# Custody Transfer Measurement. with the V-Cone Flowmeter

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1 Custody Transfer Measurement with the V-Cone Flowmeter Stephen A. Ifft McCrometer Inc. Hemet, California, USA Abstract This paper will discuss the approval of the McCrometer V-Cone flowmeter for custody transfer measurement in Canada. In May 1998, Measurement Canada issued AG-0428, the Notice of Approval for the V-Cone meter. This notice states the models and methods approved for use in Canada. Of particular note is the need for approved V-Cone calculation devices. Introduction The V-Cone is a differential pressure flowmeter invented and manufactured by McCrometer Inc. Patented in 1986 as a new type of differential pressure flow meter, the V-Cone is based on the principles of Bernoulli. The geometry of the V-Cone is a radically different approach to differential pressure flow metering, see Figure 1. As with other differential pressure devices, the flow constricts to create a high velocity area, which creates a lower pressure just past the constriction. By measuring the pressure upstream and downstream of the cone, a differential pressure is known and can be related to the flowrate through the pipeline. The V-Cone s constriction, however, is not a concentric opening through the center of the pipe like traditional differential pressure flowmeters. The V-Cone creates an annular opening, forcing the fluid to flow around a cone positioned in the center of the pipe. Fig. 1 Illustration of a typical V-Cone design Equations for the V-Cone are only slightly different from standard differential pressure equations. The V-Cone beta ratio follows the same principle as other differential pressure devices. Thus a V-Cone and an orifice plate beta ratio are equivalent to each other in terms of open area. The basic equation of flow for the V-Cone is similar to standard differential pressure equations. Approval Process The approval process with the Canadian government is well defined in documents such as the Specifications for Approval of Type of Gas Meters and Auxiliary Devices (LMB-EG-08). This Canadian Gas Association 1998, Edmonton, Alberta Page 1 of 7

2 document states, among others, the requirements for approval of certain types of flowmeters. These meters are generally defined as: 1. Diaphragm meters Section 5 2. Rotary meters Section 6 3. Turbine meters Section 7 4. Orifice meters Sectio n 8 5. Mass flow meters Section 9 The V-Cone is a differential pressure type device and McCrometer s intention was to have the V-Cone certified under the same principles and requirements as an orifice plate. After receiving the application for type approval for the V-Cone, Measurement Canada reviewed the product data and existing performance data regarding the V-Cone. Even though the V-Cone is based on the same principles as the orifice place, the V-Cone could not be evaluated under the same requirements as the orifice meter s section. Section 8 of the specifications refers extensively to the American National Standard, ANSI/API 2530, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbon Fluids. This standard deals exclusively with the orifice plate design and could not be correlated to a V-Cone application. Measurement Canada then needed to decide how to deal with the V-Cone and under what section the evaluation should proceed. For two apparent reasons, the V-Cone application would be evaluated under Section 7 of the specifications regarding turbine meters. The first reason was the performance specifications of the V-Cone. The standard accuracy and turndown of the V-Cone is stated as ±0.5% of rate over a 10:1 turndown. The requirements for turbine meters under this section call for 1% of rate for the entire measurement system over a 10:1 flow turndown. A system accuracy of ±1% of rate is easily possible with a combination of the V-Cone and the correct measurement and calculation equipment. The second reason was the issue of calibration. Similar to turbine meters, V-Cone meters need in-line calibrations for the best accuracy. Each custody transfer V-Cone will be flow calibrated at a laboratory directly traceable to Canadian or American national measurement standards. These laboratories are typically independent companies whose expertise is in compressible gas flow and calibration. Performance Test A performance test is a necessary part of the evaluation process. Measurement Canada required a witnessed test of the performance of the meter and instrument system. This test would support the documented data already produced during the evaluation process. A typical turbine meter calibration would take place in Measurement Canada s gas flow facility. This system operates at atmospheric pressure and was not suited for the higher-pressure performance test of the V-Cone. With consent from both Measurement Canada and McCrometer, the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc. (CEESI) was selected as the test laboratory for the performance test. CEESI is well acquainted with the V-Cone and well equipped for the type of calibration required. Canadian Gas Association 1998, Edmonton, Alberta Page 2 of 7

3 McCrometer was to supply the V-Cone and the necessary instrumentation. Measurement Canada would witness and certify the test. An existing four-inch V-Cone with a beta ratio of 0.45 was selected. This size meter and cone would fit easily into the CEESI test lab and require only moderately high flowrates to generate a sufficient differential pressure. A Rosemount 3095MV was the secondary instrumentation chosen for the flow measurement system. The 3095MV, when programmed to work with the V-Cone, would output a 4-20 ma signal proportional to the mass flowrate through the meter. McCrometer chose a multivariable transmitter to simplify the verification of the flow calculations. CEESI s laboratory is referenced using critical flow venturi nozzles. These nozzles and the entire instrumentation system are completely traceable to the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. A large volume of highpressure air supplies the test system. The system vents air back to atmosphere a sufficient distance downstream of the test section. The results of the test indicate performance well within the required specifications for Measurement Canada. See Appendices A & B for tabular and graphical results. Absolute pressure during the test was approximately 200 psia and covered a Reynolds number range of approximately 1 million to 75,000. Over this flow range of 13:1, the system accuracy of the V-Cone and Rosemount 3095MV was to -0.54% of rate. By adjusting the flow coefficient according to the calibration, the system accuracy could be stated as ±0.42% of rate. This exceeds the specifications of the V-Cone primary element. When considering the added uncertainty of the instrumentation and flow calculations, this test shows very good performance. Notice of Approval Following the performance tests, several drafts of the notice of approval were reviewed. After the review and translation of the document were complete, the final Notice of Approval (NOA) was granted March 19, The notice states The V-Cone meter is a differential pressure type flowmeter approved for custody transfer of natural gas. Certain model numbers were approved for the custody transfer measurements. The approved models are the VR and VW. The VR denotes ANSI weld neck, ring type joint flanges. The VW denotes ANSI weld neck, raised face flanges. Both models were approved from pressure class 150 to 900. Acceptable sizes range from ½ to 36. Allowable materials of construction for the meter are carbon steel, stainless steel, and Duplex Following the guidelines of Section 7 of the specifications, the installation requirements must be in accordance with McCrometer s recommendations. The markings on any Canadian custody transfer V-Cone must include certain information, including the departmental approval number. Also following Section 7, the V-Cone must be verified either in-situ or at a high pressure gas meter calibration facility acceptable to Industry Canada. CEESI and other laboratories are available for this testing if necessary. Canadian Gas Association 1998, Edmonton, Alberta Page 3 of 7

4 The NOA states This V-Cone meter uses any approved and compatible flow transmitter or flow computer that is approved to perform V-Cone meter calculations for determining the volume of gas through the meter at standard conditions. This sentence refers to the method of calculation used to determine mass flowrate of gas through the meter. Two methods are currently being used by the natural gas industry. This author will label these methods traditional and multivariable. Both methods utilize the same basic principles. As displayed in Fig. 2, the measurements take place separately from the calculations. The measurements are also split between the primary element measurement, in this case the V-Cone, and the secondary measurements of differential pressure, pressure and temperature. Measurements Primary V-Cone Secondary DP, P, T Calculations Fig. 2 Basic differential pressure flow measurement system In traditional calculation methods, the measurements are done separately from the calculations. Transmitters would be used for the measurements of differential pressure, pressure, and temperature. Signals from these transmitters would be sent to a flow computer or a distributed control system (DCS). The flow calculations would be done separately from the measurement area and displayed and used in various ways. A relatively new method of flow calculation is now being accepted in the natural gas industry. The multivariable method uses a single instrument to measure differential pressure, pressure and temperature. This reduces the instruments and pipeline connections necessary in the differential pressure flow meter. The multivariable system uses these inputs and calculates the flow in the same instrument. This blurs the line between the measurement and calculation areas. The NOA calls for approved devices to calculate the flow through a V-Cone. Currently no flow transmitters or flow computers are approved for use with the V-Cone. McCrometer is currently working with Measurement Canada to define the approval process for V-Cone calculation devices. Since the V-Cone is based on the same principles as traditional differential pressure devices and uses virtually the same mass flow equations as a venturi, this process should go rapidly. Several manufacturers of flow transmitters and flow computers have already incorporated the V-Cone into their devices. The Measurement Canada approvals for these devices will need only updating to show the current changes. The option available to users at time of printing is the use of a DCS system. A DCS could be programmed to correctly calculate mass flow rate through a V-Cone, similarly to what is done for orifice plates. These systems must be individually approved through Measurement Canada. Canadian Gas Association 1998, Edmonton, Alberta Page 4 of 7

6 Appendix A COLORADO ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION, INC. Calibration of a McCrometer V-Cone Model: V5104 Serial No For: McCrometer Order: Data File: 97MCC022 Disc: Date: 24 September 1997 Inlet diameter: 4.09 inches Throat diameter: inches Test gas: AIR Standard density= lbm/cu-ft at standard conditions of deg R, and psia Mtr Read: Meter reading in volts DC across a ohms resistor Mdot: Mass flowrate in Lbm/sec Rey No: Inlet (pipe) Reynolds number Mtr Read2: Meter reading in Lbm/sec L Mtr Read Mdot Rey No Mtr Read Average values for above results: Press: psia Density: lbm/cu-ft Temp: Deg R Viscosity: lbm/inch-sec Compressibility factor: Canadian Gas Association 1998, Edmonton, Alberta Page 6 of 7

7 2.00 Appendix B CEESI Calibration for Industry Canada Evaluation 4" V-Cone Beta 0.45 System Accuracy % difference Reynolds Number Canadian Gas Association 1998, Edmonton, Alberta Page 7 of 7

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