Experiment #3, Ohm s Law


 Ashlynn Tucker
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Experiment #3, Ohm s Law 1 Purpose Physics Summer Experiment #3 1 To investigate the oltage, , characteristics of a carbon resistor at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature, a tungsten filament in an incandescent bulb and a semiconductor diode. 2 ntroduction An electrical circuit is any continuous path or array of paths along which current may flow. A circuit usually contains a battery or other sources of EMF to create the current. n addition, it may contain anything from a single wire to a complicated collection of wires, resistor, and other circuit elements. As for example, in a flashlight the path from one terminal of a flashlight battery through the lamp and back to the other terminal of the battery is a simple circuit. A string of Christmas tree lights plugged into a wall socket forms part of a circuit or it may be considered a circuit by itself oltage () Characteristics of Circuit Elements: Ohm's Law Part A. f we apply an electric potential difference (age) across the ends of a long copper wire maintained at a constant temperature and measure the current that flows, we find that is proportional to and resistance R is a constant. The resistance is the same for all data points therefore independent on the direction (positive and negative) and magnitude of the current used. When versus is plotted, as shown in Figure 1, a straight line graph is obtained. Materials which obey this are referred to as ohmic conductors. This straight line is symmetric with respect to the origin: R(, ) = R(, ). Note that if the current s magnitude is increased too much, the circuit element may start to heat up and loose its linear ohmic  characteristics. Ohm s law is given as = R. We define the resistance as R = / ohms. For an ohmic conductor, at a given temperature, R is a constant independent of and and is equal to the inverse of the linear slope of the versus graph for that conductor (Figure 1): R = That is, R = Part B. Tungsten is a metallic conductor, yet the  characteristics of a light bulb with a tungsten filament exhibit a nonlinear (Figure 2) behavior because the temperature of the filament varies from around 20 o C to around 3000 o C. The temperature increases as the power (P = in units of Watts) increases. The temperature of a hot filament can be accurately determined from
2 Physics Summer Experiment #3 2 its electrical resistance. The resistance of the tungsten filament is not constant, but is dependent on the magnitudes of and. The light bulb has point symmetry which displays 180 degree rotational symmetry with respect to the origin. That is, the currentage curve is origin symmetric, i.e., the magnitude of the current flowing for a given applied age value is the same regardless of age polarity (positive or negative sign). The currents for 5 s and 5 s are approximately the same, however, the current changes direction (sign) when the age polarity changes. n Figure 2, resistance and power are approximately the same at each symmetric point, R(, ) = R(, ), but changes at each symmetric point as both are dependent on and, the power. n terms of power, at each symmetric point, P(, ) = P(, ). The magnitude of the power changes the temperature. The resistance in Figure 2 depends on the magnitude to the current and not its direction. Note that for tungsten, higher power means a higher temperature and a higher resistance. For the device in Figure 1, power is not significantly changing the temperature for the range of values of and used. Resistance for tungsten is: R = Part C. Many conductors are not ohmic devices. Figure 3 illustrates the  plot for a solid state diode. The plot is not symmetric and is not a straight line even though the temperature remains constant. The resistance for this device depends on the age and R is not a constant at a given temperature. As indicted by Figure 3, the current for this device is almost zero when the polarity of the age is reversed. Such devices are said to have asymmetric currentage characteristic curves corresponding to their asymmetric electrical structure. (A diode is a two terminal electronic device with an asymmetric current versus age curve). Here too, resistance is: R = t should be realized that the relationship = R, which is Ohm s law, is not by itself a statement that a device is ohmic. A conductor is said to be ohmic if is proportional to and R is a constant at a given temperature and is independent on the direction of the current. The relationship R = / remains as the definition of the resistance of a circuit element whether or not it is ohmic.
3 3 Experimental Apparatus and Procedure 3.1 Apparatus 1. DC power supply and connecting cables. Physics Summer Experiment # Agilent 34405A digital ohmmeter (to be used for age and resistance measurements). 3. Fluke 75 digital multimeter (to be used for all current measurements). 4. Carbon resistor, six electric light bulb and a solid state diode. 3.2 Procedure. Measurements are entered into the data section of the Lab Report. Determination of the  characteristics of various electrical elements n the following studies, you will assemble the circuit shown in Figure 4 to measure the current through the circuit element as a function of the applied age across the element. The milliammeter (Fluke 75) must be connected in series with the circuit element, while the meter (Agilent 34405A) must be in parallel, i.e., across the ends of the circuit element. Make sure you associate a plus + (positive high potential) or minus  (negative low potential) sign to each age and current measurement. The correct range on the meter will determine the amount of digits after the decimal point Carbon Resistor Part A Measure the resistance of the 1kΩ resistor using the Agilent 34405A. The correct range on the meter will determine the amount of digits after the decimal point. Then assemble the circuit in Figure 4 using the 1kΩ carbon resistor at the end of the long wire. 1 kiloohm (kω) = 1000 ohms (Ω) 2. Set function and range switches on the digital meter (Agilent 34405A) to DC and 10 olts. The correct range on the meter will determine the amount of digits after the decimal point. Figure 4 3. Set the milliammeter (Fluke 75) function switch to. Make sure the meter is set to measure DC current. 4. Set the knob on the power supply to zero s (all the way counterclockwise) and plug in (if not already) the power supply and digital meter to 110 AC outlet. Turn on the digital meter and then have the TA instructor check out your circuit before turning on the electrical equipment. 5. Measure and record the current through the resistor as a function of the age across it
4 Physics Summer Experiment #3 4 while increasing from 1 to 7 s in steps of 1. Before proceeding to the next step, set the power supply output back to zero s. 6. Reverse the direction of the applied age across the circuit element by reversing the leads on the power supply. Again measure and record the current through the resistor for applied ages across the resistor in 1 increments between 1 and 7 s (arbitrarily designated as the negative polarity of applied age). 7. Lower the power supply output to zero and reverse the leads on the power supply to return to the designated positive polarity of applied age Temperature dependence of resistance of carbon resistor. Part A 2. Place the 1kΩ carbon resistor in liquid nitrogen, and measure the resistance of the 1kΩ resistor using the Agilent 34405A. Repeat steps 5, 6 and 7 described above to obtain the currentage characteristic curve for the resistor in liquid nitrogen (T = C). Carbon is a semimetal, and its resistance will increase when the temperature decreases. There is an energy gap between the valence and conduction bands and the probability of an electron going from valence to conduction is temperature dependent Six Electric Light Bulb Part B. Disconnect the 1kΩ resistor from the circuit and connect a six electric light bulb in its place (Figure 5). Measure the currentage characteristics between.5 to 5 s (plus and minus polarity) in 0.5 steps following the procedure above (steps 5, 6, and 7). Continue to read this section first before starting your measurements to see how the above steps will be modified. As you increase the age, the tungsten will increase in temperature. As the temperature does increase, first do.5 s, then .5 s. Next will be 1 s followed by 1 s. Use this staggered method of increasing the for your light bulb measurements. Do not exceed 5 otherwise you will blow a fuse. Figure 5
5 3.2.4 Diode: Asymmetric Circuit Element Part C. Physics Summer Experiment #3 5 The diode is said to be a "rectifying" circuit element since it conducts current in only one direction and for only one polarity of applied age. t can thus be used to produce direct current from alternating current. Disconnect the electric light bulb and assemble the circuit of Figure 6 using a diode as the element to be studied. Note that in Figure 6 that a 1kΩ resistor is placed in series with the diode to limit the current through the diode. Be careful. The meter is connected only across the diode. Measure the currentage relationship between 0.10 to (see data table). Reverse the polarity on the power supply and measure the currentage relationship in the range 0 to 12 in steps of Calculations, Analysis and Graphs for Lab Report 4.1 Analysis of currentage data on ohmic and nonohmic circuit elements Graphical Analysis for Lab Report Plot three graphs, using the 18 x 25 cm graph paper, of the current (ordinate y axis) as a function of the age (abscissa x axis) for the currentage data obtained for each circuit element. The data for the 1 k resistor at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures (Parts and 3.2.2) may be plotted together on the same graph. They are both straight line graphs with different slopes. You should do three graphs for this experiment: resistor, light bulb and diode. The graph of the diode should include positive data only for = 0.00 to Use the total graph sheet for this positive data. Use the 25 x 18 cm graph paper for the three graphs in your submitted work. f a graph is not linear, just enter the data points as a curve is hard to draw Computations for Lab Report Figure 6 1. Use your vs. data and linear regression on your calculator to calculate the electrical resistance of the carbon 1kΩ resistor at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. R = 1/(slope  graph). Use your graph to determine the linear data to enter into your calculator. Your linear regression calculations should include the coefficient of determination R Calculate the resistance when the age across the light bulb is both plus and minus.5 and 5 s. You should have four calculations. 3. Calculate the power when the age across the light bulb is both plus and minus.5 and 5 s. You should have four calculations. 4. Calculate the resistance of the diode when the current is at both 2.00 and
6 Physics Summer Experiment #3 6 5 Questions 1. Explain in a few sentences if the carbon resistor in and is an ohmic device. Explain why. 2. Does the resistance of the resistor in question 1 increase or decrease when it is cooled by liquid nitrogen? Why does this resistance change? 3. Compare your measured value of the resistance, R LN2, of the carbon resistor at liquid nitrogen temperature to the calculated resistance, R Cal, given by the following expression. This comparison should be given as a percent error. Use the calculated value below as the accepted value. R Cal = R Room [1 + a(t LN2 T Room )] a = 0.5 x 103 / o C (Negative temperature coefficient, as carbon is a semimetal.) R Room = Measured resistance at room temperature, T Room T LN2 and T Room from data sheet This expression approximates the temperature dependence of the resistance in the carbon resistor. Expect a large percentage when you do the percent error. This should be a positive number as the absolute value is used. % error = ( R LN2 R Cal / R Cal )*(100%) 4. a. Does the resistance of the electric light bulb depend on the direction of current flow through it? Explain. b. Does the resistance of the electric light bulb increase, decrease or remain constant as the power,, is increased? Consult your data table. c. Does the temperature of the light bulb filament increase, decrease or remain constant as the power,, to the bulb is increased? (Associate a higher with an increase in temperature.) 5. Does the diode conduct symmetrically when the current flows in the forward (positive age) and the reverse (negative age) direction? s the diode an ohmic device? Explain. 6 Conclusion This section should have a clear statement of the results of the experiment and the extent to which the results are in agreement with the theory being tested. When the experiment results in a measurement of a constant (e.g., the specific heat of aluminum at a given temperature) compare it with its established handbook value. Use percent error for this comparison. To make this comparison meaningful, you should include the impact of the experimental error on your results. This includes errors in plotting and reading linear graphs when determining their slope and intercept. n addition, please include a statement of what you have learned, a critique of the experiment, and any suggestions you have which you think could improve the experiment or the lab handout.
7 Physics Summer Experiment #3 7 nstrumentation 1. The DC oltmeter measures the age difference between two points to which its terminals are connected. The meter is always connected in parallel to the part of the circuit across which the potential difference is to be measured (Figure A1). n this experiment the Agilent 34405A multimeter is used to measure age differences and the resistance of the carbon resistor. 2. The DC Milliammeter measures the electric current between any two points to which its terminals are connected. To measure the current in any part of the circuit, the circuit must be broken at that point and the ammeter must be inserted in the gap with loose ends connected to its terminals, i.e., the meter is connected in series with that part of the circuit where the current is to be measured (Figure A2). The Fluke 75 battery powered multimeter is used to measure the current in milliamperes in this experiment. 3. Connecting wire leads. Assumed to be made of a good conducting material, e.g., a metal such as copper, and of a large enough crosssection to have negligible resistance and age drop across them. 4. The DC Power supply is a device used to supply a constant source of EMF between its output terminals. The electric current flows internally in the power supply from the minus to the plus terminal. n the external circuit it flows from the plus to the minus terminal (Figure A3). The meter on the actual power supply is not accurate and should not be used to determine the output age. The Agilent 34405A multimeter is used to measure ages.
8 Ohm's Law Data Sheet Physics Summer Experiment #3 8 Data goes into the data section of the Lab Report. Keep it neat and organized.  Characteristics and Carbon Resistor at Room and Liquid Nitrogen Temperatures Room Temperature = T Room = o C Estimated error in reading thermometer. Error T = T = o C Liquid Nitrogen Temperature = T LN2 = o C Table 1: Measurements of age and current from +1 to +7 and 1 to 7 in steps of 1 both at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. Be sure to enter + or  for both age and current. Room Temperature Part A 1. R Room = kω at room temperature (Direct Measurement Using Agilent 34405A) oltage oltage
9 Physics Summer Experiment #3 9 Liquid Nitrogen Temperature Part A 2. R LN2 = kω at LN 2 temperature (Direct Measurement Using Agilent 34405A) oltage oltage SX OLT LGHT BULB Part B. Measurements of age and current from +.5 to +5 and from .5 to 5 in steps of ±0.5. oltage Resistance / ohms Power mw oltage Resistance / ohms Power mw a. b. d. c. e. f. h. g. i. j. l. k. m. n. p. o. q. r. t. s.
10 3.2.4 DODE Part C. Physics Summer Experiment #3 10 Measurements of age corresponding to the current from 0.10 to and measurement of the current in the age range 0 to 12. oltage oltage
Experiment #5, Series and Parallel Circuits, Kirchhoff s Laws
Physics 182 Summer 2013 Experiment #5 1 Experiment #5, Series and Parallel Circuits, Kirchhoff s Laws 1 Purpose Our purpose is to explore and validate Kirchhoff s laws as a way to better understanding
More informationResistance, Ohm s Law, and the Temperature of a Light Bulb Filament
Resistance, Ohm s Law, and the Temperature of a Light Bulb Filament Name Partner Date Introduction Carbon resistors are the kind typically used in wiring circuits. They are made from a small cylinder of
More informationExperiment #4, Ohmic Heat
Experiment #4, Ohmic Heat 1 Purpose Physics 18  Fall 013  Experiment #4 1 1. To demonstrate the conversion of the electric energy into heat.. To demonstrate that the rate of heat generation in an electrical
More informationLab E1: Introduction to Circuits
E1.1 Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits The purpose of the this lab is to introduce you to some basic instrumentation used in electrical circuits. You will learn to use a DC power supply, a digital multimeter
More informationLab 3  DC Circuits and Ohm s Law
Lab 3 DC Circuits and Ohm s Law L31 Name Date Partners Lab 3  DC Circuits and Ohm s Law OBJECTIES To learn to apply the concept of potential difference (voltage) to explain the action of a battery in
More informationPHYSICS 111 LABORATORY Experiment #3 Current, Voltage and Resistance in Series and Parallel Circuits
PHYSCS 111 LABORATORY Experiment #3 Current, Voltage and Resistance in Series and Parallel Circuits This experiment is designed to investigate the relationship between current and potential in simple series
More informationObjectives 200 CHAPTER 4 RESISTANCE
Objectives Explain the differences among conductors, insulators, and semiconductors. Define electrical resistance. Solve problems using resistance, voltage, and current. Describe a material that obeys
More informationEXPERIMENT 7 OHM S LAW, RESISTORS IN SERIES AND PARALLEL
260 7 I. THEOY EXPEIMENT 7 OHM S LAW, ESISTOS IN SEIES AND PAALLEL The purposes of this experiment are to test Ohm's Law, to study resistors in series and parallel, and to learn the correct use of ammeters
More informationExperiment NO.3 Series and parallel connection
Experiment NO.3 Series and parallel connection Object To study the properties of series and parallel connection. Apparatus 1. DC circuit training system 2. Set of wires. 3. DC Power supply 4. Digital A.V.O.
More informationSolutions to Bulb questions
Solutions to Bulb questions Note: We did some basic circuits with bulbs in fact three main ones I can think of I have summarized our results below. For the final exam, you must have an understanding of
More informationFig. 1 Analogue Multimeter Fig.2 Digital Multimeter
ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENT AND MEASUREMENT Electrical measuring instruments are devices used to measure electrical quantities such as electric current, voltage, resistance, electrical power and energy. MULTIMETERS
More informationThe Electrical Properties of Materials: Resistivity
The Electrical Properties of Materials: Resistivity 1 Objectives 1. To understand the properties of resistance and resistivity in conductors, 2. To measure the resistivity and temperature coefficient of
More information7. What is the current in a circuit if 15 coulombs of electric charge move past a given point in 3 seconds? (1) 5 A (3) 18 A (2) 12 A (4) 45 A
1. Compared to the number of free electrons in a conductor, the number of free electrons in an insulator of the same volume is less the same greater 2. Most metals are good electrical conductors because
More informationChapter 13: Electric Circuits
Chapter 13: Electric Circuits 1. A household circuit rated at 120 Volts is protected by a fuse rated at 15 amps. What is the maximum number of 100 watt light bulbs which can be lit simultaneously in parallel
More informationUnit 7: Electrical devices LO2: Understand electrical sensors and actuators Sensors temperature the thermistor
Unit 7: Electrical devices LO2: Understand electrical sensors and actuators Sensors temperature the thermistor Instructions and answers for teachers These instructions should accompany the OCR resource
More informationLab 1: DC Circuits. Student 1, student1@ufl.edu Partner : Student 2, student2@ufl.edu
Lab Date Lab 1: DC Circuits Student 1, student1@ufl.edu Partner : Student 2, student2@ufl.edu I. Introduction The purpose of this lab is to allow the students to become comfortable with the use of lab
More informationCourse description: Introduces the student to basic electricity with an emphasis on Ohms Law.
The following is presented for information purposes only and comes with no warranty. See http://www.bristolwatch.com/ Course Title: Basic Electricity and Ohms Law Course description: Introduces the student
More informationCurrent, Resistance and Electromotive Force. Young and Freedman Chapter 25
Current, Resistance and Electromotive Force Young and Freedman Chapter 25 Electric Current: Analogy, water flowing in a pipe H 2 0 gallons/minute Flow Rate is the NET amount of water passing through a
More informationELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS
General Electricity is a form of energy called electrical energy. It is sometimes called an "unseen" force because the energy itself cannot be seen, heard, touched, or smelled. However, the effects of
More informationANALOG AND DIGITAL METERS ANALOG VS. DIGITAL METERS VOLTMETERS ANALOG AND DIGITAL
ANALOG VS. DIGITAL METERS Ultimately, your diagnosis of vehicle electrical system problems will come down to using a voltmeter, ammeter, or ohmmeter to pinpoint the exact location of the problem. There
More informationGENERAL SCIENCE LABORATORY 1110L Lab Experiment 6: Ohm s Law
GENERAL SCIENCE LABORATORY 1110L Lab Experiment 6: Ohm s Law OBJECTIVES: To verify Ohm s law, the mathematical relationship among current, voltage or potential difference, and resistance, in a simple circuit.
More informationPeople s Physics Book
The Big Ideas: The name electric current is given to the phenomenon that occurs when an electric field moves down a wire at close to the speed of light. Voltage is the electrical energy density (energy
More informationElectrical Fundamentals Module 3: Parallel Circuits
Electrical Fundamentals Module 3: Parallel Circuits PREPARED BY IAT Curriculum Unit August 2008 Institute of Applied Technology, 2008 ATE310 Electrical Fundamentals 2 Module 3 Parallel Circuits Module
More informationCircuit symbol. Each of the cells has a potential difference of 1.5 volts. Figure 1. Use the correct answer from the box to complete the sentence.
Q.(a) Draw one line from each circuit symbol to its correct name. Circuit symbol Name Diode Lightdependent resistor (LDR) Lamp Lightemitting diode (LED) (3) Figure shows three circuits. The resistors
More informationOhm's Law and Circuits
2. Conductance, Insulators and Resistance A. A conductor in electricity is a material that allows electrons to flow through it easily. Metals, in general, are good conductors. Why? The property of conductance
More informationSeries and Parallel Resistive Circuits Physics Lab VIII
Series and Parallel Resistive Circuits Physics Lab VIII Objective In the set of experiments, the theoretical expressions used to calculate the total resistance in a combination of resistors will be tested
More informationMeasuring Electric Phenomena: the Ammeter and Voltmeter
Measuring Electric Phenomena: the Ammeter and Voltmeter 1 Objectives 1. To understand the use and operation of the Ammeter and Voltmeter in a simple direct current circuit, and 2. To verify Ohm s Law for
More informationExperiment: Series and Parallel Circuits
Phy203: General Physics Lab page 1 of 6 Experiment: Series and Parallel Circuits OBJECTVES MATERALS To study current flow and voltages in series and parallel circuits. To use Ohm s law to calculate equivalent
More informationEssential Electrical Concepts
Essential Electrical Concepts Introduction Modern vehicles incorporate many electrical and electronic components and systems: Audio Lights Navigation Engine control Transmission control Braking and traction
More informationAmpere's Law. Introduction. times the current enclosed in that loop: Ampere's Law states that the line integral of B and dl over a closed path is 0
1 Ampere's Law Purpose: To investigate Ampere's Law by measuring how magnetic field varies over a closed path; to examine how magnetic field depends upon current. Apparatus: Solenoid and path integral
More informationOhm s Law. Ohmic relationship V=IR. Electric Power. Non Ohmic devises. Schematic representation. Electric Power
Ohm Law Ohmic relationhip V=IR Ohm law tate that current through the conductor i directly proportional to the voltage acro it if temperature and other phyical condition do not change. In many material,
More informationCurrent Electricity Lab Series/Parallel Circuits. Safety and Equipment Precautions!
Current Electricity Lab Series/Parallel Circuits Name Safety and Equipment Precautions! Plug in your power supply and use ONLY the D.C. terminals of the power source, NOT the A. C. terminals. DO NOT touch
More informationSeries and Parallel Circuits
Series and Parallel Circuits DirectCurrent Series Circuits A series circuit is a circuit in which the components are connected in a line, one after the other, like railroad cars on a single track. There
More informationSeries and Parallel Circuits
Series and Parallel Circuits Components in a circuit can be connected in series or parallel. A series arrangement of components is where they are inline with each other, i.e. connected endtoend. A parallel
More informationFORCE ON A CURRENT IN A MAGNETIC FIELD
7/16 Force current 1/8 FORCE ON A CURRENT IN A MAGNETIC FIELD PURPOSE: To study the force exerted on an electric current by a magnetic field. BACKGROUND: When an electric charge moves with a velocity v
More informationPhysics 221 Experiment 5: Magnetic Fields
Physics 221 Experiment 5: Magnetic Fields August 25, 2007 ntroduction This experiment will examine the properties of magnetic fields. Magnetic fields can be created in a variety of ways, and are also found
More informationResistors in Series and Parallel
Resistors in Series and Parallel Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Most circuits have more than one component, called a resistor that limits the flow of charge in the circuit. A measure of this limit on charge flow
More informationMaximum value. resistance. 1. Connect the Current Probe to Channel 1 and the Differential Voltage Probe to Channel 2 of the interface.
Series and Parallel Circuits Computer 23 Components in an electrical circuit are in series when they are connected one after the other, so that the same current flows through both of them. Components are
More informationF B = ilbsin(f), L x B because we take current i to be a positive quantity. The force FB. L and. B as shown in the Figure below.
PHYSICS 176 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II Experiment 9 Magnetic Force on a Current Carrying Wire Equipment: Supplies: Unit. Electronic balance, Power supply, Ammeter, Lab stand Current Loop PC Boards, Magnet
More informationTable of Contents. The Basics of Electricity 2. Using a Digital Multimeter 4. Testing Voltage 8. Testing Current 10. Testing Resistance 12
Table of Contents The Basics of Electricity 2 Using a Digital Multimeter 4 IDEAL Digital Multimeters An Introduction The Basics of Digital Multimeters is designed to give you a fundamental knowledge of
More informationOdyssey of the Mind Technology Fair. Simple Electronics
Simple Electronics 1. Terms volts, amps, ohms, watts, positive, negative, AC, DC 2. Matching voltages a. Series vs. parallel 3. Battery capacity 4. Simple electronic circuit light bulb 5. Chose the right
More informationChapter 22 Further Electronics
hapter 22 Further Electronics washing machine has a delay on the door opening after a cycle of washing. Part of this circuit is shown below. s the cycle ends, switch S closes. t this stage the capacitor
More informationSection B: Electricity
Section B: Electricity We use mains electricity, supplied by power stations, for all kinds of appliances in our homes, so it is very important to know how to use it safely. In this chapter you will learn
More informationJunior Cert Science Numeracy Resources
Focus on Numeracy Junior Cert Science Numeracy Resources Let s Talk About Measurement Measurement of Time Directions: Put a < (less than), > (greater than), or = symbol between the two amounts of time.
More informationBuilding the HVPS High Voltage Power Supply
Introduction Building the HVPS High Voltage Power Supply Voltages higher than the LVPS provides kilovolts are needed in later experiments to get strong electric fields and to generate microwaves. The highvoltage
More informationLAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS
LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS Objective In this experiment you will study the iv characteristics of an MOS transistor. You will use the MOSFET as a variable resistor and as a switch. BACKGROUND
More informationBasic Electronics Prof. Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati
Basic Electronics Prof. Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Module: 2 Bipolar Junction Transistors Lecture2 Transistor
More informationStudent Exploration: Circuits
Name: Date: Student Exploration: Circuits Vocabulary: ammeter, circuit, current, ohmmeter, Ohm s law, parallel circuit, resistance, resistor, series circuit, voltage Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these
More informationChapter 7 DirectCurrent Circuits
Chapter 7 DirectCurrent Circuits 7. Introduction...77. Electromotive Force...73 7.3 Resistors in Series and in Parallel...75 7.4 Kirchhoff s Circuit Rules...77 7.5 VoltageCurrent Measurements...79
More informationSTUDY MATERIAL FOR CLASS 10+2  Physics CURRENT ELECTRICITY. The flow of electric charges in a particular direction constitutes electric current.
Chapter : 3 Current Electricity Current Electricity The branch of Physics which deals with the study of electric charges in motion is called current electricity. Electric current The flow of electric charges
More informationModule 1, Lesson 3 Temperature vs. resistance characteristics of a thermistor. Teacher. 45 minutes
Module 1, Lesson 3 Temperature vs. resistance characteristics of a thermistor 45 minutes Teacher Purpose of this lesson How thermistors are used to measure temperature. Using a multimeter to measure the
More information= V peak 2 = 0.707V peak
BASIC ELECTRONICS  RECTIFICATION AND FILTERING PURPOSE Suppose that you wanted to build a simple DC electronic power supply, which operated off of an AC input (e.g., something you might plug into a standard
More informationExperiment 4 ~ Resistors in Series & Parallel
Experiment 4 ~ Resistors in Series & Parallel Objective: In this experiment you will set up three circuits: one with resistors in series, one with resistors in parallel, and one with some of each. You
More informationTransistor Amplifiers
Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input
More informationTroubleshooting Guide, Freedom and Fleet Power Inverter/Chargers
Technical Note Freedom/Fleet Power 51200840101 Rev 1 Troubleshooting Guide, Freedom and Fleet Power Inverter/Chargers Overview This document is a guide for troubleshooting inverters, battery chargers,
More informationHOW TO USE MULTIMETER. COMPILE BY: Dzulautotech
HOW TO USE MULTIMETER COMPILE BY: Dzulautotech 1. GENERAL Electricity is absolutely necessary for an automobile. It is indispensable when the engine is started, the air fuel mixture is ignited and exploded,
More informationEpisode 126: Capacitance and the equation C =Q/V
Episode 126: Capacitance and the equation C =Q/V Having established that there is charge on each capacitor plate, the next stage is to establish the relationship between charge and potential difference
More informationReview Questions PHYS 2426 Exam 2
Review Questions PHYS 2426 Exam 2 1. If 4.7 x 10 16 electrons pass a particular point in a wire every second, what is the current in the wire? A) 4.7 ma B) 7.5 A C) 2.9 A D) 7.5 ma E) 0.29 A Ans: D 2.
More informationSERIESPARALLEL DC CIRCUITS
Name: Date: Course and Section: Instructor: EXPERIMENT 1 SERIESPARALLEL DC CIRCUITS OBJECTIVES 1. Test the theoretical analysis of seriesparallel networks through direct measurements. 2. Improve skills
More informationLine Reactors and AC Drives
Line Reactors and AC Drives Rockwell Automation Mequon Wisconsin Quite often, line and load reactors are installed on AC drives without a solid understanding of why or what the positive and negative consequences
More informationResistors in Series and Parallel Circuits
69 Resistors in Series and Parallel Circuits E&M: Series and parallel circuits Equipment List DataStudio file: Not Required Qty s Part Numbers 1 C/DC Electronics Lab EM8656 2 D cell 1.5 volt Introduction
More informationAP1 Electricity. 1. A student wearing shoes stands on a tile floor. The students shoes do not fall into the tile floor due to
1. A student wearing shoes stands on a tile floor. The students shoes do not fall into the tile floor due to (A) a force of repulsion between the shoes and the floor due to macroscopic gravitational forces.
More informationCHAPTER 28 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
CHAPTER 8 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS 1. Sketch a circuit diagram for a circuit that includes a resistor R 1 connected to the positive terminal of a battery, a pair of parallel resistors R and R connected to the
More informationBuilding the AMP Amplifier
Building the AMP Amplifier Introduction For about 80 years it has been possible to amplify voltage differences and to increase the associated power, first with vacuum tubes using electrons from a hot filament;
More informationParallel DC circuits
Parallel DC circuits This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,
More informationExperiment #9, Magnetic Forces Using the Current Balance
Physics 182  Fall 2014  Experiment #9 1 Experiment #9, Magnetic Forces Using the Current Balance 1 Purpose 1. To demonstrate and measure the magnetic forces between current carrying wires. 2. To verify
More informationDiscovering Ohm s Law. Original: Revision: 17 October 2003 11 July 2007 George Wolfe, Alison Shull, Martin Alderman
Title: Discovering Ohm s Law Original: Revision: Authors: Appropriate Level: Abstract: Time Required: NY Standards Met: Special Notes: 17 October 2003 11 July 2007 George Wolfe, Alison Shull, Martin Alderman
More informationElectronics. Basic Concepts. Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç GÖREN Yrd. Doç. Dr. Levent ÇETİN
Electronics Basic Concepts Electric charge Ordinary matter is made up of atoms which have positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electrons surrounding them. Charge is quantized as the subtraction
More informationOHM S LAW AND RESISTANCE
OHM S LAW AND RESISTANCE Resistance is one of the basic principles of Ohm s law, and can be found in virtually any device used to conduct electricity. Georg Simon Ohm was a German physicist who conducted
More informationELECTRICAL CIRCUITS. Electrical Circuits
Electrical Circuits A complete path, or circuit, is needed before voltage can cause a current flow through resistances to perform work. There are several types of circuits, but all require the same basic
More informationWhich Bulb Burns Brighter? One is a 60watt bulb and the other a 100watt bulb, and they are connected in an electric circuit.
Which Bulb Burns Brighter? One is a 60watt bulb and the other a 100watt bulb, and they are connected in an electric circuit. Look at the text on page 541 for the answer. CHPTE 23 Series and Parallel
More informationCLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: PHYSICS Test 3: Electricity and magnetism
CLASS TEST GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES: PHYSICS Test 3: Electricity and magnetism MARKS: 45 TIME: 1 hour INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION 1. Answer ALL the questions. 2. You may use nonprogrammable calculators.
More informationApplication Note. So You Need to Measure Some Inductors?
So You Need to Measure Some nductors? Take a look at the 1910 nductance Analyzer. Although specifically designed for production testing of inductors and coils, in addition to measuring inductance (L),
More informationBUILDING A BASIC CIRCUIT
Teacher Information BUILDING A BASIC CIRCUIT NSES912.2 Physical Science: Interactions of Energy and Matter Adaptations Some adaptations and modifications that may assist a student with visual and/or other
More informationMeasurement of ChargetoMass (e/m) Ratio for the Electron
Measurement of ChargetoMass (e/m) Ratio for the Electron Experiment objectives: measure the ratio of the electron chargetomass ratio e/m by studying the electron trajectories in a uniform magnetic
More informationBipolar Transistor Amplifiers
Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must
More informationDIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS
DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS Revision 12:50 14 Nov 05 INTRODUCTION A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by using the principle of magnetic induction. This principle
More informationELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES
ELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES The purpose of this lab session is to experimentally investigate the relation between electric field lines of force and equipotential surfaces in two dimensions.
More informationIDEAL AND NONIDEAL GASES
2/2016 ideal gas 1/8 IDEAL AND NONIDEAL GASES PURPOSE: To measure how the pressure of a lowdensity gas varies with temperature, to determine the absolute zero of temperature by making a linear fit to
More informationChapter 5. Parallel Circuits ISU EE. C.Y. Lee
Chapter 5 Parallel Circuits Objectives Identify a parallel circuit Determine the voltage across each parallel branch Apply Kirchhoff s current law Determine total parallel resistance Apply Ohm s law in
More informationAPPLICATION NOTES DEFINITIONS NTC Thermistor 101
APPLICATION NOTES DEFINITIONS NTC Thermistor 101 Thermistors Thermally sensitive resistors whose primary function is to exhibit a change in electrical resistance with a change in its body temperature.
More informationΣ I in = Σ I out E = IR 1 + IR 2 FXA 2008 KIRCHHOFF S LAWS 1. Candidates should be able to : LAW 1 (K1)
UNT G482 Module 3 2.3.1 Series & Parallel Circuits Candidates should be able to : KRCHHOFF S LAWS 1 LAW 1 (K1) State Kirchhoff s second law and appreciate that it is a consequence of conservation of energy.
More information6/14/02 Chapter 14: Use of Electrical Test Equipment 1/20
USE OF ELECTRICAL TEST EQUIPMENT Test equipment is necessary for determining proper setup, adjustment, operation, and maintenance of electrical systems and control panels. The following is a general procedure
More informationUsing an Oscilloscope
Using an Oscilloscope The oscilloscope is used to measure a voltage that changes in time. It has two probes, like a voltmeter. You put these probes on either side of the thing that you want to measure
More information101 BASICS SERIES LEARNING MODULE 2: FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY. CutlerHammer
101 BASICS SERIES LEARNING MODULE 2: FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY CutlerHammer WELCOME Welcome to Module 2, Fundamentals of Electricity. This module will cover the fundamentals of electricity in a practical
More informationAutomatic taper of charge rate for superior battery life through good equalization of cells and low water use rate.
*00151* FEATURES Automatic taper of charge rate for superior battery life through good equalization of cells and low water use rate. Silicon diodes with inherent surge protection operated at a conservative
More informationVI CHARACTERISTICS OF DIODE
VI CHARACTERISTICS OF DIODE RAVITEJ UPPU 1 1. Aim We try to see the VoltageCurrent realtion in Diodes and compare the difference between various types of diodes including Zener Diode. 2. Theory The diode
More informationTHE BREADBOARD; DC POWER SUPPLY; RESISTANCE OF METERS; NODE VOLTAGES AND EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE; THÉVENIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
THE BREADBOARD; DC POWER SUPPLY; RESISTANCE OF METERS; NODE VOLTAGES AND EQUIVALENT RESISTANCE; THÉVENIN EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT YOUR NAME LAB MEETING TIME Reference: C.W. Alexander and M.N.O Sadiku, Fundamentals
More informationVaporization of Liquid Nitrogen
Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen Goals and Introduction As a system exchanges thermal energy with its surroundings, the temperature of the system will usually increase or decrease, depending on the direction
More informationDirectCurrent Circuits
8 DirectCurrent Circuits Clicker Questions Question N.0 Description: Understanding circuits with parallel resistances. Question A battery is used to light a bulb as shown. A second bulb is connected by
More informationAC Transport constant current vs. low impedance modes
Application Note 18442 AC Transport constant current vs. low impedance modes The AC Transport option offers the user the ability to put the current source in a low output impedance mode. This mode is
More informationElectronics I  Laboratory 1 Diode I/V Characteristics
Electronics I  Laboratory 1 Diode I/V Characteristics I. Objectives 1. Develop I/V characteristics of a silicon diode. 2. Develop I/V characteristics of a germanium diode. 3. Develop I/V characteristics
More informationElectrical Resistance Resistance (R)
Electrical Resistance Resistance (R) Any device in a circuit which converts electrical energy into some other form impedes the current. The device which converts electrical energy to heat energy is termed
More informationCOOL01, Cooling Fan Operation and Troubleshooting
COOL01, Cooling Fan Operation and Troubleshooting Table of Contents Introduction Early 944s With Air Conditioning Cooling Fan Operation On Early 944s With Air Conditioning Testing Fan Relay One Early
More informationEGR 278 Digital Logic Lab File: N278L3A Lab # 3 OpenCollector and Driver Gates
EGR 278 Digital Logic Lab File: N278L3A Lab # 3 OpenCollector and Driver Gates A. Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are to investigate: the operation of opencollector gates, including the
More informationExperiment 6 ~ Joule Heating of a Resistor
Experiment 6 ~ Joule Heating of a Resistor Introduction: The power P absorbed in an electrical resistor of resistance R, current I, and voltage V is given by P = I 2 R = V 2 /R = VI. Despite the fact that
More informationCharacteristic curves of a solar cell
Related Topics Semiconductor, pn junction, energyband diagram, Fermi characteristic energy level, diffusion potential, internal resistance, efficiency, photoconductive effect, acceptors, donors, valence
More informationSOLAR ENERGY. Solar Energy, Kit #6A: Efficiency of Solar Cells. Solar Energy, Kit #6B: Solar Extension Activities INSTITUTE FOR SCHOOL PARTNERSHIP
SOLAR ENERGY Solar Energy, Kit #6A: Efficiency of Solar Cells Solar Energy, Kit #6B: Solar Extension Activities INSTITUTE FOR SCHOOL PARTNERSHIP PARC Contents: Topic Template 3 Introduction: Photovoltaic
More informationResistors in Series and Parallel
OpenStaxCNX module: m42356 1 Resistors in Series and Parallel OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStaxCNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 Abstract Draw a circuit
More information