1 Statistical Process Control (SPC) Training Guide Rev X05, 09/2013
2 What is data? Data is factual information (as measurements or statistics) used as a basic for reasoning, discussion or calculation. (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, m-w.com) What does this mean? Data allows us to make educated decisions and take action!
3 Why is Data Important? If we don t collect data about a process then what? Without data we don t understand the process / product So what? Without understanding of the process / product we can t control the outcome Is it important to control the outcome? When you can t control the outcome you are dependent on chance. You may have a good outcome, you may not. Without data collection you may not know either way.
4 Use of Data I m not collecting data because its non value add. Without data collection there is no way to identify problems, continuously improve or ensure you are meeting the voice of the customer. I m collecting data, but not looking at it. Is that okay? No, the collection of data without analysis is a bigger waste than not collecting data in the first place. What should I be doing with the data?
5 DATA Statistics Information that can be understood and acted on.
6 What are Statistics? A branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation of masses of numerical data (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, m-w.com) What does this mean? Once data is collected we can use appropriate statistical methods to describe (understand) our process / product and control (predict) the process / product outcome
7 Statistics Allow us to Describe our process / product Control (predict) process / product outcomes Sample (125 Pieces) Population (All Product)
8 Important Notes 1. Statistical conclusions require useful data We need to measure the right thing Determining what data to collect and how to collect it are important steps in the APQP / continuous improvement process 2. We need to have confidence the data collected is accurate A good measurement system is required to collect data Be sure the measurement system analysis (MSA) is acceptable before collecting data There is a separate training available for MSA 3. Reduce / Eliminate Waste Data that doesn t provide useful information drives waste We want to gain the most useful information from the least amount of data possible!
9 Types of Data Variable Data (Continuous Data) Measurements on a continuous scale Examples Product Dimensions Weight Time Cost Process parameters (cutting speed, injection pressure, etc.) Attribute Data (Discrete Data) Data by counting Examples Count of defective parts from production Number of chips on a painted part
10 Types of Attribute Data Binomial Distribution Pass / Fail (PPM) Number of defective bezels Number of defective castings Poisson Distribution Number of defects (DPMO) Number of defects per bezel Number of defects per casting
11 Which Type of Data is Better? Variable Data Pros: Provides useful information with smaller sample sizes Can identify common cause concerns at low defect rates Can be used to predict product / process outcomes (trends) Very useful for continuous improvement activities (DOE, Regression analysis, etc.) Cons: Data collection can be more difficult, requiring specific gauges or measurement methods Analysis of data requires some knowledge of statistical methods (Control charting, Regression analysis, etc.) Attribute Data Pros: Very easy to obtain Calculations are simple Data is usually readily available Good for metrics reporting / management review Good for baseline performance Cons: Data collection can be more difficult, requiring specific gauges or measurement methods Analysis of data requires some knowledge of statistical methods (Control charting, Regression analysis, etc.)
12 Introduction to Statistics Goal: 1. Define basic statistical tools 2. Define types of distributions 3. Understand the Central Limit Theorem 4. Understand normal distributions
13 Definitions Population: A group of all possible objects Subgroup (Sample): One or more observations used to analyze the performance of a process. Distribution: A method of describing the output of a stable source of variation, where individual values as a group form a pattern that can be described in terms of its location, spread and shape.
14 Measures of Data Distribution Measures of Location Mean (Average) The sum of all data values divided by the number of data points Mode The most frequently occurring number in a data set Median (Midpoint) Measures of Spread Range The difference between the largest and smallest values of a data set Standard Deviation The square root of the squared distances of each data point from the mean, divided by the sample size. Also known as Sigma (σ)
15 Distribution Types Discrete Binomial Poisson Continuous Normal Exponential Weibull Uniform
16 Central Limit Theorem The Central Limit Theorem is the basis for sampling and control charting (of averages). There are 3 properties associated with the CLT; 1. The distribution of the sample means will approximate a normal distribution as the sample size increases, even if the population is non-normal 2. The average of the sample means will be the same as the population mean 3. The distribution of the sample means will be narrower than the distribution of the individuals by a factor of 1, where n is the sample size. n
17 CLT Property 1 Population Population Population Population The distribution of the sample means of any population will approximate a normal distribution as the sample size increases, even if the population is non-normal. Because of this property control charts (for averages) is based on the normal distribution. Distribution of sample means from any population
20 Process Capability Goal Understand process capability and specification limits Understand the procedure of calculating process capability Understand C p, C pk, P p and P pk indices Estimating percentage of process beyond specification limits Understanding non-normal data Example capability calculation
21 Specification Limits Individual features (dimensions) on a product are assigned specification limits. How do we determine a process is able to produce a part that meets specification limits? Process Capability! LSL USL
22 Process Capability and Specification Limits Process capability is the ability of a process to meet customer requirements. LSL USL LSL USL Acceptable capability Product outside of spec limits
23 Calculating Process Capability
24 Determine Stability All sample means and ranges and in control and do not indicate obvious trends
25 Determine Normality Placing all data in a histogram may be used to help determine normality. If the data represents a normal curve.
26 Determine Normality A more statistical method is to use the Anderson Darling test for normality In Minitab go to: Stat > Basic Statistics > Normality Test Select Anderson Darling and click ok
27 Interpreting Normality The p-value must be greater than or equal to 0.05 to match the normal distribution.
28 Process Indices Indices of process variation only, in regard to specification; C p and P p Indices of process variation and centering combined, in regard to specification; C pk and P pk
29 NOTE Before calculating capability or performance indices we need to make sure of a couple of things! 1. The process needs to be stable (in control) 2. The process needs to be normal 3. A completed MSA needs to prove the measurement system is acceptable If the above items are not met understand the results of the capability studies may be inaccurate. Also, per the AIAG PPAP manual (4 th Edition) if the above items are not met corrective actions may be required prior to PPAP submittal.
30 C p Overview C p = Potential Process Capability = Tolerance Width of Distribution = Voice of Customer Voice of Process This index indicates potential process capability. Cp is not impacted by the process location and can only be calculated for bilateral tolerance.
31 C p Calculation C p = Where: USL LSL 6σ c = USL LSL 6 R d 2 USL = Upper specification limit LSL = Lower specification limit R = Average Range = a constant value based on subgroup sample size d 2 Subgroup Size d
32 Interpreting C p Garage Door Width Car <1 1 2 LSL USL Cp = Number of times the car (distribution) fits in the garage (specification limit)
33 C pk Overview C pk is a capability index. It takes the process location and the capability into account. C pk can be calculated for both single sided (unilateral) and two sided (bilateral) tolerances. For bilateral tolerances C pk is the minimum of CPU and CPL where: CPU = USL X 3σ c = USL X X LSL and CPL = 3 R 3σ c d 2 = X LSL 3 R d 2 Where: X = Process average USL = Upper specification limit LSL = Lower specification limit R = Average Range = a constant value based on subgroup sample size d 2 Note that R d 2 is an estimate of the standard deviation
34 C pk Example GHSP is provided a machined casting with a hole diameter of 16.5 ± 1.0mm. The supplier has collected 25 subgroups of 5 measurements and wants to determine the process capability. With a subgroup size of 5 d2 is (table to right). If the process average (X) is and the average range (R) is 0.561, then the C pk is calculated as follows: Subgroup Size d C pk = Minimum CPU = USL X 3σ c = USL X X LSL 3 R, CPL = 3σ c d 2 = X LSL 3 R d 2 = Minimum CPU = , CPL = = Minimum CPU = 1.372, CPL =1.392 = 1.372
35 C p / C pk Review C p indicates how many process distribution widths can fit within specification limits. It does not consider process location. Because of this it only indicates potential process capability, not actual process capability. C pk indicates actual process capability, taking into account both process location and the width of the process distribution.
36 P p Overview This index indicates potential process performance. It compares the maximum allowable variation as indicated by tolerance to the process performance P p is not impacted by the process location and can only be calculated for bilateral tolerance. P p must be used when reporting capability for PPAP P p = USL LSL 6σ p Where: σ = Standard deviation USL = Upper specification limit LSL = Lower specification limit
37 P p and C p P p C p C p takes into account within subgroup variation (average range) P p takes into account between subgroup variation
38 P pk Overview P pk is a performance index. It indicates actual process performance, taking into account both process location and overall process variation. P pk shows if a process is actually meeting customer requirements. P pk can be used for both unilateral and bilateral tolerances. P pk must be used when reporting capability for PPAP
39 P pk Calculation Ppk is the minimum of PPU and PPL where: PPU = USL X 3σ p X LSL and PPL = 3σ p Where: X = Process average USL = Upper specification limit LSL = Lower specification limit σ = Standard deviation
40 P p / P pk Review P p indicates how many process distribution widths can fit within specification limits. It does not consider process location. Because of this it only indicates potential process performance, not actual process performance. P pk indicates actual process performance, taking into account both process location and the width of the process distribution.
41 A Few Notes C pk will always be smaller than C p, unless the process is centered. If the process is centered the two value will be the same. P pk will always be smaller than P p, unless the process is centered. If the process is centered the two values will be the same. C p and P p cannot be calculated for unilateral tolerances. C pk and P pk can be calculated for both unilateral and bilateral tolerances. Often, short term capability will be calculated using C p and C pk. This is because these indices use R d 2 to estimate standard deviation, which is a calculation of within subgroup variation. This calculation tells us how good a process could potentially be at its best performance. Pp and Ppk uses the actual (overall or between subgroup) standard deviation to calculate performance. As such, when reporting capability use P p and P pk.
42 C pk and P pk Compared These two data sets contain the same data. The top data set is from an immature process that contains special cause variation. The bottom data set has the same within group variation, but has between group variation removed. The bottom data set shows a process that is in statistical control. This example may be found in the AIAG SPC (Second Edition) Manual on page 136
43 Process Indices Review Process Indices 1. Cp = 4.01, Cpk = 4.01 Pp = 4.00, Ppk = Cp = 0.27, Cpk = 0.26 Pp = 0.25, Ppk = Cp = 4.01, Cpk = Pp = 3.99, Ppk = Cp = 4.01, Cpk = 4.00 Pp = 2.01, Ppk = 2.00 Interpretation 1. This process is stable and produces almost all parts within specification 2. Significant common cause variation exists 3. Significant special cause variation exists 4. Improvement can be made by centering the process
44 LSL = 160 USL = Estimating Percent Out of Specification To estimate the percentage of product that falls outside of the specification limits we need to compute Z upper and Z lower For this example assume an average range of 8.4 from a stable process using a sample size of Z lower is the number of standard deviations between the average and the LSL Z upper is the number of standard deviations between the average and the A USL JSJ Business
45 LSL = 160 USL = Estimating Percent Out of Specification σ = R d 2 = = 3.6 Z upper = USL X σ Z upper = = 0.94 The LSL is 5.17σ from X The USL is 0.94σ from X Z lower = Z lower = X LSL σ = 5.17
46 LSL = 160 USL = Estimating Percent Out of Specification Next, we need to reference a z table. From the z table we find 0.94, which corresponds to a proportion of This convert to 17.36% defective or 173,600 PPM Z upper = 0.94
47 Understanding Non-Normal Data What happens when data used for capability is not normally distributed? C p and P p indices are robust in their accuracy with regards to non-normal data. C pk and P pk indices are not robust with regards to non-normal data. Calculating (and making decisions based on) P pk and C pk indices assuming normality with non-normal data can be misleading.
48 Understanding Non-Normal Data What do I do if my data is not normal? Gather more data This may or may not be an option given timing and cost. The Central Limit Theorem (covered earlier) states that all population means resemble the normal distribution with larger sample size Transform the data Using either the Box-Cox or Johnson transformations we can transform non-normal data to a near normal form This allows use to accurately calculate Cpk and Ppk indices and the proportion nonconforming Calculate capabilities based on different distributions
49 Box-Cox Transformation The goal of the Box-Cox transformation is to identify a Lambda value (λ). The Lambda value will then be used in the function X λ to transform the data (X) from a non-normal set into a normal data set. The formula for this transformation is W=X λ where: and -5 λ 5 λ = 0 for the natural log transformation λ = 0.5 for the square root transformation
50 Box-Cox in Practice The Box-Cox transformation can be used in Minitab s capability analysis of normal data. When running a capability study in Minitab select: Stat > Quality Tools > Capability Sixpack > Normal Then select Transform and check Box-Cox power Transformation
51 Johnson Transformation The Johnson Transformation uses a system of transformations that yield approximate normality. The Johnson Transformation covers: Bounded data Log normal data Unbounded data This system of transformations cover all possible unimodal distribution forms (skewness-kurtosis) This transformation can also be ran in Minitab
52 Johnson Transformation in Practice The Johnson Transformation can be used in Minitab s capability analysis of normal data. When running a capability study in Minitab select: Stat > Quality Tools > Capability Sixpack > Normal Then select Transform and check Box-Cox power Transformation
53 Example Process Capability Using the data below captured from an early preproduction run calculate initial process capability The process specification is / data points were collected (subgroup of 1)
54 Is the data stable?
55 Is the data normal?
56 Calculate Capability
57 Analyze Results Process Stable? Yes! Data set normal? Yes! Capability Acceptable? Yes!
58 SPC STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL The organization Listens and reacts The process talks through the control chart -Root cause -Learning (Understanding) -Corrective Action -Share knowledge The process responds
59 Why do we need process control? Why prevention instead of detection? Detection tolerates waste, Prevention avoids it.
60 Variation There are two types of variation 1. Common Cause The many factors that result in variation that is consistently acting on a process. If only common causes are present in a process it is considered stable and in control. If only common cause variation is present in a process the process outcome is predictable. 2. Special Cause Also known as assignable causes, special causes are factors that result in variation that only affect some of the process output. Special cause variation results in one or more points outside of controls limits and / or non-random patterns of points within control limits. Special cause variation is not predictable and, if present in a process, results in instability and out of control conditions.
61 Common Cause Variation If only common cause variation is present in a process it will result in an output that is stable over time and predictable Prediction Size Common cause variation can result in, for example, slight variation in the size of a bolt (exaggerated visual)
Process capability is the long-term performance level of the process after it has been brought under statistical control. It is the ability of the combination of your 5 M's to produce a product that will
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