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1 Topic mode MultipleSelection text How can we approximate the slope of the tangent line to f(x) at a point x = a? This is a Multiple selection question, so you need to check all of the answers that are correct. correct-choice pick points close to x = a and compute the slopes of the secant lines through x = a and the chosen points correct-choice pick 2 points on either side of x = a and compute the average of the 2 corresponding secant line slopes correct-choice plot f(x) and draw an approximate tangent line at x = a and use geometry to estimate its slope comment The choices were: pick points close to x = a and compute the slopes of the secant lines through x = a and the chosen points pick 2 points on either side of x = a and compute the average of the 2 corresponding secant line slopes plot f(x) and draw an approximate tangent line at x = a and use geometry to estimate its slope All of the statements are correct. See each textbook example in section 2.1. mode Formula text Let s(t) be the distance travelled by a car at time t on the interval [2, b]. Give an expression of the average speed of the car from t = 2 to t = b. answer (s(b)-s(2))/(b-2) comment The average speed of the car is s(b) s(2) b 2. Question 3 mode Formula text Let s(t) be the distance travelled by a car at time t on the interval [2, b]. Give an expression of the average speed of the car from t = 2 to t = b. answer (s(b)-s(2))/(b-2) comment The average speed of the car is s(b) s(2) b 2. 1

2 Topic mode Multipart text Let f(x) = x + 4 x < 1 2 x = 1 x 2 x > 1 Part (a) mode numeric text Compute lim x 1 f(x) answer 5 comment By graphing the function, we see that from the left, the limit is 5. Note that it does not matter that f(1) = 2 since we care about what happens near x = 1. Part (b) mode numeric text Compute lim x 1 + f(x) answer 1 comment By graphing the function, we see that from the right, the limit is 1. Note that it does not matter that f(1) = 2 since we care about what happens near x = 1. 2

3 mode MultipleChoice text If you are going to use a calculator to compute lim x a f(x) for some function f(x), the approach most likely to give the correct limit is to choice compute f(a) choice plug in values extremely close to x = a on your calculator and look at what happens to f(x) near x = a correct-choice graph f(x) on your calculator using different viewing rectangles to see what happens to f(x) near x = a choice plug in several values on your calculator near x = a as long as f(x) isn t periodic comment The choices were: plug in values extremely close to x = a on your calculator and look at what happens to f(x) near x = a graph f(x) on your calculator using different viewing rectangles to see what happens to f(x) near x = a plug in several values on your calculator near x = a as long as f(x) isn t periodic Using different viewing rectangles and plugging in values extremely close to x = a is the best way to compute the limit on your calculator. See the textbook for examples on why the other methods don t always work. Question 3 mode MultipleChoice text If the limit lim x a f(x) exists, then: choice it equals f(a) choice f(x) must be defined at x = a correct-choice it must be equal to the right hand limit as x a choice f(x) cannot continue to oscillate with a fixed amplitude or increase at a constant rate as x a comment The choices were: it equals f(a) f(x) must be defined at x = a it must be equal to the right hand limit as x a f(x) cannot continue to oscillate with a fixed amplitude or increase at a constant rate as x a Of the choices, this limit of f(x) must be the same as the limit as x a from the right. It also must be the same as the limit as x a from the left. The important thing is to remember that is does not matter what happens at f(a), but rather what happens to f(x) near x = a. 3

4 Topic mode Numeric text Compute lim x 5 x 2 9x + 2. answer -18 comment By the direct substitution property, the limit is -18. mode numeric text Compute lim x 2 x 4 16 x 2 answer 32 comment We can factor the numerator and we have: x 4 16 lim x 2 x 2 = lim x 2 (x 2 4)(x 2 + 4) x 2 = (x 2)(x + 2)(x 2 + 4) lim x 2 x 2 = lim(x + 2)(x 2 + 4) x 2 = 32 (by the direct substitution property) Question 3 f(x) text If lim f(x) = 0 and lim g(x) = 0 then lim doesn t exist. x a x a x a g(x) choice True correct- comment False. Let f(x) = x 4 16 and g(x) = x 2 as in the previous problem. Then as x 2, the limits of f(x) and g(x) go to zero, but we saw that using factoring techniques, the limit does exist. 4

5 Topic text f(x) = x2 1 is continuous on [ 2, 2]. x 1 choice True correct- comment False. There is a discontinuity at x = 1. text Let P (t) be the cost of parking in Ithaca s parking garages for t hours. So P (t) = \$0.50/hour or fraction thereof. P (t) is continuous on [1, 2]. choice True correct- comment False. P (1) = 0.50 but P (t) = 1.00 for 1 < t 2. Therefore, P (t) is not continuous on [1, 2]. Question 3 mode MultipleSelection text If f(x) and g(x) are continuous on [a, b], which of the following are also continuous on [a,b]? correct-choice f(x) + g(x) correct-choice f(x) g(x) choice f(x) g(x) correct-choice f(x) + xg(x) comment The choices were: f(x) + g(x) f(x) g(x) f(x) g(x) f(x) + xg(x) All the choices are correct except for one. Note that f(x) is not continuous unless g(x) g(x) 0 on [a, b]. This is a direct application of Theorem 4 in section

6 Topic mode Multipart text Compute the following limits. Part (a) mode numeric text lim tan 1 x x answer /2 err.01 comment The answer is π (see formula (6) in the text). 2 Part (b) mode numeric text lim x tan 1 x answer /2 err.01 comment The answer is π (see formula (6) in the text). 2 text When we write lim x a f(x) = this means that the limit exists and is a really big number. choice True correct- comment False. The limit does not exist. Writing the limit is equal to expresses the particular way in which the limit does not exist (see page 131 in the text). 6

7 Question 3 mode numeric text Compute lim x answer 1/2 comment Solution is below: x 3 + 5x 2x 3 x lim x x 3 + 5x 2x 3 x = lim x (x 3 + 5x)/x 3 (2x 3 x 2 + 4)/x /x 2 = lim x 2 1/x + 4/x 3 lim x (1 + 5/x 2 ) = lim x (2 1/x + 4/x 3 ) = 1 2 Question 4 mode Multipart text For each of the following limits, choose if the limit implies that f(x) has a vertical asymptote, horizontal asymptote, or neither. Part (a) text lim x a f(x) = vertical asymptote horizontal asymptote neither Part (b) text lim f(x) = a horizontal asymptote x vertical asymptote neither Part (c) text Part (d) lim x f(x) = a horizontal asymptote vertical asymptote neither text lim f(x) = 5 neither x a + horizontal asymptote vertical asymptote 7

8 Part (e) text lim f(x) = vertical asymptote x a horizontal asymptote neither Part (f) text lim f(x) = neither x horizontal asymptote vertical asymptote Question 5 mode MultipleChoice text Suppose f(x) is a continuous function on [1, 5]. You know that f(x) < 0 on [1, 2] and f(x) > 0 on [4, 5] but do not know anything about f(x) on the interval (2, 4). Then for any function f(x) that satisifes these conditions, f(x) has a root in [1, 5] correct-choice always choice sometimes, but depends on f(x) choice never comment The choices were: always sometimes, but depends on f(x) never Always. Since f(x) is continuous, we know that it must pass through every value between f(1) and f(5) by the Intermediate Value Theorem. Therefore, at some point x = a, f(a) = 0 for 1 a 5. Therefore, f(x) has a root. 8

9 Topic mode numeric text Compute the slope of the tangent line to f(x) = x at the point (2, 9). answer 4 comment The slope of the tangent line is m = f(x) f(2) lim x 2 x 2 = x ( ) lim x 2 x 2 = x 2 4 lim x 2 x 2 = lim x + 2 x 2 = 4 mode MultipleChoice text Let s(t) be the distance traveled by a car at time t on the interval [a, b]. The average velocity of the car on [a, b] is correct-choice the slope of the secant line through (a, f(a)) and (b, f(b)) choice the slope of the tangent line at x = a choice the slope of the tangent line at x = b choice the slope of the tangent line at x = a+b 2 comment The choices were: the slope of the secant line through (a, f(a)) and (b, f(b)) the slope of the tangent line at x = a the slope of the tangent line at x = b the slope of the tangent line at x = a+b 2 The average velocity is the slope of the secant line through (a, f(a)) and (b, f(b)) (see page 145 in the text). 9

10 Question 3 text The average velocity over the time interval [a, b] and the instantaneous velocity over the same time interval could be the same throughout the entire interval. comment True. Take any constant function. For example, let f(x) = 5 on [1, 2]. Then the average velocity is 5 5 = 0 and the instantaneous velocity at every point is also since for any point a in [1, 2], f(x) f(a) lim x a x a = lim x a 5 5 x a = lim x a = lim = 0 x a 0 x a 0 Question 4 mode Numeric text The population of Ithaca increased from 21,887 in 1990 to 29,283 in Compute the average rate of change in the population from 1990 to answer ( )/10 comment The average rate of change is =

11 Topic mode Multipart text Let f(x) = x 2. Part (a) text Set up the limit to compute the derivative of f(x) at the point (3, 9) by filling in the blank. lim h 0 ( ((3+h)^2-3^2)/h ). comment Using definition 2 in the text, the derivative is f (3) = f(3 + h) f(3) lim h 0 h = (3 + h) lim h 0 h Part (b) mode numeric text Compute the limit in (a). answer 6 comment See the solution below. (3 + h) lim h 0 h 9 + 6h + h 2 9 = lim h 0 h = lim 6 + h h 0 = 6 11

12 mode MultipleChoice text The difference between the derivative of a function f(x) at x = a and the slope of the tangent line to f(x) at x = a is choice the slope of the tangent line to f(x) at x = a is an approximate to the derivative of f(x) at x = a choice the derivative is a limit whereas the slope of the tangent line is not choice the slope of the tangent line at x = a is usually easier to compute than the derivative if the function is simple correct-choice there is no difference comment The choices were: the slope of the tangent line to f(x) at x = a is an approximate to the derivative of f(x) at x = a the derivative is a limit whereas the slope of the tangent line is not the slope of the tangent line at x = a is usually easier to compute than the derivative if the function is simple there is no difference There is no difference between f (a) and the slope of the tangent line to f(x) at x = a. Question 3 mode Numeric text The distance traveled in meters by a car at t seconds is give by s(t) = 5t 2. Compute the velocity of the car at t = 2 seconds. answer 20 comment We need to compute the instantaneous velocity at t = 2: s (2) = s(2 + h) s(2) lim h 0 h = 5(2 + h) 2 20 lim h 0 h = h + 5h 2 20 lim h 0 h = lim h h 0 = 20 12

13 Topic text The derivative of the function f(x) = 7 is 0. comment f (x) = f(x + h) f(x) lim h 0 h = 7 7 lim h 0 h = lim 0 h 0 = 0 text The derivative of the function f(x) = 5x 2 is 10*x. comment f (x) = f(x + h) f(x) lim h 0 h = 5(x + h) 2 5x 2 lim h 0 h = 5x hx + 5h 2 5x 2 lim h 0 h = lim 10x + 5h h 0 = 10x Question 3 mode Multipart text Let f(x) = x. Part (a) text The derivative of f(x) when x < 0 is -1. comment Using the graph of f(x) = x we know that the slope (derivative) to the left of zero is

14 Part (b) text The derivative of f(x) when x > 0 is 1. comment Using the graph of f(x) = x we know that the slope (derivative) to the right of zero is 1. Part (c) text What does (a) and (b) tell you about the derivative of f(x) when x = 0? Does not exist. is the same as (a) is the same as (b) is always constant comment Does not exist. The derivative is a computation of a limit and therefore the right and left hand limits must be the same at x = 0. Part (a) tells us that the limit from the left is -1 and part (b) tells us that the limit from the right is 1. Therefore, the limit at x = 0 does not exist. Question 4 mode Multipart text Indicate which statements are true or false regarding a function f(x). Part (a) text If f (3) exists, then f(x) is continuous at x = 3. comment True. Note that if f (3) exists, then f(x) is continuous at x = 3 but the converse is not true (see page 163 in the text). Part (b) text If f(x) is continuous at x = 3 then f (3) exists. choice True correct- comment False. Note that if f (3) exists, then f(x) is continuous at x = 3 but the converse is not true (see page 163 in the text). Part (c) text If f(x) has a vertical tangent at x = 5, then f (5) does not exist. comment True. A vertical tangent implies the derivative does not exist at that point. 14

15 Part (d) text If f(x) has a cusp at x = 5, then f (5) does not exist. comment True. A cusp implies the derivative does not exist at that point. Question 5 mode Multipart text Indicate whether each of the following statements are true or false. Part (a) text The second derivative, f (x), can be interpreted as the acceleration of an object where f(x) measures the distance travelled of an object. comment True. See page 165 in the text. Part (b) text f (x) is a rate of change of a rate of change comment True. See page 165 in the text. Part (c) text f (x) is the derivative of f (x) comment True. See page 165 in the text. 15

16 Topic mode Multipart text Suppose you want to use a linear approximation to estimate the value of (9.1) 0.5. Answer the following questions. Part (a) text The tangent line to f(x) = x 0.5 at x = 9 is a valid linear approximation invalid linear approximation Part (b) text The tangent line to f(x) = (9.1) x at x =.3 is a valid linear approximation invalid linear approximation Part (c) mode MultipleChoice text Which of the following approximations could be calculated without the use of a calculator? correct-choice f(x) = x 0.5 at x = 9 choice f(x) = (9.1) x at x =.3 comment f(x) = x 0.5 at x = 9 can be calculated without a calculator. text The linear approximation to a function f(x) at a point x = a is just the tangent line to f(x) at x = a. comment True. The linear approximation at a point to a function is the tangent line at that point. Question 3 text Using the linear approximation to f(x) = cos x at the point x = 1 to estimate the value of cos(1.03) works well because cos x looks like a line when you zoom in on it. comment True. Linear approximation works because functions look like lines very close up. 16

17 Question 4 mode MultipleChoice text If the tangent line to f(x) at a point x = 1 is below f(x), then using the linear approximation to estimate f(1.1) choice could be an overestimate of the true value of f(1.1) correct-choice could be an underestimate of the true value of f(1.1) choice could be an overestimate or underestimate of f(1.1) but depends on f(x) comment The choices were: could be an overestimate of the true value of f(1.1) could be an underestimate of the true value of f(1.1) could be an overestimate or underestimate of f(1.1) but depends on f(x) Underestimate. This is because the tangent line is lower than the function f(x). 17

18 Topic text If f(x) = x 3 then f (x) = 3*x^2. comment Using the power rule, f (x) = 3x 2. text If f(x) = e x + 2 then f (x) = exp(x). NOTE: If your answer involves e x you should use exp(x) in your typed response. comment Using the sum rule, f (x) = d dx ex + d dx 2 = ex. 18

19 Topic mode Formula text Compute d dx (x2 e x ). NOTE: If your answer involves e x you should use exp(x) in your typed response. answer x^2*exp(x) + exp(x)*(2*x) comment Using the product rule, f (x) = x 2 ( d dx ex ) + e x d dx x2 = x 2 e x + 2xe x mode Formula text Compute d dx ( e x x 2 ). NOTE: If your answer involves e x you should use exp(x) in your typed response. answer (exp(x)*(x^2)-2*x*exp(x))/x^4 comment Using the quotient rule, f (x) = x2 d dx ex e x d dx x2 (x 2 ) 2 = x2 e x 2xe x x 4 19

20 Topic mode Formula text Compute d (2 sin x). dx answer 2*cos(x) mode Formula text Compute d (3 sec x). dx answer 3*sec(x)*tan(x) Question 3 mode numeric text Compute the slope of the tangent line to f(x) = cos x at the point ( π, 2 ). 4 2 answer -sqrt(2)/2 err.01 comment The slope of the tangent line is f ( π 4 Question 4 mode Multipart ). Since f (x) = sin x, then f ( ) π 4 = 2. 2 text Suppose you are asked to prove that d dx (tan x) = sec2 x. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. Part (a) text A possible way to prove that d dx (tan x) = sec2 x is to start with the definition of the derivative and compute lim h 0 tan(x+h) tan x h. comment True. The standard way the text uses to prove a formula of a derivative is to use the definition. Part (b) text A possible way to prove that d (tan x) = dx sec2 x is to use the fact that tan x = sin x and compute the derivative using the quotient rule. cos x comment True. This method is perhaps easier than using the definition of the derivative and uses concepts we already know. 20

21 Part (c) text A possible way to prove that d (tan x) = dx sec2 x is to use the fact the tan x = (sin x) ( 1 cos x) and compute the derivative using the product rule. comment True. This method is perhaps easiest and uses concepts we already know. 21

22 Topic mode MultipleChoice text The parametric equations x = 2 cos t and y = t cos t for 0 t π give the following plot Which statement below is true? choice As t increases, the point (x, y) moves from left to right. correct-choice As t increases, the point (x, y) moves from right to left. comment The choices were: As t increases, the point (x, y) moves from left to right. As t increases, the point (x, y) moves from right to left. The point (x, y) moves from right to left. For example, at t = 0, then (x, y) = (2, 1) and at t = π 2, (x, y) = (0, π 2 ). mode MultipleChoice text The difference in the motion described by between x = cos t, y = sin t and x = cos 2t, y = sin 2t is choice nothing correct-choice As t increases, the point (x, y) moves twice as fast for x = cos 2t, y = sin 2t choice As t increases, the point (x, y) moves twice as fast for x = cos t, y = sin t comment The choices were: nothing As t increases, the point (x, y) moves twice as fast for x = cos 2t, y = sin 2t As t increases, the point (x, y) moves twice as fast for x = cos t, y = sin t As t increases, the point (x, y) moves twice as fast for x = cos 2t, y = sin 2t. See examples 2 and 3 in the text. 22

23 Topic mode Formula text Compute d dx ( x 2 + e x ). NOTE: If your answer involves e x you should use exp(x) in your typed response. answer ((1/2)/sqrt(x^2+exp(x)))*(2*x+exp(x)) comment Using the chain rule with f(x) = (x 2 + e x ) 1/2, f (x) = 1 2 (x2 + e x ) ( 1/2) d dx (x2 + e x ) = 1 2 (x2 + e x ) ( 1/2) (2x + e x ) mode Formula text Compute d dx (sin(x3 )). answer 3*x^2*cos(x^3) comment Using the chain rule, f (x) = cos(x 3 ) d dx x3 = 3x 2 cos(x 3 ). Question 3 mode Numeric text Compute the slope of the tangent line at the point (0, 1) of the parametric curve given by x = sin t y = cos t answer 0 comment The slope of the tangent line is dy / dx = sin t. The point (0, 1) corresponds to dt dt cos t time t = 0, so plugging in t = 0 we have that the slope is sin 0 = 0 = 0. cos

24 Topic mode Multipart text Complete the following parts. Part (a) mode Formula text Use implicit differentiation to compute dy dx answer 1/cos(y) comment The derivative is which implies that dy dx = 1 cos y. dy dx cos y = 1 if sin y = x. Part (b) mode numeric text Use your solution to the first question to find the slope of the tangent line to the curve sin y = x at the point (0, π). answer -1 err.01 comment Since dy dx = 1 cos y, at the point (0, π), the slope is 1 cos π = 1. 24

25 mode Formula text Compute d ln(sin x). dx answer cos(x)/sin(x) 1 comment The derivative is d cos x sin x which gives. sin x dx sin x Topic d text dx (xe ) = ex e 1. comment True. e is a constant, so applying the power rule, this statement is true. Question 3 d text dx (xx ) = x x x 1. choice True correct- comment False. The power rule does not apply since the exponent is not a constant. We need to use logarithmic differentiation on y = x x (start by taking ln of both sides): Question 4 ln(y) = x ln x Then take derivatives on both sides with respect to x: Solving for dy dx 1 dy y dx = x 1 x + ln x = 1 + ln x and substituting back for y we have: dy dx = xx (1 + ln x) d 1 text (ln x ) = dx x. choice True correct- comment False. This is not always true. Suppose x < 0. Then ln x = ln( x). Then which shows that d dx (ln x ) = 1 x d dx ln( x) = 1 x ( 1) for x < 0, not 1 x. 25

26 Topic mode Multipart text Complete the following sentence: Part (a) mode MultipleChoice text The linear approximation or tangent line approximation of a function f at a point x = a is the line through the point correct-choice (a,f(a)) choice (a,f (a)) Part (b) text...with slope f (a). f(a) comment The linear approximation of a function f at a point x = a is the line through (a, f(a)) with slope f (a). text The equation of the linear approximation, L(x), of f at a point x = a is L(x) = f(a)+f (a)( f(a)+f (x)( ax+f (a) comment L(x) = f(a) + f (a)(x a). Question 3 mode Matching text Match the following quantities in the picture with the appropriate quantities below. match a with dx match b with y match c with dy comment a = dx = x, b = y, c = dy (see figure 5 on page 255 of the text). 26

27 Topic mode MultipleChoice text When starting a related rates problem, which of the following would you do first? correct-choice Find an equation that relates the quantities that are changing. choice Compute the values of the quantities at a particular time. choice Solve for all the unknowns. comment The choices were: Find an equation that relates the quantities that are changing. Compute the values of the quantities at a particular time. Solve for all the unknowns. The first thing to do when starting a related rates problem is to find an equation that relates the quantities that are changing. See page 267 of the text. mode MultipleChoice text The length of a side, x, of a square of area, A, changes with time t. Then da dt = correct-choice 2x dx dt choice 2x choice 2t comment The choices were: 2x dx dt 2x 2t Starting with the equation for the area, A = x 2, we take the derivative of both sides with respect to t and get da = 2x dx. dt dt Question 3 mode Multipart text Recall the previous problem: The length of a side, x, of a square of area, A, changes with time t. Find da dt. Indicate whether we did or did not use the following tools for solving this related rates problem. Part (a) text We did not use the limit definition of the derivative to solve the previous did use related rates problem. 27

28 Part (b) text We did use the chain rule in solving the previous related rates prob- did not use lem. Part (c) text We did use the power rule in solving the previous related rates prob- did not use lem. Part (d) text We did use did not use problem. implicit differentiation in solving the previous related rates Part (e) text We did not use derivatives of trigonometric functions in solving the pre- did use vious related rates problem. comment We used the chain rule, power rule, and implicit differentiation. We always need to use implicit differentiation with respect to a time variable t, and in doing so, we also use the chain rule. In this specific case, we also used the power rule to differentiate x 2. 28

29 Topic text A continuous function on a closed interval must have an absolute maximum and an absolute minimum. comment True. This is the Extreme Value Theorem. text A continuous function on an open interval must have an absolute maximum and an absolute minimum. choice True correct- comment False. 1 x is defined on the open interval (0, ) and it has no extreme values. However, recall that a continuous function on a CLOSED interval must always have an absolute maximum or absolute minimum. Question 3 text If a function f has a local maximum or minimum at x = c and if f (c) exists, then f (c) = 0. comment True. This is Fermat s Theorem. Question 4 mode Multipart text Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. Part (a) text When we look for extreme values of a function f, we should look at numbers c where f (c) = 0. comment True. We need to look at critical numbers which include where f (c) = 0. 29

30 Part (b) text When we look for extreme values of a function f, we should look at numbers c where f (c) does not exist. comment True. We need to look at critical numbers which include where f (c) does not exist. Part (c) text When we look for extreme values of a function f, we should look at numbers c where c is an endpoint of the domain of f. comment True. We need to look at critical numbers as well as check the endpoints to see whether the absolute maximum or absolute minimum occurs there. Part (d) text When we look for extreme values of a function f, we should look at numbers c where f(c) does not exist. choice True correct- comment False. If f(c) does not exist, then a maximum or minimum will not occur there, so we do not need to consider such points. 30

31 Topic text The conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem says that the average rate of change equals the instantaneous rate of change at some point. comment True. The some point in the question is the number c in the statement of the Mean Value Theorem. mode numeric f(b) f(a) b a text Using the conclusion of the Mean Value Theorem: = f (c), what is f(b) f(a) if f = 0 everywhere? answer 0 comment Zero. If the derivative is always zero, then the function is a horizontal line and so f(b) = f(a). Question 3 mode Multipart text Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. Part (a) text When looking for local extrema, it is important to test all points where the derivative is zero. comment True. It is important to see where the derivative is zero, since at these points the function may change from increasing to decreasing. Part (b) text When looking for local extrema, it is important to test all points where the derivative does not exist. comment True. It is important to check any points where the derivative does not exist, since at these points we may also find that the function changes from increasing to decreasing or vice versa. 31

32 Part (c) text When looking for local extrema, it is important to test all points where the second derivative is zero. choice True correct- comment False. The second derivative being zero may indicate an inflection point, but unless the first derivative is also zero at the same point we will not find a local extreme at place where the second derivative is zero. Part (d) text When looking for local extrema, it is important to test any endpoint of the domain. choice True correct- comment False. Note that local extrema cannot occur at the endpoints (but absolute extrema can). Question 4 mode MultipleChoice text The reason we locate the points at which f = 0 or f does not exist to find local extrema is that choice those must be the places where f has an absolute minimum or absolute maximum. correct-choice everywhere else in the domain of f, either f > 0 or f < 0. choice those are the roots of the function f comment The choices were: those must be the places where f has an absolute minimum or absolute maximum. everywhere else in the domain of f, either f > 0 or f < 0. those are the roots of the function f Everywhere else in the domain of f, either f > 0 or f < 0. 32

33 Question 5 text It is possible to have a local minimum of f at x = c if f (c) = 0 and f (c) = 0. comment True. See note on page 285 of the text. As an example to illustrate this point, let f(x) = x 2/3 (5 + x). Then f (x) = 5 ( ) 2 + x 3 x 1/3 f (x) = 10 ( ) x 1 9 x 4/3 Note that f (0) = 0 and f ( 2) = 0 (the critical points). However, also note that f (0) = 0. Using the first derivative test we see that x = 0 yields a local minimum even though f (0) = 0 and f (0) = 0. Question 6 mode Multipart text Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. Part (a) text If f > 0 on an interval, then we know f is concave down on that interval. choice True correct- comment False. When f > 0 we know that f is concave up. Part (b) text If f > 0 on an interval, then we know f is increasing on that interval. comment True. When f > 0 then we know f is increasing on that interval. Part (c) text If f > 0 on an interval, then we know f has no local extrema on that interval. choice True correct- comment False. If f is concave up, then we could also have a local minimum or maximum of f on that interval (f(x) = x 2 for example is concave up and has a local minimum at x = 0). 33

34 Part (d) text If f > 0 on an interval, then we know that if f has a local extrema on this interval, then it must be a local minimum. comment True. If f is concave up and if also f = 0 at some point in that interval (this is the second derivative test) then we know f has a local minimum in that interval. Question 7 mode Multipart text To find vertical asymptotes of a function f, it is important to check all the points where... Part (a) text... f = 0. choice True correct- comment False. Part (b) text... f does not exist. choice True correct- comment False. Part (c) text... f = 0. choice True correct- comment False. Part (d) text... f is not defined. comment True. 34

35 Part (e) text... f is not continuous. comment True. Part (f) text... f does not exist. choice True correct- comment False. comment Recall that vertical asymptotes occur at places where f is not continuous or is not defined. You figure out if a function has vertical asymptotes by looking at the left and right limits of f(x) as x approaches the point of discontinuity. 35

36 Topic text To use L Hopital s rule, one must be able to take the derivative of f(x), so it is g(x) important to be able to use the quotient rule. choice True correct- comment False. We take the derivative of the numerator and denominator separately when we use L Hopital s rule. text When using L Hopital s rule to evaluate limits, if does not exist, then f (x) lim x a g (x) f(x) lim x a g(x) also does not exist. choice True correct- comment False. If the first limit does not exist, we obtain no information at all regarding f(x) the second limit. L Hopital s rule states that IF lim x a is of the form 0 g(x) 0 or then both of the limits are equal. We cannot deduce anything about the relationships between the two limits otherwise. 36

37 Topic text When you do an optimization problem, the critical point of the function will always tell you what the absolute maximum or absolute minimum is. choice True correct- comment False. First, the critical point of the function can be just a local minimum or local maximum. Second, you must check the endpoints to test for absolute extrema. text Read the textbook examples 1-5 in section 4.6. For each example, indicate how the author justifies he has located the extreme value. Example 1 Closed Interval Method first derivative test second derivative test Example 2 first derivative test Closed Interval Method second derivative test Example 3 first derivative test Closed Interval Method second derivative test Example 4 Closed Interval Method first derivative test second derivative test Example 5 Closed Interval Method first derivative test second derivative test 37

38 Topic text The basic idea behind Newton s method can be summarized by the following quote: The tangent line is close to the curve, so the root of the tangent line is close to the root of the curve. comment True. This is the idea behind Newton s method. It s really just a linear approximation to the root. text Newton s method for finding roots can be used to find the solution of x 2 + 3x 5 sin x = 3 x + e x comment True. We can use Newton s method to find the roots of f(x) = x 2 + 3x 5 sin x 3 x e x. 38

39 Topic text The most general antiderivative of 1 x choice True correct- comment False. ln x + C also works. is ln(x) + C. text If f (x) = 1 and f(1) = 2, then f(x) must be for all x 0. x 2 x choice True correct- comment False. We need to be careful when the domain is separated into different pieces (x > 0 and x < 0). For example, let { 1 f(x) = + 1 x > 0 x x < 0 x Then f (x) = 1. Since the initial condition f(1) = 2 only refers to the part of x 2 the domain where x > 0, then f(x) = only for x > 0. See the explanation x of example 1b in the text. 39

40 Topic mode Multipart text Suppose f(x) 0 on [2, 5]. Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. Part (a) text (1)f(2) + (1)f(3) + (1)f(4) gives an estimate of the area under the graph of f. comment True. Part (b) text (1.5)f(2) + (1.5)f(5) gives an estimate of the area under the graph of f. comment True. Part (c) text (2)f(3) + (1)f(4) gives an estimate of the area under the graph of f. comment True. Part (d) text (3)f(3.5) gives an estimate of the area under the graph of f. comment True. comment Note that all the options give an estimate of the area. Note that the subintervals do not all have to be the same size. 40

41 mode MultipleChoice text Suppose v(t) is your velocity at time t and that v(t) > 0. Suppose you know v(0), v(1), v(3), v(10). Then (1)v(0) + (2)v(1) + (7)v(3) represents an estimate of the correct-choice total distance travelled from t = 0 to t = 10. choice total distance travelled from t = 0 to t = 3. choice the velocity from t = 0 to t = 10. choice the velocity from t = 0 to t = 3. comment The choices were: total distance travelled from t = 0 to t = 10. total distance travelled from t = 0 to t = 3. the velocity from t = 0 to t = 10. the velocity from t = 0 to t = 3. This is an estimate of the area under v(t) from t = 0 to t = 10 which is the total distance travelled over that time interval. 41

42 Topic text If f is continuous on [a, b], then b f(x)dx is the area bounded by the graph of f, a the x-axis, and the lines x = a, x = b. choice True correct- comment False. The area is only defined for positive functions. If f(x) < 0, then the integral measures the net area. text The area under the graph of y = e x2 and 1. comment True. See example 8 in the text. from x = 0 to x = 1 must be between 1 e Question 3 mode MultipleChoice text Let f(t) be the growth rate of a population at time t. Then t 2 t 1 f(t)dt is choice the change in growth rate between t 1 and t 2. correct-choice the total population at t 2. choice the change in the size of the population between t 1 and t 2. comment The choices were: the change in growth rate between t 1 and t 2. the total population at t 2. the change in the size of the population between t 1 and t 2. t2 t 1 f(t)dt is the the total population at t 2. 42

43 Topic text Suppose a particle is moving in a straight line with position s(t) and velocity v(t) at time t for each t in [t 1, t 2 ]. Suppose that s(t) is positive at time t. Then there must be some time t in [t 1, t 2 ] so that v(t )(t 2 t 1 ) = s(t 2 ) s(t 1 ) comment True. This is a consequence of the Mean Value Theorem and noting that s (t) = v(t). mode MultipleChoice text If f is a continuous function, then f(x)dx choice is a number. choice precisely defines a function. correct-choice is a family of functions. comment The choices were: is a number. precisely defines a function. is a family of functions. f(x)dx is a family of functions. If F (x) is an antiderivative of f, then f(x)dx = F (x) + C defines a family of functions for different values of C. 43

44 text Consider g(x) = x 1 0 θ. If x > 0 then g(x) is increasing. 2 +θ comment True. Using the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part I, then mode Multipart g (x) = 1 x2 + x Topic which is always positive for x > 0. Since g (x) > 0, then g is increasing. text Let f be a continuous function on [a, b] and f(x) < 0. Let g(x) = x f(t)dt for a a x b. Then... Part (a) text... g(x) is defined for all x in [a, b]. comment True. Part (b) text... g(x) is continuous on [a, b]. comment True. Part (c) text... g(x) is a differentiable function on (a, b). comment True. Part (d) text... g(x) is a decreasing function on [a, b]. comment True. 44

45 comment By the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part I g (x) = f(x) and so that implies g is continuous and defined for all x in [a, b]. Since f(x) < 0, and g (x) = f(x), then g (x) < 0 and so g is decreasing. Question 3 mode MultipleChoice text If f (x) = g(x) then x g(t)dt = f(x) choice always correct-choice sometimes choice never comment The choices were: always sometimes never a Sometimes. By the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part II if g is continuous then x g(t)dt = f(x) f(a). Therefore, in order for x g(t)dt = f(x), then g(x) a a must be continuous and f(a) = 0. 45

46 mode MultipleChoice text Suppose you use the substitution rule to evaluate the integral the BEST choice for u is choice u = sin x (1+cos x) 2 choice u = cos x choice u = (1 + cos x) 2 correct-choice u = 1 + cos x comment The choices were: u = sin x (1+cos x) 2 u = cos x u = (1 + cos x) 2 u = 1 + cos x Topic sin x dx Then (1+cos x) 2 u = 1 + cos x. Although both u = cos x and u = 1 + cos x would work, the latter is the most efficient substitution since u = 1 + cos x gives us 1 u du = 1 2 u + C and to finish, we substitute back in for u to get sin x (1 + cos x) dx = cos x + C mode MultipleChoice text Substitution works because it undoes the choice product rule choice quotient rule choice sum/difference rule correct-choice chain rule comment The choices were: product rule quotient rule sum/difference rule chain rule Chain rule. The inside function of the chain rule is what becomes our u in the substitution. 46

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### Calculus 1st Semester Final Review Calculus st Semester Final Review Use the graph to find lim f ( ) (if it eists) 0 9 Determine the value of c so that f() is continuous on the entire real line if f ( ) R S T, c /, > 0 Find the limit: lim Mathematics 31 Pre-calculus and Limits Overview After completing this section, students will be epected to have acquired reliability and fluency in the algebraic skills of factoring, operations with radicals Active Calculus & Mathematical Modeling Activities and Voting Questions Carroll College MA 122 Carroll College Mathematics Department Last Update: June 2, 2015 2 To The Student This packet is NOT your