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2 Most students had difficulty recognizing that the pond described in part (d) had cross sections 3 perpendicular to the x-axis with area given by ( x) ( ( π x) ( x x) ) 3 sin 4. The mean score for this question was 4.89 for AB students and 6.38 for BC students out of a possible 9 points. About 9.8 percent of AB students and 24.1 percent of BC students earned all 9 points. About 7.6 percent of the AB students and 1.3 percent of BC students did not earn any points. What were common student errors or omissions? In part (a) many students partitioned the region R, which contributed to errors in determining the area of R. Students made errors when combining the areas of the individual parts of R. Some students did not include sin ( π x) in the work leading to the area of R. Although this can produce a correct answer, some students did not explain why this upper boundary of the region could be excluded from the integrand. In part (c) many students presented an incorrect integral that gave the volume of a solid of revolution, rather than the solid described in the problem. In part (d) some students wrote the product of integrals rather than the integral of a product. Students need practice with determining the area of a region that crosses the x-axis. Students need practice with determining areas and volumes in contextual problems. Students should show their work and clearly show setups for integrals that are used in determining quantities such as area and volume. Question AB2/BC2 This problem presented students with a table of data indicating the number of people Lt () in line at a concert hall ticket office, sampled at seven times t during the 9 hours that tickets were being sold. (The question stated that Lt () was twice differentiable.) Part (a) asked for an estimate for the rate of change of the number of people in line at a time that fell between the times sampled in the table. Students were to use data from the table to calculate an average rate of change to approximate this value. Part (b) asked for an estimate of the average number of people waiting in line during the first 4 hours and specified the use of a trapezoidal sum. Students needed to recognize that the computation of an average value involves a definite integral, approximate this integral with a trapezoidal sum, and then divide this total accumulation of people hours by 4 hours to obtain the average. Part (c) asked for the minimum number of solutions guaranteed for L () t = 0 during the 9 hours. Students were expected to recognize that a change in direction (increasing/decreasing) for a twice-differentiable function forces a value of 0 for its derivative. /2 Part (d) provided the function rt () = 550te t tickets sold per hour as a model of the rate at which 2

3 tickets were sold during the 9 hours and asked students to find the number of tickets sold in the first 3 hours, to the nearest whole number, using this model. Students needed to recognize that total tickets sold could be determined by a definite integral of the rate rt () at which tickets were sold. Many students did well in part (a). Parts (b) and (d) proved more difficult for some but were still accessible. Students had difficulty earning all 3 points in part (c). To do so, they needed to have a complete argument that did not make unverifiable assumptions about the function L. The mean score for this question was 3.36 for AB students and 5.10 for BC students out of a possible 9 points. About 0.6 percent of AB students and 1.8 percent of BC students earned all 9 points. About 21.6 percent of AB students and 5.8 percent of BC students did not earn any points. What were common student errors or omissions? Some students worked with the tabular function L as if its units were people per hour, rather than people. Common errors in part (a) included using an interval other than [ 4, 7 ] and giving the number of people in line at t = 5.5 as the final answer. In part (b) many students used the formula for the Trapezoidal Rule, even though it only applies when the subintervals are of equal length. Some students did not divide by the length of the interval to get the average value. In part (c) the most common errors were: (1) assuming too much about the function L (e.g., that L was monotonic on the intervals defined by the t-values in the table); (2) not specifying clearly which function or interval the student was considering in a given statement; (3) making general statements about all points in an interval; and (4) not tying statements to data in the given table. In part (d) the most common error was evaluating the rate function at 3, rather than integrating this function. Teachers should offer students more practice with writing mathematical arguments. In writing these arguments, students should avoid using vague pronouns. They should also be careful to avoid references to the function when more than one function is under consideration. Students need practice working with functions presented in tabular form. Such functions present particular challenges in that precise behavior between specified points cannot be completely determined. Students need to be encouraged to include intermediate steps in their solutions. 3

6 What were common student errors or omissions? In part (a) many students did not correctly consider the entire time interval. Many students did not use the Extreme Value Theorem in their work. Some students tried to justify their answers using the First Derivative Test. Some students used an incorrect position for the particle at time t = 0. In part (b) many students did not consider the region from t = 5 to t = 6. In part (c) some students stated that the speed was increasing. Many students who did find that the speed was decreasing did not provide a complete and correct reason for their answer. In part (d) many students included t = 1 and t = 4 in their answers, but these are places where the acceleration was zero. Students need practice with recognizing when a function is monotonically increasing or decreasing. This is especially important in contexts such as particle motion. Students need practice with problems that require use of the Intermediate Value Theorem. Students need practice communicating mathematics through the use of clear, unambiguous, and mathematically precise language. Students must label graphs and diagrams with all of the appropriate information. Question AB5 This problem presented students with a separable differential equation. In part (a) they were asked to sketch its slope field at nine sample points. Part (b) asked for the solution to the differential equation with a given initial condition. The solution involved selection of the portion of ln y 1 that includes the initial condition. Part (c) asked for the limit of the solution from part (b) as x. Most students were able to earn at least 1 of 2 points in part (a). Most students were able to earn some points in part (b). Some students did not arrive at an answer in part (b) and therefore did not continue on to part (c). The mean score for this question was 3.70 out of a possible 9 points. About 1.6 percent of students earned all 9 points. About 15.1 percent of students did not earn any points. 6

7 What were common student errors or omissions? In part (a) some students placed slope segments on the y-axis. In part (b) some students did not attempt to separate variables or did not separate variables correctly. Some students who correctly separated variables omitted the absolute value signs in the antiderivative with respect to y or removed the absolute values at a point that resulted in a statement that is not true for the initial condition. Many students did not know how to answer part (c). Teachers should continue to emphasize properties of logarithmic functions, particularly their domains and ranges. Students need practice with calculating limits at infinity. Students need to be encouraged to include intermediate steps in their solutions. Question AB6 ln x This problem presented students with a function f defined by f( x) = for x > 0, together with a x formula for f ( x). Part (a) asked for an equation of the line tangent to the graph of f at x = e 2. In part (b) students needed to solve f ( x) = 0 and determine the character of this critical point from the supplied f ( x). In part (c) students had to demonstrate skill with the quotient rule to obtain a formula for f ( x) and solve f ( x) = 0 to find the x-coordinate of what was promised to be the only point of inflection for the graph of f. Part (d) tested students knowledge of properties of ln x to determine the + limit of f ( x ) as x 0. Student performance on this question was average. In parts (a), (b), and (c) most students were able to enter the problem, but they made algebraic simplification errors. Many students were able to use the quotient rule to find the second derivative in part (c). Most students had difficulty determining the limit in part (d). The mean score for this question was 3.06 out of a possible 9 points. About 2.1 percent of students earned all 9 points. About 28.9 percent of students did not earn any points. 7

8 What were common student errors or omissions? In part (a) many students made errors in simplifying expressions involving e and ln. In part (b) most students did not present a complete and correct justification. Some presented a sign chart or table with values of f. Without verbal commentary explaining the chart or table, this was insufficient justification. In part (c) many students who were able to correctly use the quotient rule to find f ( x) then made an error in simplifying the expression. Teachers may prefer that their students simplify arithmetic in their classrooms, but arithmetic expressions need not be simplified on the AP Calculus Exams. Students need practice with writing justifications. Sign charts and other charts showing function behavior are by themselves incomplete justifications. Students must show the work that leads to their answers. Question BC3 This problem presented students with a table of values for a function h and its derivatives up to the fourth order at x = 1, x = 2, and x = 3. The question stated that h has derivatives of all orders, and that the first four derivatives are increasing on 1 x 3. Part (a) asked for the first-degree Taylor polynomial about x = 2 and the approximation for h ( 1.9) given by this polynomial. Students needed to use the given information to determine that the graph of h is concave up between x = 1.9 and x = 2 to conclude that this approximation is less than the value of h ( 1.9 ). Part (b) asked for the third-degree Taylor polynomial about x = 2 and the approximation for h ( 1.9) given by this polynomial. In part (c) ( 4 students were expected to observe that the given conditions imply that h ) ( x ) is bounded above by ( 4 h ) ( 2) on 1.9 x 2 and apply this to the Lagrange error bound to show that the estimate in part (b) 4 has error less than Students performed very well on this problem. This is encouraging given the fact that problems involving series are often challenging for students. In part (a) most students successfully found the first-degree Taylor polynomial. Most students correctly stated that the estimate of h ( 1.9) was an underestimate, but many did not provide a sufficient reason. 8

9 In parts (b) and (c) most students earned some, but not all, points. The mean score for this question was 4.42 out of a possible 9 points. Only 0.5 percent of students earned all 9 points. About 15.4 percent of students did not earn any points. What were common student errors or omissions? In part (a) many students did not provide an appropriate reason to support their claim that the approximation is less than the actual value of the function at 1.9. Also, many students presented polynomials in part (a) that contained terms beyond the linear terms. In part (b) some students made errors in reading values from the table. In part (c) many students did not appropriately use the Lagrange error bound. Students needed to make reference to the maximum value of the fourth derivative of f on the appropriate interval in order to earn all of the points in part (c). Students should not equate an approximation with the curve being approximated. Students need practice with writing justifications. Students should clearly state the connections between information given in the problem and the conclusions they are drawing in their answers. Students need more practice with using various error bounds. Question BC5 In this problem, students were told that a function f has derivative f ( x) = ( x 3) e x and that f () 1 = 7. In part (a) students needed to determine with justification the character of the critical point for f at x = 3. Part (b) asked for the intervals on which the graph of f is both decreasing and concave up. For this, students had to apply the product rule to obtain f ( x). In part (c) students needed to solve the initial value problem to find f ( 3, ) employing integration by parts along the way. Students performed well on this problem. Some students did not correctly justify or explain their answers in parts (a) and (b). In part (c), once students realized that they must perform integration by parts, they did very well. The mean score for this question was 5.82 out of a possible 9 points. About 12.3 percent of students earned all 9 points. Only 4.4 percent of students did not earn any points. 9

10 What were common student errors or omissions? In part (a) some students tried to justify by using the fact that f changed from decreasing to increasing, instead of justifying by making reference to the behavior of f or of f. In part (b) some students did not give a correct explanation of how they arrived at their answer. In part (c) some students did not use integration by parts. Students need practice with writing justifications. Sign charts and other charts showing function behavior are by themselves incomplete justifications. Students must show the work that leads to their answers. Question BC6 This problem presented students with a logistic differential equation and the initial value f ( 0) = 8 of a particular solution y = f(). t In part (a) a slope field for the differential equation was given, and students were asked to sketch solution curves through two specified points. In particular, students should have demonstrated appropriate behavior for these curves for t 0, especially with regard to the horizontal lines y = 0 and y = 6. For part (b) students needed to use the given initial value for the solution f and a two-step Euler s method to approximate f () 1. In part (c) students were directed to find the second-degree Taylor polynomial for f about t = 0 and use it to approximate f () 1. Part (d) asked for the range of the particular solution y = f(). t Overall, students did very well on parts (a) and (b), with many students earning all of the points possible. In part (c) many students earned 1 or fewer points. In part (d) most students failed to indicate the correct interval. The mean score for this question was 3.84 out of a possible 9 points. About 1.9 percent of students earned all 9 points. Only 3.6 percent of students did not earn any points. What were common student errors or omissions? In part (a) some students drew solutions that crossed the asymptotes at y = 0 and/or y = 6. 10

11 In part (b) some students made arithmetic errors. Some students used a tabular approach to Euler s method but failed to clarify the individual steps. The use of the tabular method became especially difficult to evaluate when the student made an error. In such cases, it was difficult or impossible to award partial credit d y In part (c) many students did not use the chain rule to find dt y = 8 when evaluating dy 2 d y at t = 0 or at t = 0. dt 2 dt Many students used y = 0 instead of In part (d) many students used incorrect notation or did not present the correct interval. Teachers should emphasize the need to draw curves in slope fields that illustrate all of the important behaviors of the solutions, including asymptotic behavior. Although the tabular approach to Euler s method can provide a useful framework for a student to work through the steps of Euler s method, students who use this approach must also be able to show how they obtained the values they entered into the table. Students should be encouraged to show their work in calculating values in the table regardless of the relative difficulty of the calculations. Students should be encouraged to proofread carefully and to check their arithmetic and algebraic computations. 11

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