THE CERTIFIED SIX SIGMA BLACK BELT HANDBOOK

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1 THE CERTIFIED SIX SIGMA BLACK BELT HANDBOOK SECOND EDITION T. M. Kubiak Donald W. Benbow ASQ Quality Press Milwaukee, Wisconsin

2 Table of Contents list of Figures and Tables Preface to the Second Edition Preface to the First Edition Acknowledgments xv xxiii xxv xxvii Part I Enterprise-Wide Deployment 1 Chapter 1 Enterprise-Wide View 2 History of Continuous Improvement 2 Value and Foundations of Six Sigma 6 Value and Foundations of Lean 7 Integration of Lean and Six Sigma 8 Business Processes and Systems 9 Six Sigma and Lean Applications 10 Chapter 2 Leadership 14 Enterprise Leadership Responsibilities 14 Organizational Roadblocks 14 Change Management 15 Six Sigma Projects and Kaizen Events 16 Six Sigma Roles and Responsibilities 17 Part II Organizational Process Management and Measures 21 Chapter 3 Impact on Stakeholders 22 Impact on Stakeholders 22 Chapter 4 Critical to x (CTx) Requirements 24 Critical to x (CTx) Requirements 24 Chapter 5 Benchmarking 26 Benchmarking 26 Chapter 6 Business Performance Measures 28 Business Performance Measures 28 VII

3 viii Table of Contents Chapter 7 Financial Measures 32 Financial Measures 32 Part III Team Management 37 Chapter 8 Team Formation 38 Team Types and Constraints 38 Team Roles 39 Team Member Selection 40 Launching Teams 41 Chapter 9 Team Facilitation 42 Team Motivation 42 Team Stages 43 Team Communication 44 Chapter 10 Team Dynamics 46 Team Dynamics 46 Chapter 11 Time Management for Teams 49 Time Management for Teams 49 Chapter 12 Team Decision-Making Tools 50 Team Decision-Making Tools 50 Chapter 13 Management and Planning Tools 52 Management and Planning Tools 52 Chapter 14 Team Performance Evaluation and Reward 58 Team Performance Evaluation and Reward 58 Part IV Define 61 Chapter 15 Voice of the Customer 62 Customer Identification 62 Customer Feedback 63 Customer Requirements 64 Chapter 16 Project Charter 71 Problem Statement 71 Project Scope 72 Goals and Objectives 73 Project Performance Measures 74 Chapter 17 Project Tracking 75 Project Tracking 75

4 TABLE OF CONTENTS ix Part V Measure 79 Chapter 18 Process Characteristics 80 Input and Output Variables 80 Process Flow Metrics.- 81 Process Analysis Tools 83 Chapter 19 Data Collection 90 Types of Data 90 Measurement Scales 91 Sampling Methods 92 Collecting Data 93 Chapter 20 Measurement Systems 95 Measurement Methods 95 Measurement Systems Analysis 97 Measurement Systems in the Enterprise 118 Metrology 119 Chapter 21 Basic Statistics 122 Basic Terms 122 Central Limit Theorem 123 Descriptive Statistics 126 Graphical Methods 129 Valid Statistical Conclusions 137 Chapter 22 Probability 138 Basic Concepts 138 Commonly Used Distributions 148 Other Distributions 158 Chapter 23 Process Capability 167 Process Capability Indices 167 Process Performance Indices 171 Short-Term and Long-Term Capability 173 Process Capability for Non-Normal Data 174 Process Capability for Attributes Data 175 Process Capability Studies 176 Process Performance vs. Specification 178 Part VI Analyze 183 Chapter 24 Measuring and Modeling Relationships between Variables Correlation Coefficient 184 Regression 188 Multivariate Tools...: 197 Multi-Vari Studies 208 Attributes Data Analysis 217

5 Table of Contents Chapter 25 Hypothesis Testing 230 Terminology 230 Statistical vs. Practical Significance 231 Sample Size 231 Point and Interval Estimates 234 Tests for Means, Variances, and Proportions 244 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 255 Goodness-of-Fit (Chi Square) Tests 259 Contingency Tables 261 Non-Parametric Tests 264 Chapter 26 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) 278 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) 278 Chapter 27 Additional Analysis Methods 283 Gap Analysis 283 Root Cause Analysis 284 Waste Analysis 290 Part VII Improve 293 Chapter 28 Design of Experiments (DOE) 294 Terminology 294 Design Principles 297 Planning Experiments 309 One-Factor Experiments 311 Two-Level Fractional Factorial Experiments 319 Full Factorial Experiments 325 Chapter 29 Waste Elimination 332 Waste Elimination 332 Chapter 30 Cycle-Time Reduction 337 Cycle-Time Reduction 337 Chapter 31 Kaizen and Kaizen Blitz 342 Kaizen and Kaizen Blitz 342 Chapter 32 Theory of Constraints (TOO '. 344 Theory of Constraints (TOC) 344 Chapter 33 Implementation 347 Implementation 347 Chapter 34 Risk Analysis and Mitigation 351 Risk Analysis and Mitigation 351

6 TABLE OF CONTENTS xi Part VIII Control 357 Chapter 35 Statistical Process Control (SPC) 358 Objectives 358 Selection of Variables Rational Subgrouping 360 Control Chart Selection 361 Control Chart Analysis 389 Chapter 36 Other Control Tools 400 Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) 400 Visual Factory 401 Chapter 37 Maintain Controls 403 Measurement System Re-analysis 403 Control Plan 406 Chapter 38 Sustain Improvements 408 Lessons Learned 408 Training Plan Deployment 409 Documentation 410 Ongoing Evaluation 411 Part IX Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) Frameworks and Methodologies 413 Chapter 39 Common DFSS Methodologies 414 DMADV (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Validate) 414 DMADOV (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Optimize, and Validate) Chapter 40 Design for X (DFX) 416 Design for X (DFX) 416 Chapter 41 Robust Design and Process 418 Robust Design and Process 418 Chapter 42 Special Design Tools 424 Strategic 424 Tactical Part X Appendices 431 Appendix 1 ASQ Code of Ethics (May 2005) 433 Appendix 2A ASQ Six Sigma Black Belt Certification Body of Knowledge (2007) 434 Appendix 2B ASQ Six Sigma Black Belt Certification Body of Knowledge (2001) 447

7 xii Table of Contents Appendix 3 Control Chart Combinations for Measurement Data 460 Appendix 4 Control Chart Constants 462 Appendix 5 Constants for A 7, B 7, and B Appendix 6 Factors for Estimating o x 470 Appendix 7 Control Charts Count Data 471 Appendix 8 Binomial Distribution Table 472 Appendix 9 Cumulative Binomial Distribution Table 476 Appendix 10 Poisson Distribution Table 481 Appendix 11 Cumulative Poisson Distribution Table 489 Appendix 12 Standard Normal Distribution Table 496 Appendix 13 Cumulative Standard Normal Distribution Table 499 Appendix 14 t Distribution Table 502 Appendix 15 Chi-Square Distribution Table 504 Appendix 16 F(0.99) Distribution Table 507 Appendix 17 F(0.975) Distribution Table 511 Appendix 18 F(0.95) Distribution Table 515 Appendix 19 F(0.90) Distribution Table 519 Appendix 20 F(0.10) Distribution Table 523 Appendix 21 F(0.05) Distribution Table 527 Appendix 22 F(0.025) Distribution Table 531 Appendix 23 F(0.01) Distribution Table 535 Appendix 24 Median Ranks Table 539 Appendix 25 Normal Scores Table 543 Appendix 26 Factors for One-Sided Tolerance Limits 546 Appendix 27 Factors for Two-Sided Tolerance Limits 550 Appendix 28 Equivalent Sigma Levels, Percent Defective, and PPM 554 Appendix 29 Critical Values for the Mann-Whitney Test Table (One-Tail, Alpha = 0.05) 556 Appendix 30 Critical Values for the Mann-Whitney Test Table (One-Tail, Alpha = 0.01) 557

8 TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii Appendix 31 Critical Values for the Mann-Whitney Test Table (Two-Tail, Alpha = 0.025) 558 Appendix 32 Critical Values for the Mann-Whitney Test Table (Two-Tail, Alpha = 0.005) 559 Appendix 33 Critical Values for the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test 560 Appendix 34 Glossary of Six Sigma and Related Terms 561 Appendix 35 Glossary of Japanese Terms 600 Bibliography 603 Index 609 CD-ROM Contents Sample Examination Questions for Parts I-IX Certified Six Sigma Black Belt Simulated Exam

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