organisms can decompose hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) enzymatically. Enzymes are globular proteins, responsible for most of the chemical activities

More information

Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism

Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism Name Period Concept 8.1 An organism s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics 1. Define metabolism. The totality of an organism

More information

Digestive System Why is digestion important? How is food digested? Physical Digestion and Movement

Digestive System Why is digestion important? How is food digested? Physical Digestion and Movement Digestive System The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus and other organs that help the body break down

More information

Biopharmaceuticals and Biotechnology Unit 2 Student Handout. DNA Biotechnology and Enzymes

Biopharmaceuticals and Biotechnology Unit 2 Student Handout. DNA Biotechnology and Enzymes DNA Biotechnology and Enzymes 35 Background Unit 2~ Lesson 1 The Biotechnology Industry Biotechnology is a process (or a technology) that is used to create products like medicines by using micro-organisms,

More information

8/20/2012 H C OH H R. Proteins

8/20/2012 H C OH H R. Proteins Proteins Rubisco monomer = amino acids 20 different amino acids polymer = polypeptide protein can be one or more polypeptide chains folded & bonded together large & complex 3-D shape hemoglobin Amino acids

More information

Enzyme Pre-Lab. Using the Enzyme worksheet and Enzyme lab handout answer the Pre-Lab questions the pre-lab must be complete before beginning the lab.

Enzyme Pre-Lab. Using the Enzyme worksheet and Enzyme lab handout answer the Pre-Lab questions the pre-lab must be complete before beginning the lab. Enzyme Pre-Lab Using the Enzyme worksheet and Enzyme lab handout answer the Pre-Lab questions the pre-lab must be complete before beginning the lab. Background: In this investigation, you will study several

More information

Net ionic equation: 2I (aq) + 2H (aq) + H O (aq) I (s) + 2H O(l)

Net ionic equation: 2I (aq) + 2H (aq) + H O (aq) I (s) + 2H O(l) Experiment 5 Goals To determine the differential rate law for the reaction between iodide and hydrogen peroxide in an acidic environment. To determine the activation energy and pre-exponential factor for

More information

Chemical reactions allow living things to grow, develop, reproduce, and adapt.

Chemical reactions allow living things to grow, develop, reproduce, and adapt. Section 2: Chemical reactions allow living things to grow, develop, reproduce, and adapt. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are the parts of a chemical reaction?

More information

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Two Forms of Energy

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Two Forms of Energy Module 2D - Energy and Metabolism Objective # 19 All living organisms require energy for survival. In this module we will examine some general principles about chemical reactions and energy usage within

More information

Catalase Enzyme Lab. Background information

Catalase Enzyme Lab. Background information Catalase Enzyme Lab Background information Liver and other living tissues contain the enzyme catalase. This enzyme breaks down hydrogen peroxide, which is a harmful by-product of the process of cellular

More information

Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism

Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism 1. Discuss energy conversions and the 1 st and 2 nd law of thermodynamics. Be sure to use the terms work, potential energy, kinetic energy, and entropy. 2. What are Joules

More information

ANSWER KEY. Acids, Bases, and Solutions. Chapter Project Worksheet 1 1. Answers will vary. Sample: cherries, blueberries,

ANSWER KEY. Acids, Bases, and Solutions. Chapter Project Worksheet 1 1. Answers will vary. Sample: cherries, blueberries, Chapter Project Worksheet 1 1. Answers will vary. Sample: cherries, blueberries, and grass 2. Answers will vary. Sample: Cut 5 g of cherries into small pieces and place in blender. Blend for two minutes,

More information

Enzymes Lab Pre-Lab Exercise

Enzymes Lab Pre-Lab Exercise Pre-Lab Exercise Name 1. For the reaction we are studying in this week s lab: a. What is the name of the enzyme? b. What is the substrate? c. What are the products of the reaction? 2. What is the purpose

More information

HiPer Ion Exchange Chromatography Teaching Kit

HiPer Ion Exchange Chromatography Teaching Kit HiPer Ion Exchange Chromatography Teaching Kit Product Code: HTC001 Number of experiments that can be performed: 5 Duration of Experiment: Protocol: 5-6 hours Storage Instructions: The kit is stable for

More information

Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins 1 Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins Introduction Amino Acids Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. In class you learned the structures of the 20 common amino acids that make up proteins. All

More information

A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys

A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys Questions- Proteins & Enzymes A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys Reaction of the intact peptide

More information

Biochemistry - I. Prof. S. Dasgupta Department of Chemistry Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture-11 Enzyme Mechanisms II

Biochemistry - I. Prof. S. Dasgupta Department of Chemistry Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture-11 Enzyme Mechanisms II Biochemistry - I Prof. S. Dasgupta Department of Chemistry Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture-11 Enzyme Mechanisms II In the last class we studied the enzyme mechanisms of ribonuclease A

More information

Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways

Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Enzyme characteristics Made of protein Catalysts: reactions occur 1,000,000 times faster with enzymes Not part of reaction Not changed or affected by reaction Used over and

More information

Enzyme Activity Measuring the Effect of Enzyme Concentration

Enzyme Activity Measuring the Effect of Enzyme Concentration 6 Measuring the Effect of Enzyme Concentration Enzymes are proteins that serve as biological catalysts in a wide variety of life sustaining chemical reactions that take place in cells. As catalysts, enzymes

More information

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids Chapter 3 MACROMOLECULES Macromolecules: polymers with molecular weights >1,000 Functional groups THE FOUR MACROMOLECULES IN LIFE Molecules in living organisms: proteins,

More information

THE ACTIVITY OF LACTASE

THE ACTIVITY OF LACTASE THE ACTIVITY OF LACTASE Lab VIS-8 From Juniata College Science in Motion Enzymes are protein molecules which act to catalyze the chemical reactions in living things. These chemical reactions make up the

More information

What does pka tell you?

What does pka tell you? ph and pka What does pka tell you? pka tells you if a given molecule is going to either give a proton to water at a certain ph, or remove a proton A pka of 2 for substance X means that at a ph of 2, X

More information

Review of Chemical Equilibrium 7.51 September 1999. free [A] (µm)

Review of Chemical Equilibrium 7.51 September 1999. free [A] (µm) Review of Chemical Equilibrium 7.51 September 1999 Equilibrium experiments study how the concentration of reaction products change as a function of reactant concentrations and/or reaction conditions. For

More information

reaction. An ordinary catalyst may be used for several different chemical reactions, but an enzyme only works for one specific reaction.

reaction. An ordinary catalyst may be used for several different chemical reactions, but an enzyme only works for one specific reaction. Enzymes are chemicals found in living things that act THE WORLD OF ENZYMES to speed up specific chemical reactions. Enzymes are catalysts for biochemical (living) reactions. If there is any chemical reaction

More information

serum protein and A/ G ratio

serum protein and A/ G ratio serum protein and A/ G ratio Blood plasma contains at least 125 individual proteins. Serum ( as contrasted with plasma) is deficient in those coagulation protein which are consumed during the process of

More information

The Excretory and Digestive Systems

The Excretory and Digestive Systems The Excretory and Digestive Systems 38.2 The Process of Digestion Organs of the Digestive System The digestive system includes the: Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small and large intestine. Other structures

More information

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport.

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E.

Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E. Name Student # Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E. 1. A sequence of three nitrogenous bases in a messenger-rna molecule is known as a 1) codon 2) gene 3) polypeptide 4) nucleotide

More information

catalase 2H 2 O 2 (l) ----> 2H 2 O (l) + O 2 (g)

catalase 2H 2 O 2 (l) ----> 2H 2 O (l) + O 2 (g) ENZYME POST LAB QUIZ STUDY GUIDE Below are the answers to the post-lab (Data Analysis) questions. Make sure you UNDERSTAND all of these questions. The post-lab questions will, of course, be different,

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

Summer Holidays Questions

Summer Holidays Questions Summer Holidays Questions Chapter 1 1) Barium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid. The initial concentration of the 1 st solution its 0.1M and the volume is 100ml. The initial concentration of the

More information

Enzymes. Enzyme Structure. Enzyme Classification. CHEM464/Medh, J.D. Reaction Rate and Enzyme Activity

Enzymes. Enzyme Structure. Enzyme Classification. CHEM464/Medh, J.D. Reaction Rate and Enzyme Activity Enzymes Enzymes are biological catalysts They are not consumed or altered during the reaction They do not change the equilibrium, just reduce the time required to reach equilibrium. They increase the rate

More information

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

More information

Lecture 13-14 Conformation of proteins Conformation of a protein three-dimensional structure native state. native condition

Lecture 13-14 Conformation of proteins Conformation of a protein  three-dimensional structure native state. native condition Lecture 13-14 Conformation of proteins Conformation of a protein refers to the three-dimensional structure in its native state. There are many different possible conformations for a molecule as large as

More information

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives.

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives. 1 Lab 2 Biochemistry Learning Objectives The lab has the following learning objectives. Investigate the role of double bonding in fatty acids, through models. Developing a calibration curve for a Benedict

More information

Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility

Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility Chapter 5 Classification of Organic Compounds by Solubility Deductions based upon interpretation of simple solubility tests can be extremely useful in organic structure determination. Both solubility and

More information

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15 Chemistry 201 Lecture 15 Practical aspects of buffers NC State University The everyday ph scale To review what ph means in practice, we consider the ph of everyday substances that we know from experience.

More information

Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods. Abstract. Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats,

Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods. Abstract. Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods Abstract Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins to meet their energy requirements. In this lab, reagents

More information