# Lecture Notes on Analysis II MA131. Xue-Mei Li

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1 Lecture Notes on Analysis II MA131 Xue-Mei Li March 8, 2013

2 The lecture notes are based on this and previous years lectures by myself and by the previous lecturers. I would like to thank David Mond, who is the driving force for me to finish this work and for his important feed backs. In this edition I would like to thank Ruoran Huang and Chris Midgley for a list of typos. Xue-Mei Li Office C Important note: Please tell Xue-Mei Li or David Mond if you find any mistakes in these lecture notes, so that future printed editions, and the online lecture notes, can be improved. If something seems like a mistake but you are not sure, write to us anyway if there is a mistake, your message will help correct it, and if there is not, you will learn something about Analysis. 1

3 Contents 0.1 Introduction Continuity of Functions of One Real Variable Functions Lecture Useful Inequalities and Identities Continuous Functions Lecture Continuity and Sequential Continuity Lecture Properties of Continuous Functions Lecture Continuity of Trigonometric Functions Measurement of angles Continuous Functions on closed Intervals: I The Intermediate Value Theorem Lectures 5 & Continuous Limits Continuous Limits Lecture Limit and continuity Negation Continuous limit and sequential limit The Sandwich Theorem The Algebra of Limits and limit of composition of functions Accumulation points and Limits* Limits to Limits at The Extreme Value Theorem Bounded Functions The Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem

4 4.3 The Extreme Value Theorem Lecture The Inverse Function Theorem for continuous functions The Inverse of a Function Monotone Functions Continuous Injective and Monotone Surjective Functions Lecture The Inverse Function Theorem (Version 1) Lecture Differentiation Definition of Differentiability Lecture The Weierstrass-Carathéodory Formulation for Differentiability Properties of Differentiation Lecture The Inverse Function Theorem Lecture One Sided Derivatives The mean value theorem Local Extrema Lecture Global Maximum and Minimum Rolle s Theorem The Mean Value Theorem Lecture Monotonicity and Derivatives Inequalities From the MVT Lecture Asymptotics of f at Infinity Lecture An Example: Gaussian Envelopes Higher order derivatives Continuously Differentiable Functions Higher Order Derivatives Convexity Still higher derivatives* Power Series Functions Radius of Convergence The Limit Superior of a Sequence Hadamard s Test Continuity of Power Series Functions Term by Term Differentiation

5 10 Classical Functions The Exponential and the Natural Logarithm Function The Sine and Cosine Functions Taylor s Theorem and Taylor Series Non-centered Power Series Uniqueness of Power Series Expansion Taylor s Theorem with remainder in Lagrange form Taylor s Theorem in Integral Form* Cauchy s Mean Value Theorem A Table Techniques for Evaluating Limits Use of Taylor s Theorem L Hôpital s Rule Unfinished Business 160 4

6 The module 0.1 Introduction Analysis II, together with Analysis I, is a 24 CATS core module for first year students. The content of the module will be delivered in 29 lectures. Assessment 7.5%, Term 1 assignments, 7.5%, Term 2 assignments, 25%, January exam (on Analysis 1) 60%, final exam (3 hour in June, cover analysis 1+2) Fail the final ===> Fail the module. Assignments: Given out on Thursday and Fridays in lectures, to hand in the following Thursday in supervisor s pigeonhole by 14:00. Each assignment is divided into part A, part B and part C. Part B is for assignments. Learn Definitions and statements of theorems. Take the exercises very seriously. It is the real way you learn (and hence pass the summer exam) Books: G. H. Hardy: A Course of Pure Mathematics, Third Edition (First Edition 1908), Cambridge University Press. E. T. Whittaker &G. N. Watson A Course of Modern Analysis T. M. Apostol Calculus, Vol I&II, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons E. Hairer & G. Wanner: Analysis by Its History, Springer. Objectives of the module: Study functions of one real variable. This module leads to analysis of functions of two or more variables (Analysis III), Ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations, Fourier Analysis, Functional analysis etc. What we cover: 5

7 Continuity of functions of one real variable (lectures 1-3) the Intermediate Value theorem, continuous functions on closed intervals Continuous limits (circa lecture 8-9) Extreme Value Theorem, Inverse Function Theorem (circa 10-11) Differentiation (circa lecture 12), Mean Value Theorem Power series (ca. lecture 23) Taylor s Theorem (ca. lecture 23) L Hôpital s rule (ca. lecture 26) Relation to Analysis I. Continuity and continuous limits of function will be formulated in terms of sequential limits. Power series are functions obtained by sums of infinite series. Relation to Analysis II. Uniform convergence and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus from Analysis III would make a lot of proofs here easier. Relation to Complex Analysis The power series expansion. Relation to Ordinary Differential Equations Differentiability of functions. Solve e.g. f (x) = f(x), f(0) = 1. Feedbacks Ask questions in lectures. Talk to me after or before the lectures. Plan your study: Shortly after each hour of lecture, you need to spend one hour going over lecture notes and mulling over the assignments. It is a rare student who has understood everything during the lecture. There is plentiful evidence that putting in this effort shortly after the lecture pays ample dividends in terms of understanding. In particular, if you begin a lecture having understood the previous one, you learn much more from it, so the process is cumulative. Please plan two hours per week for the exercises. 6

8 Topics by Lecture (approximate dates) 1. Introduction. Continuity, ɛ δ formulation 2. Properties of continuous functions, sequential continuity 3. Algebra of continuity 4. Composition of continuous functions, examples 5. The Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT) 6. The Intermediate Value Theorem (continued) 7. Continuous Limits, ɛ δ formulation, relation with to sequential limits and continuity 8. One sided limits, left and right continuity 9. The Extreme Value Theorem 10. The Inverse Function Theorem (continuous version) 11. Differentiation, Weierstrass formulation 12. Algebraic rules, chain rule 13. The Inverse Function Theorem (Differentiable version) 14. Local Extrema, critical points, Rolle s Theorem 15. The Mean Value Theorem 16. Deduce Inequalities, asymptotics of f at infinity 17. Higher order derivatives, C k (a, b) functions, examples of functions, convexity and graphing 18. Formal power series, radius of convergence 19. Limit superior, 20. Hadamard Test for power series, Functions defined by power series 21. Term by Term Differentiation Theorem 22. Classical Functions of Analysis 7

9 23. Polynomial approximation, Taylor s series, Taylor s formula 24. Taylor s Theorem 25. Cauchy s Mean Value Theorem, Techniques for evaluating limits 26. L Hôpital s rule 27. L Hôpital s rule 28. Unfinished business, Summary, Matters related to exams 29. Question Time, etc 8

10 Chapter 1 Continuity of Functions of One Real Variable Let R be the set of real numbers. We will often use the letter E to denote a subset of R. Here are some examples of the kind of subsets we will be considering: E = R, E = (a, b) (open interval), E = [a, b] (closed interval), E = (a, b] (semi-closed interval), E = [a, b), E = (a, ), E = (, b), and E = (1, 2) (2, 3). The set of rational numbers Q is also a subset of R. 1.1 Functions Lecture 1 Definition By a function f : E R we mean a rule which to every number in E assigns a number from R. This correspondence is denoted by y = f(x), or x f(x). We say that y is the image of x and x is a pre-image of y. The set E is the domain of f. The range, or image, of f consists of the images of all points of E. It is often denoted f(e). We denote by N the set of natural numbers, Z the set of integers and Q the set of rational numbers: N = {1, 2,... } Z = {0, ±1, ±2,... } Q = { p q : p, q Z, q 0}. 9

11 Example E = [ 1, 3]. { 2x, 1 x 1 f(x) = 3 x, 1 < x 3. The range of f is [ 2, 2]. 2. E = R. Range f= {0, 1}. f(x) = { 1, if x Q 0, if x Q 3. E = R. { 1/q, if x = p f(x) = q where p Z, q N have no common divisor 0, if x Q Range f= {0} { 1 q, q N {0}}. 4. E = R. f(x) = { sin x x if x 0 1 if x = 0. Range f =? A little work is needed here. 5. E = ( 1, 1). f(x) = ( 1) n xn n. n=1 This function is a representation of log(1+x), see chapter on Taylor series. Range f = ( log 2, ). 1.2 Useful Inequalities and Identities a 2 + b 2 2ab a + b a + b b a max( b a, a b ). Proof The first follows from (a b) 2 > 0. The second inequality is proved by squaring a + b and noting that ab a b. The third inequality follows from the fact that b = a + (b a) a + b a 10

12 and by symmetry a b + b a. Pythagorean theorem : sin 2 x + cos 2 x = 1. cos 2 x sin 2 x = cos(2x), cos(x) = 1 2 sin 2 ( x 2 ). 1.3 Continuous Functions Lecture 2 What do we mean by saying that f(x) varies continuously with x? It is reasonable to say f is continuous if the graph of f is an unbroken continuous curve. The concept of an unbroken continuous curve seems easy to understand. However we may need to pay attention. For example we look at the graph of { x, x 1 f(x) = x + 1, if x > 1 It is easy to see that the curve is continuous everywhere except at x = 1. The function is not continuous at x = 1 since there is a gap of 1 between the values of f(1) and f(x) for x close to 1. It is continuous everywhere else. y 1 x Now take the function F (x) = { x, x 1 x , if x > 1 The function is not continuous at x = 1 since there is a gap of However can we see this gap on a graph with our naked eyes? No, unless you have exceptional eyesight! 11

13 Here is a theorem we will prove, once we have the definition of continuous function. Theorem (Intermediate value theorem): Let f : [a, b] R be a continuous function. Suppose that f(a) f(b), and that the real number v lies between f(a) and f(b). Then there is a point c [a, b] such that f(c) = v. This looks obvious, no? In the picture shown here, it says that if the graph of the continuous function y = f(x) starts, at (a, f(a)), below the straight line y = v and ends, at (b, f(b)), above it, then at some point between these two points it must cross this line. y f(b) v f(a) y=f(x) a c b x But how can we prove this? Notice that its truth uses some subtle facts about the real numbers. If, instead of the domain of f being an interval in R, it is an interval in Q, then the statement is no longer true. For example, we would probably agree that the function F (x) = x 2 is continuous (soon we will see that it is). If we now consider the function f : Q Q defined by the same formula, then the rational number v = 2 lies between 0 = f(0) and 9 = f(3), but even so there is no c between 0 and 3 (or anywhere else, for that matter) such that f(c) = 2. Sometimes what seems obvious becomes a little less obvious if you widen your perspective. 12

14 These examples call for a proper definition for the notion of continuous function. In Analysis, the letter ε is often used to denote a distance, and generally we want to find way to make some quantity smaller than ε : The sequence (x n ) n N converges to l if for every ε > 0, there exists N N such that if n > N, then x n l < ε. The sequence (x n ) n N is Cauchy if for every ε > 0, there exists N N such that if m, n > N then x m x n < ε. In each case, by taking n, or n and m, sufficiently big, we make the distance between x n and l, or the distance between x n and x m, smaller than ε. Important: The distance between a and b is a b. The set of x such that x a < δ is the same as the set of x with a δ < x < a δ. The definition of continuity is similar in spirit to the definition of convergence. It too begins with an ε, but instead of meeting the challenge by finding a suitable N N, we have to find a positive real number δ, as follows: Definition Let E be subset of R and c a point of E. 1. A function f : E R is continuous at c if for every ε > 0 there exists a δ > 0 such that if x c < δ and x E then f(x) f(c) < ε. 2. If f is continuous at every point c of E, we say f is continuous on E or simply that f is continuous. The reason that we require x E is that f(x) is only defined if x E! If f is a function with domain R, we generally drop E in the formulation above. Example The function f : R R given by f(x) = 3x is continuous at every point x 0. It is very easy to see this. Let ε > 0. If δ = ε/3 then x x 0 < δ = x x 0 < ε/3 = 3x 3x 0 < ε = f(x) f(x 0 ) < ε as required. Exercise For each of the following cases, show that the function given is continuous at every point x 0 R. 13

15 1. f(x) = 3x f(x) = 5x 3. f(x) = f(x) = λ with λ a non-zero constant. Example Prove that the function f : R R given by f(x) = x 2 + x is continuous at x = 2. Take ε > 0. We wish to have f(x) f(2) < ɛ. Let us simplify and bound the left hand side quantity, f(x) f(2) = x 2 + x (4 + 2) x x 2 = x + 2 x 2 + x 2 = ( x ) x 2. Now we should give an upper bound for x + 2. If x 2 1, then This shows that x + 2 = (x 2) + 4 x f(x) f(2) ( x ) x 2 6 x 2. We can take δ = min( ε 6, 1). If x 2 < δ, the above reasoning gives f(x) f(2) < ɛ. There are two things which make the proof easier than it looks at first sight: 1. If δ works, then so does any δ > 0 which is smaller than δ. There is no single right answer. Sometimes you can make a guess which may not be the biggest possible δ which works, but still works. In the last example, we could have taken δ = min{ ε 10, 1} instead of min{ ε 6, 1}, just to be on the safe side. It would still have been right. 14

16 2. Fortunately, we don t need to find δ very often. In fact, it turns out that sometimes it is easier to use general theorems than to prove continuity directly from the definition. Sometimes it s easier to prove general theorems than to prove continuity directly from the definition in an example. My preferred proof of the continuity of the function f(x) = x 2 + x goes like this: (a) First, prove a general theorem showing that if f and g are functions which are continuous at c, then so are the functions f + g and fg, defined by { (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) (fg)(x) = f(x) g(x) (b) Second, show how to assemble the function h(x) = x 2 + x out of simpler functions, whose continuity we can prove effortlessly. In this case, h is the sum of the functions x x 2 and x x. The first of these is the product of the functions x x and x x. Continuity of the function f(x) = x is very easy to show! As you can imagine, the general theorem in the first step will be used on many occasions, as will the continuity of the simple functions in the second step. So general theorems save work. But that will come later. For now, you have to learn how to apply the definition directly in some simple examples. First, a visual example with no calculation at all: 15

17 f(c) + ε f(c) f(c) ε a c b Here, as you can see, for all x in (a, b), we have f(c) ε < f(x) < f(c)+ε. What could be the value of δ? The largest possible interval centred on c is shown in the picture; so the biggest possible value of δ here is b c. If we took as δ the larger value c a, there would be points within a distance δ of c, but for which f(x) is not within a distance ε of f(c). Exercise Suppose that f(x) = x 2, x 0 = 7 and ε = 5. What is the largest value of δ such that if x x 0 < δ then f(x) f(x 0 ) < ε? What if ε = 50? What if ε = 0.1? Drawing a picture like the last one may help. Discontinuity Let us now do a logic problem. We gave a definition of what is meant by f is continuous at c : ε > 0 δ > 0 such that if x c < δ then f(x) f(c) < ε. How to express the meaning of f is not continuous at c in these same terms? there exists an ε > 0 such that for all δ > 0, there exists an x satisfying x c < δ but f(x) f(c) ε. 16

18 Example Consider f : R R, { 0, if x Q f(x) = 1, if x Q. Then f is discontinuous at every point. The key point is that between any two numbers there is an irrational number and a rational number. More precisely, take ε = 0.5. Let δ > 0 be any positive number. If c Q, then f(c) = 0. There is an x Q with x c < δ; because x Q, f(x) = 1. Thus f(x) f(c) = 1 0 > 0.5. So f is not continuous at c. If c Q then f(c) = 1. Take ε = 0.5. For any δ > 0, take x Q with x c < δ; then f(x) f(c) = 0 1 > 0.5 = ε. Example Consider f : R R, { 0, if x Q f(x) = x, if x Q Claim: This function is continuous at c = 0 and discontinuous everywhere else. Let c = 0. For any ε > 0 take δ = ε. If x c < δ, then f(x) f(0) = x in case c Q, and f(x) f(0) = 0 0 = 0 in case c Q. In both cases, f(x) f(0) x < δ = ε. Hence f is continuous at 0. Exercise Show that the function f of the last example is not continuous at c 0. Hint: take ε = c /2. Example Suppose that g : R R and h : R R are continuous, and let c be some fixed real number. Define a new function f : R R by { g(x), x < c f(x) = h(x), x c. Then the function f is continuous at c if and only if g(c) = h(c). Proof: Since g and h are continuous at c, for any ε > 0 there are δ 1 > 0 and δ 2 > 0 such that g(x) g(c) < ε when x c < δ 1 and such that h(x) h(c) < ε when x c < δ 2. 17

19 Define δ = min(δ 1, δ 2 ). Then if x c < δ, g(x) g(c) < ε and h(x) h(c) < ε. Case 1: Suppose g(c) = h(c). x c < δ, For any ε > 0 and the above δ, if { g(x) g(c) < ε if x < c f(x) f(c) = h(x) h(c) < ε if x c So f is continuous at c. Case 2: Suppose g(c) h(c). Take ε = 1 g(c) h(c). 2 By the continuity of g at c, there exists δ 0 such that if x c < δ 0, then g(x) g(c) < ε. If x < c, then moreover f(c) f(x) = h(c) g(x) ; h(c) g(x) = h(c) g(c) + g(c) g(x) h(c) g(c) g(c) g(x). We have h(c) g(c) = 2ε, and if c x < δ 0 then g(c) g(x) < ε. It follows that if c δ 0 < x < c, f(c) f(x) = h(c) h(x) > ε. So if c δ 0 < x < c, then no matter how close x is to c we have f(x) f(c) > ε. This shows f is not continuous at c. Example Let E = [ 1, 3]. Consider f : [ 1, 3] R, { 2x, 1 x 1 f(x) = 3 x, 1 < x 3. The function is continuous everywhere. 18

20 Example Let f : R R. { 1/q, if x = p f(x) =, q > 0 q 0, if x Q p, q coprime integers Then f is continuous at all irrational points, and discontinuous at all rational points. Proof Every rational number p/q can be written with positive denominator q, and in this proof we will always use this choice. Case 1. Let c = p/q Q. We show that f is not continuous at c. Take ε = 1 2q. No matter how small is δ there is an irrational number x such that x c < δ. And f(x) f(c) = 1 q > ε. Case 2. Let c Q. We show that f is continuous at c. Let ε > 0. If x = p Q, q f(x) f(c) = 1. So the only rational numbers p/q for which f(x) f(p/q) ε q are those with denominator q less than or equal to 1/ε. Let A = {x Q (c 1, c + 1) : q 1 }. Clearly c / A. The crucial point is ε that if it is not empty, A contains only finitely many elements. To see this, observe that its members have only finitely many possible denominators q, since q must be a natural number 1/ε. For each possible q, we have p/q (c 1, c + 1) p (qc q, qc + q), so no more than 2q different values of p are possible. It now follows that the set B := { x c : x A}, if not empty, has finitely many members, all strictly positive. Therefore if B is not empty, it has a least element, and this element is strictly positive. Take δ to be this element. If B is empty, take δ =. In either case, (c δ, c + δ) does not contain any number from A. Suppose x c < δ. If x / Q, then f(x) = f(x) = 0, so f(x) f(c) = 0 < ε. If x = p/q Q then since x / A, f(x) f(c) = 1 q < ε. Example f : ( 1, 1) R. f(x) = ( 1) n xn n n=1 Is f continuous at 0? This is a difficult problem for us at the moment. We cannot even graph this function and so we have little intuition. But we can answer this question after the study of power series. Exercise Is there a value a such that the function 1, if x > 0 f a (x) = a, if x = 0 1, if x < 0. is continuous at x = 0? Justify your answer. 19

21 1.4 Continuity and Sequential Continuity Lecture 3 Definition We say f : E R is sequentially continuous at c E if for every sequence {x n } E such that lim n x n = c we have lim f(x n) = f(c). n Theorem Let E be a subset of R and c E. Let f : E R. The following are equivalent: 1. f is continuous at c. 2. f is sequentially continuous at c. Proof Suppose that f is continuous at c. For any ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 so that f(x) f(c) < ε, whenever x c < δ. Let {x n } be a sequence with lim n x n = c. There is an integer N such that x n c < δ, n > N, Hence if n > N, f(x n ) f(c) < ε. We have proved that f(x n ) f(c). Thus f is sequentially continuous at c. Suppose that f is not continuous at c. Then ε > 0 such that for every δ > 0, there is a point x E with x c < δ but f(x) f(c) ε. In particular, this holds for δ = 1 n : there exists a point x n E with x n c < 1 n, but f(x n ) f(c) ε. In this way we have constructed a sequence {x n } which tends to c, but for which f(x n ) f(c). This shows that f is not sequentially continuous at c. 20

22 Sequential continuity is handy when it comes to showing a function is discontinuous. Example Let f : R R be defined by { sin( 1 f(x) = x ) x 0 0 x = 0 is not continuous at 0. Proof Observe that f(0) = 0. Take x n = 1 2nπ+ π ; then x n 0 as n, 2 but f(x n ) = 1 0. Hence f is not sequentially continuous at 0 and it is therefore not continuous at 0. Example Let f(x) = { x + 1 x 2 12 x = 2 The function f is not continuous at x = 2. Proof Take x n = n ; then x n 2 as n, but f(x n ) = n 3 f(2). Hence f is not sequentially continuous at 2 and it is therefore not continuous at 2. We end this section with a small result which will be very useful later. The following lemma says that if f is continuous at c and f(c) 0 then f does not vanish close to c. In fact f has the same sign as f(c) in a neighbourhood of c. We introduce a new notation: if c is a point in R and r is also a real number, then B r (c) = {x R : x c < r}. It is sometimes called the ball of radius r centred on c. The same definition makes sense in higher dimensions (B r (c) is the set of points whose distance from c is less than r); in R 2 and R 3, B r (c) looks more round than it does in R. Lemma Non-vanishing lemma Suppose that f : E R is continuous at c. 21

23 1. If f(c) > 0, then there exists r > 0 such that f(x) > 0 for x B r (c). 2. If f(c) < 0, then there exists r > 0 such that f(x) < 0 for x B r (c). In both cases there is a neighbourhood of c on which f does not vanish. Proof Suppose that f(c) > 0. Take ε = f(c) 2 > 0. Let r > 0 be a number such that if x c < r and x E then f(x) f(c) < ε. For such x, f(x) > f(c) ε = f(c) 2 > 0. If f(c) < 0, take ε = f(c) 2 > 0. There is r > 0 such that on B r (c), f(x) < f(c) + ε = f(c) 2 < 0. Corollary Let f : (a, b) R be continuous at c (a, b). If f(c) 0 then 1 f is defined in a neighbourhood of c. Exercise Let f be continuous at c. Show that if v R and f(x) < v then there exists δ > 0 s.t. for all x (c δ, c + δ), f(x) < v. 1.5 Properties of Continuous Functions Lecture 4 In this section we learn how to build continuous functions from known continuous functions. Notation: for r > 0, let B r (c) = {x E c r < x < c + r}. This is the subset of E whose elements satisfy c r < x < c + r. We recall the following properties of limits of sequences: Proposition (Algebra of Limits) Suppose a n and b n are sequences with lim n a n = a and lim n b n = b. Then 1. lim n (a n + b n ) = a + b; 2. lim n (a n b n ) = ab; 3. lim n a n bn = a b, provided that b n 0 for all n and b 0. 22

24 What can we deduce about the continuity of f + g, fg and f/g if f and g are continuous? Proposition The algebra of continuous functions Suppose f and g are both defined on a subset E of R and are both continuous at c, then 1. af + bg is continuous at c where a and b are any constants. 2. fg is continuous at c 3. f/g is continuous at c if g(c) 0. Note: If g(c) 0 then there is a neighbourhood of c on which g(x) 0, by the non-vanishing lemma The function f/g referred to in part (3) of the proposition is well defined on this neighbourhood, and it is this function, on this neighbourhood, that we claim is continuous. Proof Let {x n } be any sequence in E converging to c. Then lim f(x n) = f(c), n lim g(x n) = g(c). n By the algebra of convergent sequences we see that lim [af(x n) + bg(x n )] = [af(c) + bg(c)]. n Thus lim (af + bg)(x n) = (af + bg)(c). n Hence af + bg is sequentially continuous at c. Since lim n f(x n )g(x n ) = f(c)g(c), lim (fg)(x n) = (fg)(c) n and fg is sequentially continuous at c. Suppose that g(c) 0. By Lemma 1.4.5, there is a neighbourhood B r (c) such that g(x) 0. We may now assume that E = B r (c) and hence assume that x n B r (c). Any sequences in B r (c) satisfies g(x n ) 0. By sequential continuity of g, lim n g(x n ) = g(c) 0. Consequently f(x n ) lim n g(x n ) = f(c) g(c) and f g is sequentially continuous at c. 23

25 The continuity of the function f(x) = x 2 + x, which we proved from first principles in Example 1.3.5, can be proved more easily using Proposition For the function g(x) = x is obviously continuous (take δ = ε), the function h(x) = x 2 is equal to g g and is therefore continuous by 1.5.2(2), and finally f = h + g and is therefore continuous by 1.5.2(1). Example The function f given by f(x) = 1 x is continuous on R {0}. It cannot be extended to a continuous function on R since if x n = 1 n, f(x n ). Proposition composition of continuous functions Suppose f : E R is continuous at c, g is defined on the range of f, and g is continuous at f(c). Then g f is continuous at c. Proof Let {x n } be any sequence in E converging to c. By the continuity of f at c, lim n f(x n ) = f(c). By the continuity of g at f(c), lim g(f(x n)) = g(f(c)). n This shows that g f is continuous at c. Example A polynomial of degree n is a function of the form P n (x) = a n x n + a n 1 x n a 0. Polynomials are continuous, by repeated application of Proposition 1.5.2(1) and (2). 2. A rational function is a function of the form: P (x) Q(x) where P and Q are polynomials. The rational function P Q is continuous at x 0 provided that Q(x 0 ) 0, by 1.5.2(3). Example The exponential function exp(x) = e x is continuous. This we will prove later in the course. 2. Given that exp is continuous, the function g defined by g(x) = exp(x 2n+1 + x) is continuous (use continuity of exp, 1.5.5(1) and 1.5.4). Example The function x sin x is continuous. This will be proved later using the theory of power series. An alternative proof is given in the next section. From the continuity of sin x we can deduce that cos x, tan x and cot x are continuous: 24

26 Example The function x cos x is continuous by 1.5.4, since cos x = sin(x + π 2 ) and is thus the composite of the continuous function cos and the continuous function x x + π/2 Example The function x tan x is continuous. Use tan x = sin x cos x and 1.5.2(3). Discussion on tan x. If we restrict the domain of tan x to the region ( π 2, π 2 ), its graph is a continuous curve and we believe that tan x is continuous. On a larger range, tan x is made of disjoint pieces of continuous curves. How could it be a continuous function? Surely the graph looks discontinuous at π 2!!! The trick is that the domain of the function does not contain these points where the graph looks broken. By the definition of continuity we only consider x with values in the domain. The largest domain for tan x is R { π 2 + kπ, k Z} = k Z(kπ π 2, kπ + π 2 ). For each c in the domain, we locate the piece of continuous curve where it belongs. We can find a small neighbourhood on which the graph is is part of this single piece of continuous curve. For example if c ( π 2, π 2 ), make sure that δ is smaller than min( π 2 c, c + π 2 ). 1.6 Continuity of Trigonometric Functions Measurement of angles Two different units are commonly used for measuring angles: Babylonian degrees and radians. We will use radians. The radian measure of an angle x is the length of the arc of a unit circle subtended by the angle x. x 1 x 25

27 The following explains how to measure the length of an arc. Take a polygon of n segments of equal length inscribed in the unit circle. Let l n be its length. The length increases with n. As n, it has a limit. The limit is called the circumference of the unit circle. The circumference of the unit circle was measured by Archimedes, Euler, Liu Hui etc.. It can now be shown to be an irrational number. Historically sin x and cos x are defined in the following way. Later we define them by power series. The two definitions agree. Take a right-angled triangle, with the hypotenuse of length 1 and an angle x. Define sin x to be the length of the side facing the angle and cos x the length of the side adjacent to it. Extend this definition to [0, 2π]. For example, if x [ π 2, π], define sin x = cos(x π 2 ). Extend to the rest of R by decreeing that sin(x + 2π) = sin x, cos(x + 2π) = cos x. Lemma If 0 < x < π 2, then sin x < x < tan x. Proof Take a unit disk centred at 0, and consider a sector of the disk of angle x which we denote by OBA. y B O F A E x x 2π The area of the sector OBA is: times the area of the disk which is π. hence Area(Sector OBA) = 1 2 x. Let a = OF and b = F A then a + b = 1. The area of the triangle OBA is the sum of the areas of OBF and BF A: Area(triangle OBA) = 1 2 a sin(x) b sin x = 1 2 sin(x). 26

28 Since the triangle is strictly smaller than the sector, sin x < x. Consider the right-angled triangle OBE, with one side tangent to the circle at B. Because BE = tan x, the are of the triangle is, area(obe) = 1 tan x. 2 This triangle is strictly bigger than the sector OBA. So and therefore x < tan x. Area(Sector OBA) < Area(Triangle OBE), A slightly different formulation for f is continuous at c: for ɛ > 0, there is δ > 0 such that if h < δ, f(c + h) f(c) < ɛ. To see this for any x write x = x c + c and let h = x c (the difference). Theorem The function x sin x is continuous. Proof Let x R, We show that f is continuous at x. Let h R be such that h < π 2. We use the relation cos(h) = 1 2 ( sin( h 2 )) 2. sin(x + h) sin x = sin x cos h + cos x sin h sin x = sin x(cos h 1) + cos x sin h = 2 sin x sin 2 ( h ) cos x sin h 2 2 sin x sin 2 ( h ) + cos x sin h 2 h2 2 + h = h ( h 2 For any ε > 0, choose δ = min(2ε, π 2 ). If h < δ then sin(x + h) sin x 2 h < ε. + 1) 2 h. Exercises Show that the following functions are continuous at all points of their domains. 27

29 (a) f : R {x R : cos x = 0} R, f(x) = tan x. (b) f : R {x R : sin x = 0} R, f(x) = cot x. (c) f : R R, f(x) = sinh x (you may assume here that exp is continuous). (d) f : R R, f(x) = cos(x 2 ). (e) f : R R, f(x) = cos(sin x) 2. Show that the function f : [0, ) R, f(x) = x is continuous. Unlike in the previous exercise, here you may have to use the definition of continuity directly. Drawing a picture may help you to guess a suitable value δ for each ε > Can you see how to prove that f : (0, ) R, f(x) = ln x is continuous? What about the function f : [ 1, 1] R defined by f(x) = arcsin x? 28

30 Chapter 2 Continuous Functions on closed Intervals: I Definition A number c is an upper bound of a set A if for all x S we have x c. A number c is the least upper bound of a set A if c is an upper bound for A. if U is an upper bound for A then c U. The least upper bound of the set A is denoted by sup A. The completeness Axiom If S R is a non empty set bounded above it has a least upper bound in R. In particular there is a sequence x n S such that c 1 n x n < c. This sequence x n converges to c. 2.1 The Intermediate Value Theorem Lectures 5 & 6 Recall Theorem 1.3.1, which we state again: Theorem Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT) Let f : [a, b] R be continuous. Suppose that f(a) f(b). Then for any v strictly between f(a) and f(b), there exists c (a, b) such that f(c) = v. A rigorous proof was first given by Bolzano in Proof We may assume f(a) < f(b) (in case f(b) < f(a) define g = f.) Consider the set A = {x [a, b] : f(x) v}. Note that a A and A is 29

31 bounded above by b, so it has a least upper bound, which we denote by c. We will show that f(c) = v. y f v a c b x Since c = sup A, there exists x n A with x n c. Then f(x n ) f(c) by continuity of f. Since f(x n ) v then f(c) v. Suppose f(c) < v. Then by the Non-vanishing Lemma applied to the function x v f(x), there exists r > 0 such that for all x B r (c), f(x) < v. But then c + r/2 A. This contradicts the fact that c is an upper bound for A. The idea of the proof is to identify the greatest number in (a, b) such that f(c) = v. The existence of the least upper bound (i.e. the completeness axiom) is crucial here, as it is on practically every occasion on which one wants to prove that there exists a point with a certain property, without knowing at the start where this point is. Exercise To test your understanding of this proof, write out the (very similar) proof for the case f(a) > v > f(b). Example Let f : [0, 1] R be given by f(x) = x 7 +6x+1, x [0, 1]. Does there exist x [0, 1] such that f(x) = 2? Proof The answer is yes. Since f(0) = 1, f(1) = 8 and 2 (1, 8), there is a number c [0, 1] such that f(c) = 2 by the IVT. 30

32 Remark*: There is an alternative proof for the IVT, using the bisection method. It is not covered in lectures. Suppose that f(a) < 0, f(b) > 0. We construct nested intervals [a n, b n] with length decreasing to zero. We then show that a n and b n have common limit c which satisfy f(c) = 0. Divide the interval [a, b] into two equal halves: [a, c 1], [c 1, b]. If f(c 1) = 0, done. Otherwise on (at least) one of the two sub-intervals, the value of f must change from negative to positive. Call this subinterval [a 1, b 1]. More precisely, if f(c 1) > 0 write a = a 1, c 1 = b 1; if f(c 1) < 0, let a 1 = c 1, b 1 = b. Iterate this process. Either at the k th stage f(c k ) = 0, or we obtain a sequence of intervals [a k, b k ] with [a k+1, b k+1 ] [a k, b k ], a k increasing, b k decreasing, and f(a k ) < 0, f(b k ) > 0 for all k. Because the sequences a k and b k are monotone and bounded, both converge, say to c and c respectively. We must have c c, and f(c ) 0 f(c ). If we can show that c = c then since f(c ) 0, f(c ) 0 then we must have f(c ) = 0, and we have won. It therefore rermains only to show that c = c. I leave this as an (easy!) exercise. Example The polynomial p(x) = 3x 5 + 5x + 7 = 0 has a real root. Proof Let f(x) = 3x 5 + 5x + 7. Consider f as a function on [ 1, 0]. Then f is continuous and f( 1) = = 1 < 0 and f(0) = 7 > 0. By the IVT there exists c ( 1, 0) such that f(c) = 0. Exercise Show that every polynomial of odd degree has a real root. Discussion on assumptions. In the following examples the statement fails. For each one, which condition required in the IVT is not satisfied? Example Let f : [ 1, 1] R, { x + 1, x > 0 f(x) = x, x < 0 Then f( 1) = 1 < f(1) = 2. Can we solve f(x) = 1/2 ( 1, 2)? No: that the function is not continuous on [ 1, 1]. 2. Define f : Q [0, 2] R by f(x) = x 2. Then f(0) = 0 and f(2) = 4. Is it true that for each v with 0 < v < 4, there exists c Q [0, 2] such that f(c) = v? No! If, for example, v2, then there is no rational number c such that f(c) = v. Here, the domain of f is Q [0, 2], not an interval in the reals, as required by the IVT. 31

33 Example The Intermediate Value Theorem may hold for some functions which are not continuous. For example it holds for the following function: { sin(1/x), x 0 f(x) = 0 x = 0, 0 x 1. Imagine the graphs of two continuous functions f and g. If they cross each other where x = c then f(c) = g(c). If the graph f is higher at a and the graph of g is higher at b then they must cross, as is shown below. Example Let f, g : [a, b] R be continuous functions. Suppose that f(a) < g(a) and f(b) > g(b). Then there exists c (a, b) such that f(c) = g(c). Proof Define h = f g. Then h(a) < 0 and h(b) > 0 and h is continuous. Apply the IVT to h: there exists c (a, b) with h(c) = 0, which means f(c) = g(c). Let f : E R be a function. Any point x E such that f(x) = x is called a fixed point of f. Theorem (Fixed Point Theorem) Suppose g : [a, b] [a, b] is a continuous function. Then there exists c [a, b] such that g(c) = c. Proof The notation that g : [a, b] [a, b] implies that the range of f is contained in [a, b]. Set f(x) = g(x) x. Then f(a) = g(a) a a a = 0, f(b) = g(b) b b b = 0. If f(a) = 0 then a is the sought after point. If f(b) = 0 then b is the sought after point. If f(a) > 0 and f(b) < 0, apply the intermediate value theorem to f to see that there is a point c (a, b) such that f(c) = 0. This means g(c) = c. Remark This theorem has a remarkable generalisation to higher dimensions, known as Brouwer s Fixed Point Theorem. Its statement requires the notion of continuity for functions whose domain and range are of higher dimension - in this case a function from a product of intervals [a, b] n to itself. Note that [a, b] 2 is a square, and [a, b] 3 is a cube. I invite you to adapt the definition of continuity we have given, to this higher-dimensional case. 32

34 Theorem (Brouwer, 1912) Let f : [a, b] n [a, b] n be a continuous function. Then f has a fixed point. The proof of Brouwer s theorem when n > 1 is rather harder than when n = 1. It uses the techniques of Algebraic Topology. Exercises Suppose that a sequence (x n ) is defined by a starting with some initial value x 1, choosing a function f, and for n 2 taking x n = f(x n 1 ) (Question 2 contains some examples). Show that if lim n x n = l, and if f is continuous at l, then f(l) = l. 2. Find the limit of the sequences defined by (a) x 1 = 1, x n+1 = 1 1+x n for n 0. (b) x 1 = 2, x n+1 = 1 2+x n for n A sequence of rectangles (R n ) is defined as follows: beginning with some rectangle R 1, at each stage we construct R n+1 by by adding to R n a square drawn on its longer side. H G A D F B C E R1=ABCD R2=ABEF R3=HBEG To do: (a) Suppose that the sequence has a limiting shape (i.e. sequence length of long side x n := length of short side that the tends to a limit). Show that this limit has only one possible value, and find it. (b) Show that the sequence does have a limiting shape. 33

35 Chapter 3 Continuous Limits 3.1 Continuous Limits Lecture 7 We wish to give a precise meaning to the statement f approaches l as x approaches c which is denoted by If f(x) = lim f(x) = l. x c { 2x + 1 x 1 0, x = 1 Could we say something about f(x) as x approaches 1? Let us agree that there is a limit. Should the limit be 3 or 0? It should be 3, and the value f(1) = 0 is not relevant. We do not care the value of f at c, and indeed for that matter f is not required to be defined at c. Definition Let c (a, b). Let l be a real number. Let f : E R. (1) Suppose that E (a, c) (c, b). We say that f tends to l as x approaches c, and write lim f(x) = l, x c if for any ε > 0 there exists δ > 0, such that for all x E satisfying we have 0 < x c < δ (3.1.1) f(x) l < ε. In lim x c f(x) = l for some l we say that f has a( finite) limit at c. 34

36 (2) Suppose that E (a, c). We say that f has left limit at c, if for any ε > 0 there exists δ > 0, such that for all x E satisfying c δ < x < c, we have f(x) l < ε. This is denoted by lim f(x) = l. x c (3) Suppose that E (c, b). We say that f has right limit at c, if for any ε > 0 there exists δ > 0, such that for all x E satisfying c < x < c+δ, we have f(x) l < ε. This is denoted by We observe that lim f(x) = l. x c+ Proposition Let f : (a, b) R and c (a, b). It is clear that lim x c f(x) = l is equivalent to both lim x c+ f(x) = l and lim x c f(x) = l. The condition that E contains an interval around c can be replaced by c is an accumulation point of E, see the Appendix, Chapter 3.2. This assumption will ensure that if there is a limit, the limit is unique. Proposition If f : R has a left limit (or has a right limit) at c, this limit is unique. Proof We prove only the case when lim x c f(x) exists. Suppose f has two limits l 1 and l 2 with l 1 l 2. Take ε = 1 4 l 1 l 2 > 0. By definition, there exists δ > 0 such that if 0 < x c < δ, f(x) l 1 < ε, f(x) l 2 < ε. (such x does exists from the assumption that either (a, c) (c, b) E!!) By the triangle inequality, l 1 l 2 f(x) l 1 + f(x) l 2 < 2ε = 1 2 l 1 l 2. This is a contradiction. Example The statement that lim x 0 f(x) = 0 is equivalent to the statement that lim x 0 f(x) = 0. Define g(x) = f(x), then g(x) 0 = f(x). 35

37 3.1.1 Limit and continuity Theorem Let c (a, b). Let f : (a, b) R. The following are equivalent: 1. f is continuous at c. 2. lim x c f(x) = f(c). Proof Just compare the ɛ δ definitions for both the statements. Example Let f(x) = x2 +3x+2 sin(πx)+2. We observe that sin(πx) + 2 is never zero and f is continuous everywhere, especially at x = 1. Then Example Does x 2 + 3x + 2 lim x 1 sin(πx) + 2 = f(1) = 3 lim x x 1 x exist? Find its value if it does exist. Let 1 + x 1 x f(x) =. x The natural domain of f contains {x : 0 < x < 1/2}. We first simplify the algebraic expression of the function, 1 + x 1 x 2x lim = lim x 0 x x 0 x( 1 + x + 1 x) = lim 2. x x + 1 x We have used x 0 in the last step. Let g(x) = 2 1+x+ 1 x. Then g is defined everywhere and is continuous. Furthermore f(x) = g(x) when x 0. Hence lim f(x) = lim g(x) = g(0) = 1. x 0 x 0 To see g is continuous: First x is continuous at x = 1, (prove it by ε δ argument!). The functions x 1 + x and x 1 x are compositions of continuous functions: they are both continuous at x = 0; Their sum is non-zero when x = 0, it follows, by the algebra of continuous functions, that the function g is is also continuous at x = 0. x 36

38 Definition A function f : (a, c] R is said to be left continuous at c if for any ε > 0 there exists a δ > 0 such that if x (c δ, c] (a, c], we have f(x) f(c) < ε. 2. A function f : [c, b) R is said to be right continuous at c if for any ε > 0 there exists a δ > 0 such that if x [c, c + δ) [c, b) f(x) f(c) < ε. Proposition ) The statement that f is right continuous at c is equivalent to the statement that lim x c+ f(x) = f(c). 2) The statement that f is left continuous at c is equivalent to the statement that lim x c f(x) = f(c). Theorem Let f : (a, b) R and for c (a, b). The following are equivalent: (a) f is continuous at c (b) f is right continuous at c and f is left continuous at c. (c) Both lim x c+ f(x) and lim x c f(x) exist and are equal to f(c). (d) lim x c f(x) = f(c) Example Let y { x f 1 (x) = 2, 0 x < π 2 π cos(x), 2 x π. f 1 π 2 π x 37

39 The function is continuous everywhere except to c = π 2. Furthermore it has left and right limit everywhere, this we only need to check to c = π 2 : lim f 1(x) = lim x π 2 x π 2 x2 = ( π 2 )2 lim f 1(x) = lim cos(x) = cos(π x π 2 + x π ) = 0. Since lim x π 2 + f 1 (x) = f 1 ( π 2 ), f 1 is right continuous at π 2. It is not continuous, nor does it have a limit at π 2. Example We change the value of f 1 at c = π 2 functions: { x f 2 (x) = 2, 0 x π 2 π cos(x), 2 < x π. y y to form two new f 2 f 3 π x π x x 2, 0 x < π 2 π f 3 (x) = cos(x), 2 < x π 1, x = π 2. Then both functions have left and right limits everywhere, and are continuous everywhere except at c. Here, lim f 2(x) = x π 2 lim f 2(x) = x π 2 + lim f 3(x) = x π 2 lim f 3(x) = x π 2 + lim x π 2 f 1(x) = ( π 2 )2 lim f 1(x) = x π 2 + lim cos(x) = cos(π x π ) = 0. Neither f 2 nor f 3 has limit at c = π 2. Furthermore f 2 is left continuous at c, not right continuous at c. The function f 3 is neither left continuous nor right continuous at c. 38

40 Example Denote by [x] the integer part of x. Let f(x) = [x]. Show that for k Z, lim x k+ f(x) and lim x k f(x) exist. Show that lim x k f(x) does not exist. Show that f is discontinuous at all points k Z. Proof Let c = k, we consider f near k, say on the open interval (k 1, k+1). Note that { k, if k x < k + 1 f(x) = k 1, if k 1 x < k. It follows that lim f(x) = lim k = k x k+ x 1+ lim x k f(x) = lim x 1 (k 1) = k 1. Since the left limit does not agree with the right limit, lim x k f(x) does not exist. By the limit formulation of continuity, ( A function continuous at k must have a limit as x approaches k ), f is not continuous at k. Example For which number a is f defined below continuous at x = 0? { a, x 0 f(x) = 2, x = 0. Since lim x 0 f(x) = 2, f is continuous if and only if a = Negation The statement it is not true that lim x c f(x) = l means precisely that there exists a number ε > 0 such that for all δ > 0 there exists x (a, b) with 0 < x c < δ and f(x) l ε. That lim x c f(x) does not exist can occur in two ways: 1. the limit does not exist, or 2. the limit exists, but differs from l. In this case we write lim f(x) l. x c 1 Example Show that lim x 0 x does not exist. 1 Let l R. Let ɛ = 1. For any δ, take x with x 0 < min( l +3, δ), then 1 x > l + 3 and 1 x l 1 x l = ( l + 3) l = 3 > ɛ. 39

41 3.1.3 Continuous limit and sequential limit Theorem Let c (a, b) and f : (a, b) {c} R. The following are equivalent. 1. lim x c f(x) = l 2. For every sequence x n (a, b) {c} with lim n x n = c we have lim f(x n) = l. n Proof Step 1. Suppose that lim x c f(x) = l. Let ɛ > 0. If 0 < x c < δ, f(x) l < ɛ. Let x n (a, b) {c} with lim n x n = c. There exists N > 0 such that if n > N, x n c < δ and hence f(x n ) l < ɛ. This proves that lim n f(x n ) = l. Step 2. Suppose that lim x c f(x) = l does not hold. There is a number ε > 0 such that for all δ > 0, there is a number x (a, b) {c} with 0 < x c < δ, but f(x) l ε. Taking δ = 1 n we obtain a sequence x n (a, b) {c} with x n c < 1 n with f(x n ) l ε for all n. Thus the statement lim n f(x n ) = l cannot hold. But lim n x n = c and statement 2 fails. Example Let f : R {0} R, f(x) = sin( 1 x ). Then does not exist. lim x 0 sin( 1 x ) Proof Take two sequences of points, x n = z n = π nπ 1 π 2 + 2nπ. Both sequences tend to 0 as n. But f(x n ) = 1 and f(z n ) = 1 so lim n f(x n ) lim n f(z n ). By the sequential formulation for limits, Theorem , lim x 0 f(x) cannot exist. 40

42 In[22]:= ê xd, 8x, 0, 1.5<D Out[22]= In[21]:= ê xd, 8x, 0, 0.01<D Out[21]= In[23]:= ê H1 + xl, 8x, -5, 5<D 3 2 Out[23]=

43 Example Let f : R {0} R, f(x) = 1 number l R s.t. lim x 0 f(x) = l. x. Then there is no Proof Suppose that there exists l such that lim x 0 f(x) = l. Take x n = 1 n. Then f(x n ) = n and lim n f(x n ) does not converges to any finite number! This contradicts that lim n f(x n ) = l. Example Denote by [x] the integer part of x. Let f(x) = [x]. Then lim x 1 f(x) does not exist. Proof We only need to consider the function f near 1. Let us consider f on (0, 2). Then { 1, if 1 x < 2 f(x) = 0, if 0 x < 1. Let us take a sequence x n = n converging to 1 from the right and a sequence y n = 1 1 n converging to 1 from the left. Then lim x n = 1, n lim y n = 1. n Since f(x n ) = 1 and f(y n ) = 0 for all n, the two sequences f(x n ) and f(y n ) have different limits and hence lim x 1 f(x) does not exist The Sandwich Theorem The following follows from the sandwich theorem for sequential limits. Proposition (Sandwich Theorem/Squeezing Theorem) Let c (a, b) and f, g, h : (a, b) {c} R. If h(x) f(x) g(x) on (a, b) {c}, and lim h(x) = lim g(x) = l x c x c then lim f(x) = l. x c Proof Let x n (a, b) {c} be a sequence converging to c. Then by Theorem , lim n g(x n ) = lim n h(x n ) = l. Since h(x n ) f(x n ) g(x n ), lim f(x n) = l. n By Theorem again, we see that lim x c f(x) = l. 42

44 Example Let is continuous at 0. f(x) = { x sin(1/x) x 0 0, x = 0 Proof Note that 0 x sin( 1 x ) x. Now lim x 0 x = 0 by the the continuity of the function f(x) = x. By the Sandwich theorem the conclusion lim x 0 x sin( 1 x ) = 0. Since f is continuous at 0. lim f(x) = lim x sin( 1 x 0 x 0 x ) = 0 = f(0), The following example will be revisited, when we learn L Hôpital s rule (Example ). Example ( An Important Limit ) sin x lim x 0 x = 1. Proof Recall if 0 < x < π 2, then sin x x tan x and sin x tan x sin x x 1. cos x sin x x 1 (3.1.2) The relation (3.1.2) also holds if π 2 < x < 0: Letting y = x then 0 < y < π 2. All three terms in (3.1.2) are even functions: sin x x = sin y y and cos y = cos( x). Since lim cos x = 1 x 0 by the Sandwich Theorem and (3.1.2), lim x 0 sin x x = 1. 43

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