THE THERMAL FLOW METER, A GAS METER FOR ENERGY MEASUREMENT

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "THE THERMAL FLOW METER, A GAS METER FOR ENERGY MEASUREMENT"

Transcription

1 THE THERMAL FLOW METER, A GAS METER FOR ENERGY MEASUREMENT Kazuto Otakane, Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd Katsuhito Sakai, Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd Minoru Seto, Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd 1. INTRODUCTION Tokyo Gas s new gas meter, further referred to as THERMAL, is a thermal flow meter presently being developed. This flow meter was designed to replace the older conventional meters now used in Japan. In Part1 of this paper, we will describe why this meter was necessary, and about its operating principles. We will also introduce the specifications of the THERMAL, and about some of the evaluation tests that were performed. In Part2 we will describe how this meter has the potentials of usage as a calorific flow meter for energy measurement. This new type of meter is not needed at the moment, for in Japan it is required by regulations for a gas supplying company to keep the calorific value of their supplied gas within a certain range. For example, we at Tokyo Gas, by voluntary restrictions, control the calorific value of our gas within a 1% range to maintain fairness in gas pricing. This means that the calorific value of the gas is a constant value, so all we need is measurement of flow to calculate the amount of energy we have supplied. However, possibilities of new abated regulations that do not require strict calorific value control might change the situation in the near future. If this takes place, it would reduce gas production costs, but it would also mean that the calorific values of supplied gases would vary; a fact that brings doubt to current pricing practices where only the flow is measured. We would not be able to accurately calculate the total calorific value supplied, unless a gas composition analyzer is used to measure the calorific value of the gas. This would be in addition to the temperature and pressure (both gage and atmosphere) measurements also required, for current meters measure volumetric flow. The price of currently available analyzers are so expensive that it would not be very realistic to install them with flow meters to each house, or for that matter, each portion of the service area. The situation in Europe seems to be that the calorific value of natural gas tends to vary about 10% according to gas field, so calculation methods using average values and/or rough area compensation have been adopted. This obviously would have been the case in Japan as well, but for money conscious Japanese customers, who do not like to pay a single yen more for calculation errors, the THERMAL is the answer. Because the THERMAL is a mass flow meter, and mass flow is related to calorific value, it has a possibility of becoming a calorific flow meter. After several experiments, we have come to know that, with a few restrictions to the composition of the gas, this meter can precisely output calorific value rate. Concerning the several types of LNG (liquidated natural gas) used by Tokyo Gas, results showed the

2 THERMAL to have extremely high accuracy, well within the tolerances of a standard gas meter. Furthermore, because the THERMAL does not need temperature or pressure compensations, it makes the whole measuring system very simple, compact, and inexpensive. Future scopes for the THERMAL s possibility as a calorific flow meter and test results are introduced in Part2. Part 1 2. NEED FOR A NEW GAS METER 2.1 Meters now in use The THERMAL was originally designed to measure large flow of gases. Its primary target was in replacing rotary positive displacement meters, which have a 95% share of large flow gas meters within the Tokyo Gas territory. The remaining meters are vortex shedding meters and turbine meters. Rotary positive displacement meters measure the volume of gas passing through with two rotors within a casing. When the casing is filled with gas, the rotors rotate and let a certain volume through. Volumetric flow is determined by counting the number of rotations. Vortex shedding meters have a triangular bluff body within the flow. This body generates vortices at a frequency that is a function of the Reynolds number, thus making it possible to calculate amount of flow. Turbine meters have bladed rotors within its path, and calculate flow from the rotation. At Tokyo Gas, the turbine meter is not actively used because of the errors caused by momentum when there is sudden increase or decrease in flow. All three meters are volumetric flow meters, so when used in mid-pressures or above (i.e. over 0.1MPa) a pressure sensor and temperature sensor is needed to convert flow rate into standard conditions. 2.2 Problems of the Rotary Positive Displacement Gas Meters Problems concerning rotary positive displacement meters are as follows. (1) Cost Besides the meter itself being expensive, it also needs additional instruments to measure pressure and temperature. (2) Piping The meter s casing needs a certain amount of volume, so its size tends to become large and heavy, making it difficult to install. Also, in Japan, the direction of the flow is limited to a downward direction. (3) Maintenance The meter needs to be overhauled frequently, and oil for the rotor also needs to be changed or added. (4) Measuring Range The turndown ratio is 20:1, thus making measurement at low flow rates inaccurate.

3 (5) Clogging Risks There is the risk of the rotor getting jammed because of foreign substance within the piping. When this happens the meter not only stops measuring, but the supply of gas is also stopped. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THERMAL 3.1 Advantages of the THERMAL The THERMAL is a meter that solves all of the problems referred to in the previous section. (1) Cost Reduction Because of its simple shape, the THERMAL is much smaller and obviously much cheaper. Not only are the meters themselves inexpensive, they do not need temperature or pressure transmitters, thus making the total installation cost much lower. (2) Simple Installation The THERMAL is much light-weighted than the rotary positive displacement meters, making installation very easy. For example, the #600 size rotary meter weighs 118kg, while the equivalent THERMAL (4B size) weighs only 28kg. Just being 1/4 in weight is significant enough, but the THERMAL is within the range where no special lifting equipment is needed. (3) No Maintenance The THERMAL does not have any moving parts, so there is no need for maintenance such as oiling and cleaning. (4) Wide Measuring Range One of the biggest advantages of the thermal flow sensor is its ability to measure in a wide range. The THERMAL, to obtain even a larger range, uses two different models of thermal flow sensors and has achieved a 160: 1 turndown ratio. (5) Error Risks Because of its structure, there is no need to worry about the halting of gas supply. Unpredictable accidents might lead to a cease in accurate measurement, but what you have left is a normal pipe, still letting the gas through. Figure 1. The THERMAL (Right), and the Rotary Positive Displacement Gas Meter (Left) 3.2 Operating Principles and Structure The THERMAL consists of two main parts, the detector and converter. The detector is the pipe

4 where the thermal sensors are located, and the converter is where printed circuit boards are contained. (1) The Micro Flow Sensors The THERMAL uses four thermal flow sensors called micro flow sensors. These sensors detect the velocity of gases, and convert them into electric signals. The structure of this sensor is shown in Figure 2. Upstream temperature sensor (Ru) Downstream temperature sensor (Rd) Heater (Rh) Silicon chip Environmental temperature sensor (Rr) Figure 2. Structure of the Micro Flow Sensor A heater (Rh) in the center, surrounded on both sides by temperature sensors (Ru and Rd), and an environmental temperature sensor (Rr) on the corner make up most of the micro flow sensor. These are made from platinum film, placed on top of a silicon chip that is approximately 1.7mm square. Figure 3. Operating Principle of the Micro Flow Sensor The operating principle of this sensor is shown in Figure 3. The heater (Rh) is designed to keep a constant differential temperature from the gas temperature (Rr). When there is no flow, the temperature at both Ru and Rd are the same. With flow, this balance becomes unsymmetrical making the resistance value of Ru and Rd different. This difference in temperature becomes larger with increase of flow, thus making it a function of mass flow velocity. The micro flow sensor picks this signal up as a difference in resistance, which is then calculated into mass flow rate. Changing the heater temperature and the distance from the heater to the temperature sensors result in micro flow sensors with different flow velocity ranges. To cover the wide measurement ranges recommended in OIML standards, the THERMAL use two types of micro flow sensors. (2) The Detector

5 Honeycomb Micro flow sensor Wire netting Figure 4. Flow Path Structure The flow path structure of the THERMAL is shown in Figure 4. It consists of just the micro flow sensors and an internal flow straightener/conditioner. The straightening of flow is carried out with a honeycomb, while three sheets of wire netting carry out the conditioning. These two components of the straightener/conditioner are spaced apart at a certain distance, and assembled together to form a cartridge. The sole objective of this device is to make a constant ratio between average flow velocity and velocity near the inner walls where the micro flow sensors are located. This turned out to be a grueling task, as anyone might imagine, but as a result of hard work and numerous failures, we were able to come up with an ideal shape. Some evaluation test results are introduced in the following section. (3) The Converter The converter is where we keep the microprocessor. This device enables the THERMAL to have numerous new functions. To introduce just a few; a liquid crystal display showing flow rate, totalized flow, and sensing errors (when there are any), a 4-20mA flow rate output, an adjustable flow pulse output, a memory space with a month s data of daily total flow, etc. The microprocessor also chooses which of the two types of micro flow sensors to drive, depending on the flow rate. The converter also contains a battery pack, for the THERMAL is required to operate for 10 years without maintenance. The software within the meter is designed so power consumption can be kept at a very low level. 3.3 Evaluation Test Results (1) Accuracy The accuracies of two models are shown in Figure 5 and 6. Fig.5 shows the results of the 80A(3 inch flange) model, and Fig.6 shows that of the 100A(4 inch flange) model. They are both within ±0.5% throughout the entire range, satisfying our target OIML standard for maximum permissible error on initial verification (±3% or ±1.5%, depending upon flow rate).

6 Accuracy(%) Model 80A accuracy OIML Flow rate (m3/h)[293k, kPa] Figure 5. Accuracy of Model 80A Accuracy(%) Model 100A accuracy OIML Flow rate (m3/h) [293K, kPa] Figure 6. Accuracy of Model 100A (2) Pressure effect Although the micro flow sensor is a mass flow sensor, it has some minute pressure effect. Tests showed that there was about a 2.5% error at a pressure of 0.3MPa. To solve this problem, a pressure sensor was installed into the meter, and correcting calculations were performed within the microprocessor. Figure 7 shows the accuracy of the THERMAL (80A model) after using the output of this sensor to correct the flow output. Results showed the THERMAL s output to be within permissible error at all pressures. accuracy(%) Atmospheric pressure 0.15MPa 0.3MPa 0.5MPa Flow rate(m3/h)[293k, kpa] Figure 7. Pressure effect (3) Pressure loss Pressure loss was measured to confirm that it satisfied our target value (See Figure 8).

7 Pressure loss (kpa) Air, atmospheric pressure Average velocity (m/s) Figure 8. Pressure Loss (4) Severe piping conditions In Japan, installation space is very limited, making it difficult to insure adequate straight pipe length. Therefore, we studied the effect of severe piping conditions to see if it affects accuracy. Tests were performed in three different piping situations (see Figs.9and 10). (a) Solid Double Bend 1 (b) Solid Double Bend 2 (c) Solid Triple Bend Figure 9 Severe Piping Tests Accuracy (%) OIML Solid double elbow(1) Solid double elbow(2) Solid triple elbow Flow rate (m3/h) [293K, kPa] Figure 10 Influence of piping conditions Again, results showed that errors were within the OIML recommendations. This test shows that our internal straightener has the ability to correct swirls generated immediately before the meters.

8 (5) Field tests At the present time, our new flow meters are being tested in three different locations within Japan. We deliberately chose the hottest and coldest locations possible, to see how they performed in severe ambient temperatures (see Table 1 and Figure 11). To monitor the accuracy of the THERMAL, we installed them in a series with existing meters. Needless to say, we also had to install temperature, gage pressure, and atmospheric pressure transmitters to correct the output of existing meters. Using data logging equipment connected to a cell phone, we have been monitoring the outputs of all the meters, and so far have been receiving excellent results (see Figure 12). Location Kumagaya Hokkaido Chiba Meter Size 80A (3 inch) 80A (3 inch) 80A (3 inch) Pressure Rating Middle Pressure B* Low Pressure** Middle Pressure B* Existing Meter Rotary Diaphragm Turbine Piping Direction Downward Upward Horizontal Features Hottest in Japan Coldest in Japan Near Tokyo Frequent Lightning * Middle Pressure B : MPa ** Low Pressure : under 0.1MPa Table 1: Locations of Field Tests (a) Kumagaya (b) Hokkaido (c) Chiba Figure 11 Field Test Conditions

9 Figure 12. Field Test Results (Kumagaya) 3.4 Specifications The THERMAL has a lineup of four models, depending upon its flange size. Their specifications are shown in Table 2. Pipe Diameter 50A (2 inch) 80A (3 inch) 100A (4 inch) 150A (6 inch) Maximum Flow Rate [293K, kPa] 160 (m 3 /h) 400 (m 3 /h) 650 (m 3 /h) 1600 (m 3 /h) (Qmax) Accuracy 1/160 Qmax to 1/10Qmax: Within ±3% 1/10 Qmax to Qmax: Within ±1.5% Operating Pressure MPa Power Supply Lithium Batteries Battery Life Over 10 years Overall Length 220mm 340mm 400mm 500mm (same as rotary) Weight 14 kg 23 kg 28 kg 44 kg Piping Direction Horizontal or Vertical (either upwards or downwards) Table 2: THERMAL Specifications

10 Part2 4. THERMAL AS A CALORIFIC FLOW METER 4.1 Test Results Part1 showed how the THERMAL is reliable as a gas flow meter. But now we are confronted with the need for a meter that can measure the calorific value rate of a variety of gas components. To determine if the THERMAL was up to the task, further evaluation was needed. The following chapter shows results from recent tests, performed to prove that the THERMAL can surely be used as a calorific flow meter within a certain range of gas compositions. The composition of LNG, used as raw material for city gas, differ with time and place of production. It was important to find out how this difference affects heat transfer (i.e. the THERMAL s accuracy). We surveyed natural gas compositions produced at major manufacturing sites, and conducted experiments for each type. We also conducted experiments on typical gas compositions currently supplied in Japan (see Table 3). Composition Fluctuation range CH (%) C 2 H (%) C 2 H (%) C 3 H (%) i-c 4 H (%) n-c 4 H (%) i-c 5 H (%) n-c 5 H (%) H 2 0 5(%) CO (%) N 2 0 3(%) Table3: Gas Content Fluctuation The result of accuracy calculated by calorific flow standard is shown in Figure 13. Although the types of gases we tested had great variations in composition, the output of the meter was within the permissible error in service. As we mentioned earlier, the THERMAL was proven to become the ideal calorific flow meter.

11 Accuracy(%) Calorif ic rate(mj/h) Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Type X Gas Type A Type B Type C Type D Type E Type X CH % 88.1% 89.5% 90.1% 90.0% 89.2% C 2H 4 C 2H 6 6.3% 5.0% 4.1% 5.0% 5.3% C 3H 8 4.7% 5.3% 2.7% 3.2% 10.0% 1.9% i-c 4H % 0.8% 1.6% 0.7% 0.4% n-c 4H % 0.8% 2.1% 1.0% 0.5% i-c 5H % n-c 5H % H 2 CO 2 N 2 Figure 13. Accuracy of the THERMAL s calorific output 4.2 The influence of gases without heating value Within the gases in Figure 13, Type X contains nitrogen. Nitrogen does not have any calories, but they do transfer heat. This is the reason why errors for Type X show a positive amount. Figure 14 shows how the amount of nitrogen is related to the amount of error. Type X (2.3% nitrogen) and an experimental gas with 4.13% nitrogen were used for this experiment. This result proves to show that when this meter is used as a calorific flow meter, the ratio of nitrogen within a gas directly affects the output error. This would become a problem if the nitrogen ratio increased and errors exceeded recommended values, but concerning the gases that are presently being supplied, the THERMAL s accuracy would be within limits, thus making it an effective calorific flow meter. Figure 14. Amount of nitrogen related to the amount of error 5. CONCLUSION Tokyo Gas has developed a new gas meter and confirmed its abilities for practical use. Because this meter measures mass flow, it does not need pressure or temperature compensations. Furthermore, we have also experimented and confirmed that the new gas meter has the potentials of

12 becoming a calorific flow meter, although there are a few restrictions to gas components. Tokyo Gas is ready and willing to have any experiments conducted with this meter in other gases. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Development of this meter has been a joint project with Yamatake Corporation and Takenaka Seisakusho Co., Ltd. We deeply appreciate the guidance, cooperation, and support these firms have provided in this development. We would also like to thank Chiba Gas Co., Ltd. and Hokkaido Gas Co., Ltd for their support in the field tests.

13 REFERENCES 1. K.Nukui., et al. (2001). Development of Gas Meter with Thermal Flow Sensors Arranged on the Surface of the Rectified Fluid Path, 2001,IGRC.

T U R B I N E G A S M E T E R

T U R B I N E G A S M E T E R TURBINE GAS METER TURBINE GAS METER CGT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Design and function page 2 General technical data page 3 Measurement outputs page 4 Dimensions and weights page 5 Performance page 7 Pressure loss

More information

Particle Time of Flight: Reflections on Gas Flow Measurement in Hazardous Environments

Particle Time of Flight: Reflections on Gas Flow Measurement in Hazardous Environments 1 Abstract The goal of this project was to create precise optical flow meters for the oil & gas industry optimized for measuring flare gas flow in explosive atmospheres. The flow meters had to incorporate

More information

F ox W hi t e Paper. Reduce Energy Costs and Enhance Emissions Monitoring Systems

F ox W hi t e Paper. Reduce Energy Costs and Enhance Emissions Monitoring Systems F ox W hi t e Paper Reduce Energy Costs and Enhance Emissions Monitoring Systems A Technical White Paper from Fox Thermal Instruments Rich Cada, VP Sales & Marketing, Fox Thermal Instruments, Inc. 399

More information

Grant Agreement No. 228296 SFERA. Solar Facilities for the European Research Area SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME. Capacities Specific Programme

Grant Agreement No. 228296 SFERA. Solar Facilities for the European Research Area SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME. Capacities Specific Programme Grant Agreement No. 228296 SFERA Solar Facilities for the European Research Area SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME Capacities Specific Programme Research Infrastructures Integrating Activity - Combination of

More information

Michael Montgomery Marketing Product Manager Rosemount Inc. Russ Evans Manager of Engineering and Design Rosemount Inc.

Michael Montgomery Marketing Product Manager Rosemount Inc. Russ Evans Manager of Engineering and Design Rosemount Inc. ASGMT / Averaging Pitot Tube Flow Measurement Michael Montgomery Marketing Product Manager Rosemount Inc. Russ Evans Manager of Engineering and Design Rosemount Inc. Averaging Pitot Tube Meters Introduction

More information

The Unique Accelabar Flow Meter

The Unique Accelabar Flow Meter The Unique Accelabar Flow Meter The Accelabar is a new and unique flow meter that combines two differential pressure technologies to produce operating ranges never before attainable in a single flow meter.

More information

Advances in Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Meter Accuracy

Advances in Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Meter Accuracy Advances in Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Meter Accuracy By Dan McQueen President Fluid Components International (FCI) Advances in Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Meter Accuracy By Dan McQueen President Fluid

More information

Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow

Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Thermatel Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Measurement Handbook Table of Contents Introduction...1 What is Mass Flow Measurement?...1 Types of Flow Transmitters...4 Differential Pressure...4 Orifice...4 Venturi...6

More information

Model YF100 Vortex Flow-meter

Model YF100 Vortex Flow-meter Model YF100 Vortex Flow-meter Series of vortices will be shed alternatively from both sides of the shedder (that is a cylindrical or triangular bar) when it is inserted in the fluids. Under certain conditions,

More information

Energy and Flow Measurement for Hydronic Systems

Energy and Flow Measurement for Hydronic Systems Energy and Flow Measurement for Hydronic Systems Presented By: George Szyszko Applications Consultant MCR for ONICON Incorporated Why Measure Thermal Energy? To control something, you must first measure

More information

Laminar and Turbulent flow. Flow Sensors. Reynolds Number. Thermal flow Sensor. Flow and Flow rate. R = Mass Flow controllers

Laminar and Turbulent flow. Flow Sensors. Reynolds Number. Thermal flow Sensor. Flow and Flow rate. R = Mass Flow controllers Flow and Flow rate. Laminar and Turbulent flow Laminar flow: smooth, orderly and regular Mechanical sensors have inertia, which can integrate out small variations due to turbulence Turbulent flow: chaotic

More information

For Multi-Parameter Meters see mvx

For Multi-Parameter Meters see mvx BULLETIN BULLETIN EM20607 VORTEX IN-LINE FLOW METERS Design Features For Multi-Parameter Meters see m Principles of Operation n No moving parts to wear or fail. n Electronics can be remotely mounted up

More information

Flow Measurement Options for Pipeline and Open Channel Flow

Flow Measurement Options for Pipeline and Open Channel Flow Flow Measurement Options for Pipeline and Open Channel Flow October 2013 Presented by Molly Skorpik - 2013 Montana Association of Dam and Canal Systems Conference Irrigation Training and Research Center

More information

COMBIMASS. Technical Data COMBIMASS eco-bio +

COMBIMASS. Technical Data COMBIMASS eco-bio + COMBIMASS Technical Data THE SYSTEM COMBIMASS The field transmitters of the COMBIMASS eco series are suitable for gas flow measurement and cover a wide range of different applications. The instruments

More information

Series DFMT Digital Paddlewheel Flowmeter

Series DFMT Digital Paddlewheel Flowmeter Series DFMT Digital Paddlewheel Flowmeter Bulletin F-DFMT Specifications - Installation Operating Instructions -/8 [00] -/ [8] -/8 [00] A The Series DFMT Digital Paddlewheel Flow Transmitter provides instantaneous

More information

Smart Electromagnetic Flowmeter Open channel Flowmeter Detector

Smart Electromagnetic Flowmeter Open channel Flowmeter Detector Magne3000 PLUS Smart Electromagnetic Flowmeter Open channel Flowmeter Detector Model NNK150/951 OVERVIE The Magne3000 PLUS Electromagnetic Flowmeter is submersible type of flowmeter mainly used for flow

More information

Aeration Air & Digester Gas Flow Metering Using Thermal Mass Technology. HWEA 2011 Conference Craig S. Johnson

Aeration Air & Digester Gas Flow Metering Using Thermal Mass Technology. HWEA 2011 Conference Craig S. Johnson Aeration Air & Digester Gas Flow Metering Using Thermal Mass Technology HWEA 2011 Conference Craig S. Johnson Presentation Overview Introduction Aeration Air & Digester gas challenges Gas flow metering

More information

Technical Publication

Technical Publication Technical Publication Flow Meter Selection for Improved Gas Flow Measurements: Comparison of Differential Pressure and Thermal Dispersion Technologies Art Womack, Sr. Applications Engineer Fluid Components

More information

The Versatile Differential Pressure Transmitter. By David Gunn Honeywell Process Solutions

The Versatile Differential Pressure Transmitter. By David Gunn Honeywell Process Solutions The Versatile Differential Pressure Transmitter By David Gunn Honeywell Process Solutions The Versatile Differential Pressure Transmitter 2 Table of Contents Abstract... 3 Pressure Fundamentals... 3 Applications...

More information

IFC 070 Technical Datasheet

IFC 070 Technical Datasheet IFC 070 Technical Datasheet Electromagnetic signal converter Battery driven with low energy consumption Quick and easy to install and operate External data logger and GSM module for remote data transfer

More information

Typical Aluminum GFM Mass Flow Meter

Typical Aluminum GFM Mass Flow Meter MASS FLOW METERS Design Features n Rigid metallic construction. n Maximum pressure of 1000 psig (70 bars). n Leak integrity 1 x 10-9 of helium. n NIST traceable certification. n Built-in tiltable LCD readout.

More information

Chapter 10. Flow Rate. Flow Rate. Flow Measurements. The velocity of the flow is described at any

Chapter 10. Flow Rate. Flow Rate. Flow Measurements. The velocity of the flow is described at any Chapter 10 Flow Measurements Material from Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements; Figliola, Third Edition Flow Rate Flow rate can be expressed in terms of volume flow rate (volume/time) or mass

More information

www.kem-kueppers.com info@kem-kueppers.com Certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001 Technical Datasheet KVO Series Vortex Flow Meter

www.kem-kueppers.com info@kem-kueppers.com Certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001 Technical Datasheet KVO Series Vortex Flow Meter www.kem-kueppers.com Certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001 Technical Datasheet KVO Series Vortex Flow Meter Description The KVO Vortex flow meters utilize two primary sensing elements a vortex shedding

More information

Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids

Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Head Loss in Pipe Flow ME 123: Mechanical Engineering Laboratory II: Fluids Dr. J. M. Meyers Dr. D. G. Fletcher Dr. Y. Dubief 1. Introduction Last lab you investigated flow loss in a pipe due to the roughness

More information

Fundamentals of Mass Flow Control

Fundamentals of Mass Flow Control Fundamentals of Mass Flow Control Critical Terminology and Operation Principles for Gas and Liquid MFCs A mass flow controller (MFC) is a closed-loop device that sets, measures, and controls the flow of

More information

MTI10 Insertion and MTL10 In-line Thermal Mass Flowmeter and Temperature Transmitter

MTI10 Insertion and MTL10 In-line Thermal Mass Flowmeter and Temperature Transmitter Thermal Mass meter and Temperature Transmitter Description The MTI10 insertion thermal mass flowmeter and the MTL10 in-line thermal mass flowmeter provide accurate mass flow measurement of clean, dry gases

More information

Accurate Air Flow Measurement in Electronics Cooling

Accurate Air Flow Measurement in Electronics Cooling Accurate Air Flow Measurement in Electronics Cooling Joachim Preiss, Raouf Ismail Cambridge AccuSense, Inc. E-mail: info@degreec.com Air is the most commonly used medium to remove heat from electronics

More information

CO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C

CO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C comp_02 A CO 2 cartridge is used to propel a small rocket cart. Compressed CO 2, stored at a pressure of 41.2 MPa (abs) and a temperature of 20 C, is expanded through a smoothly contoured converging nozzle

More information

Tadahiro Yasuda. Introduction. Overview of Criterion D200. Feature Article

Tadahiro Yasuda. Introduction. Overview of Criterion D200. Feature Article F e a t u r e A r t i c l e Feature Article Development of a High Accuracy, Fast Response Mass Flow Module Utilizing Pressure Measurement with a Laminar Flow Element (Resistive Element) Criterion D200

More information

Thermal Flow Sensor Die

Thermal Flow Sensor Die Microsystems, Inc. Thermal Flow Sensor Die Description Posifa s Thermal Flow Sensor Die measures the flow of a liquid or gaseous medium across the surface of the die using the Thermotransfer (Calorimetric)

More information

Highly efficient flue gas analyzer

Highly efficient flue gas analyzer Highly efficient flue gas analyzer testo 320 Just a few clicks away from a heating system diagnosis O 2 High-resolution colour graphic display Quick and easy menu structure Storage space for 500 measurement

More information

EDD-600 FLOW TOTALIZER RATE INDICATOR OPERATION MANUAL. P.O. Box 12128 Odessa, Texas 79768 USA. E-mail rkw@eddevices.com.

EDD-600 FLOW TOTALIZER RATE INDICATOR OPERATION MANUAL. P.O. Box 12128 Odessa, Texas 79768 USA. E-mail rkw@eddevices.com. OPERATION MANUAL EDD-600 FLOW TOTALIZER RATE INDICATOR Phone 432-366-8699 Fax 432-366-1106 P.O. Box 12128 Odessa, Texas 79768 USA E-mail rkw@eddevices.com Website www.eddevices.com 3 EDD-600 Digital Battery

More information

Micro Motion 3098 Gas Specific Gravity Meter

Micro Motion 3098 Gas Specific Gravity Meter Product Data Sheet PS-001161, Rev. D April 2013 Micro Motion 3098 Gas Specific Gravity Meter Micro Motion density and concentration meters are built to tackle the most demanding process and fiscal applications.

More information

AMTRON E-30 Compact heat and cooling meter

AMTRON E-30 Compact heat and cooling meter AMTRON E-30 Compact heat and cooling meter Application The compact AMTRON E-30 meter is used for energy consumption measurements for heating and cooling applications in small premises such as apartments,

More information

GENERAL INSTALLATION PROCEDURE GENERAL PIPING CONSIDERATION

GENERAL INSTALLATION PROCEDURE GENERAL PIPING CONSIDERATION GENERAL INSTALLATION PROCEDURE Upon receipt of the turbine flowmeter a visual inspection should be performed checking for any indications of damage which may have occurred during shipment. Inspect all

More information

Flowmeter for Gases and Installation in Existing Pipes

Flowmeter for Gases and Installation in Existing Pipes Flowmeter for Gases and Installation in Existing Pipes Type can be combined with... Depth scale for accurate installation Usable in pipes from 1/2 " up to 12" (DN300) Easy installation under pressure Analogue

More information

191: Calibration and Standards in Flow Measurement. Richard Paton National Engineering Laboratory, Scotland, UK 1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES

191: Calibration and Standards in Flow Measurement. Richard Paton National Engineering Laboratory, Scotland, UK 1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES 191: Calibration and Standards in Measurement Richard Paton National Engineering Laboratory, Scotland, UK 1 General Principles 1 2 Gravimetric Calibration of Liquid meters 2 3 Volumetric Calibration of

More information

PORTABLE FLOW METER KITS TDS-100H

PORTABLE FLOW METER KITS TDS-100H Transit Time Flow Meters TT-TDS-100H-HS ECEFast offers amazing prices on Transit Time Flow Meter portable kits. We are buying from the manufacturer who supplies 60% of the Chinese market and the majority

More information

Design and Test Operation Performance of 1,500 C Class Gas Turbine Combined-Cycle Power Plant:

Design and Test Operation Performance of 1,500 C Class Gas Turbine Combined-Cycle Power Plant: 31 Design and Test Operation Performance of 1,500 C Class Gas Turbine Combined-Cycle Power Plant: Construction of Group 1 of the Tokyo Electric Power Company s Kawasaki Thermal Power Station KIYOSHI KAWAKAMI

More information

SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING

SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING APPENDIX A (IFGS) SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING (This appendix is informative and is not part of the code.) A.1 General. To determine the size of piping used in a gas piping system, the following

More information

Using meters to measure steam flow

Using meters to measure steam flow Page 1 of 6 April 1998 Plant Engineering SELECTING NEW TECHNOLOGY: PROBLEM SOLVING Using meters to measure steam flow Jesse L. Yoder, Ph.D., Senior Analyst, Automation Research Corp., Dedham, MA Key Concepts

More information

INLINE flowmeter for continuous flow measurement

INLINE flowmeter for continuous flow measurement INLINE flowmeter for continuous flow measurement Economic integration in pipe systems without any additional piping 3-wire frequency pulse version to directly interface with PLC s (both PNP and NPN) Connection

More information

WaterMAG. Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Water Applications. Model MCB10A OVERVIEW APPLICATIONS FEATURES. No. SS2-MCB100-0100

WaterMAG. Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Water Applications. Model MCB10A OVERVIEW APPLICATIONS FEATURES. No. SS2-MCB100-0100 WaterMAG Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Water Applications OVERVIEW The WaterMAG is an electromagnetic flowmeter for water measurement applications based on field proven Azbil Corporation's technologies.

More information

1 WATERFLUX - Comparisonon COO 2010-08-17. Rectangular Magmeter in water applications

1 WATERFLUX - Comparisonon COO 2010-08-17. Rectangular Magmeter in water applications 1 WATERFLUX - Comparisonon COO 2010-08-17 Rectangular Magmeter in water applications Jef Neven KROHNE WATERMETERS $3000 EMF Price C&I (mechanical) water meters Residential water meters $30 Water Metering

More information

Sentinel LCT. Panametrics Ultrasonic Flowmeter for Liquid Custody Transfer Measurement. GE Measurement & Control Solutions. Benefits.

Sentinel LCT. Panametrics Ultrasonic Flowmeter for Liquid Custody Transfer Measurement. GE Measurement & Control Solutions. Benefits. GE Measurement & Control Solutions Sentinel LCT Panametrics Ultrasonic Flowmeter for Liquid Custody Transfer Measurement Benefits Extremely reliable and highly accurate flowmeter, designed specifically

More information

Overview of the state of the art heat measurement technologies for larger solar thermal systems

Overview of the state of the art heat measurement technologies for larger solar thermal systems Overview of the state of the art heat measurement technologies for larger solar thermal systems Overview of the state of the art heat measurement technologies for larger solar thermal systems... 1 Introduction...

More information

KFF/KFG Low-Volume Flow Meter User Instructions

KFF/KFG Low-Volume Flow Meter User Instructions KFF/KFG Low-Volume Flow Meter User Instructions KFG_KFF_manual_0304 1. General Information Please read this service manual carefully before unpacking and readying the unit for operation, and follow the

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPEED RESPONSE LAMINAR FLOW METER FOR AIR CONDITIONING

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPEED RESPONSE LAMINAR FLOW METER FOR AIR CONDITIONING DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPEED RESPONSE LAMINAR FLOW METER FOR AIR CONDITIONING Toshiharu Kagawa 1, Yukako Saisu 2, Riki Nishimura 3 and Chongho Youn 4 ABSTRACT In this paper, we developed a new laminar flow

More information

Application Note for SDP600 and SDP1000 Series Measuring Differential Pressure and Air Volume with Sensirion s CMOSens technology

Application Note for SDP600 and SDP1000 Series Measuring Differential Pressure and Air Volume with Sensirion s CMOSens technology Application Note for SDP600 and SDP1000 Series Measuring Differential Pressure and Air Volume with Sensirion s CMOSens technology Summary The increasing customer requirements for comfort and safety and

More information

ABB Flowmeters Review of industrial processing flowmeters

ABB Flowmeters Review of industrial processing flowmeters White paper ABB Flowmeters Review of industrial processing flowmeters Understanding flowmeters and their pros and cons By Ron DiGiacomo, ABB Measurement Products One of the most critical measurements in

More information

HEAVY DUTY STORAGE GAS

HEAVY DUTY STORAGE GAS Multi-Fin flue technology Flue damper saves energy Electronic controls HEAVY DUTY STORAGE GAS Dependability The Rheem heavy duty gas range is the work horse of the industry having proved itself over many

More information

measurement, but almost any pipe elbow can be calibrated Elbow meters are not as potentially accurate as venturi,

measurement, but almost any pipe elbow can be calibrated Elbow meters are not as potentially accurate as venturi, Lecture 14 Flow Measurement in Pipes I. Elbow Meters An elbow in a pipe can be used as a flow measuring device much in the same way as a venturi or orifice plate The head differential across the elbow

More information

Pressure Effect on Turbine Meter Gas Flow Measurement

Pressure Effect on Turbine Meter Gas Flow Measurement Pressure Effect on Turbine Meter Gas Flow Measurement Paul W. Tang, M.Sc.,P.Eng. Fortis BC Energy 16705 Fraser Highway Surrey, B.C. V4N0E8 Canada Abstract: Pressure sensitivity of turbine gas meters is

More information

BLOWERS EXHAUSTERS CONTINENTAL INDUSTRIE ASME PTC 10 PERFORMANCE TEST PROCEDURE. Blowers & Exhausters. Page 1 of 6 PURPOSE STANDARDS INSTRUMENTS

BLOWERS EXHAUSTERS CONTINENTAL INDUSTRIE ASME PTC 10 PERFORMANCE TEST PROCEDURE. Blowers & Exhausters. Page 1 of 6 PURPOSE STANDARDS INSTRUMENTS PURPOSE Page 1 of 6 Test purpose is the measure of the following compressor operating parameters: flow of gas handled pressure rice produced shaft power requirement efficiency surge limit STANDARDS Test

More information

F-1100 Series Single Turbine Meters Suitable for pipe sizes 1 ¼ and larger.

F-1100 Series Single Turbine Meters Suitable for pipe sizes 1 ¼ and larger. ONICON Insertion Turbine Flow Meters Provide an accurate, cost effective option for flow measurement of relatively clean liquids such as those found in closed loop HVAC systems. Each meter is built to

More information

Boiler Control Solution. Boiler Control Solution. Instruments and Solution for Automatic Boiler Control LF3BUSS02-00EN. www.yokogawa.

Boiler Control Solution. Boiler Control Solution. Instruments and Solution for Automatic Boiler Control LF3BUSS02-00EN. www.yokogawa. Boiler Control Boiler Control Instruments and for Automatic Boiler Control LF3BUSS02-00EN www.yokogawa.com Best for Automatic Boiler C Sensors and controllers for the efficiency and environmental performance

More information

Digital Vortex Flowmeter. digitalyewflo. Digital Vortex Flowmeter. Series. Bulletin 01F06A02-00E.

Digital Vortex Flowmeter. digitalyewflo. Digital Vortex Flowmeter. Series. Bulletin 01F06A02-00E. Digital Vortex meter digitalyewflo Digital Vortex meter Series Bulletin 01F06A02-00E www.yokogawa.com/ Series Simple body construction for easy installation and high level of safety 2 3 Standard Type /

More information

Electro-Magnetic Flowmeters COPA-XT 2-Wire DT43

Electro-Magnetic Flowmeters COPA-XT 2-Wire DT43 Data Sheet Electro-Magnetic Flowmeters COPA-XT 2-Wire DT43 2-Wire Operation Significantly reduces installation costs when compared to a traditional 4-wire magmeter. ±0.5% of rate system accuracy. Patented

More information

Radiant Temperature Sensor TY7321

Radiant Temperature Sensor TY7321 AB-5361-U Specifications/Instructions Radiant Temperature TY7321 General TY7321 Radiant Temperature s are designed to measure infrared radiation from perimeter windows and walls and provide a proportional

More information

FLOW METER SPECIFICATION AND APPLICATION ANALYSIS Class #41

FLOW METER SPECIFICATION AND APPLICATION ANALYSIS Class #41 FLOW METER SPECIFICATION AND APPLICATION ANALYSIS Class #41 Curtis Gulaga Business Development Manager CB Engineering Ltd. #20, 5920 11 th Street SE Calgary, AB T2H 2M4 1.0 Introduction Today s working

More information

CORIOLIS FLOW METERS FOR CRITICAL PHASE ETHYLENE MEASUREMENT

CORIOLIS FLOW METERS FOR CRITICAL PHASE ETHYLENE MEASUREMENT CORIOLIS FLOW METERS FOR CRITICAL PHASE ETHYLENE MEASUREMENT TOM DE JONGE AART PRUYSEN TIM PATTEN MICRO MOTION, INC. ABSTRACT A consortium of major European petrochemical companies and an ethylene pipeline

More information

A CRITICAL NATIONAL NEED IDEA

A CRITICAL NATIONAL NEED IDEA A CRITICAL NATIONAL NEED IDEA Advanced Manufacturing Technologies A Solution for Manufacturing High Volume Precision Micro Scale Components Submitted by: Rockford Engineering Associates LLC 605 Fulton

More information

FISHERMETER. Vortex flowmeter VT4000. liquid gas steam

FISHERMETER. Vortex flowmeter VT4000. liquid gas steam Vortex flowmeter VT00 liquid gas steam Vortex Flowmeter VT00 No moving parts and reliable stainless steel structure Optimum measuring process reliability enabled by Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Measuring

More information

QFP910. Water detector. Building Technologies. CE1N2732en. Synco living

QFP910. Water detector. Building Technologies. CE1N2732en. Synco living 2 732 Synco living Water detector QFP910 Wireless radio sensor to record water puddles RF communication based on KNX standard (868 MHz unidirectional) Battery operation with standard 1.5 V batteries Use

More information

DISSOLVED OXYGEN METER Model : DO-5509

DISSOLVED OXYGEN METER Model : DO-5509 DISSOLVED OXYGEN METER Model : DO-5509 Your purchase of this DISSOLVED OXYGEN METER marks a step forward for you into the field of precision measurement. Although this DISSOLVED OXYGEN METER is a complex

More information

AMD-23-TD. Thermal Dispersion Air Measuring Station with VCD-23 Control Damper. Application and Design. Ratings. Features and Control Options.

AMD-23-TD. Thermal Dispersion Air Measuring Station with VCD-23 Control Damper. Application and Design. Ratings. Features and Control Options. Application and esign Thermal ispersion Air Measuring Station with VC-23 Control amper The combines the functionality of a highly accurate thermal dispersion airflow measuring station and a low leakage

More information

CORONA E / FLYPPER ELECTRONIC METER MULTI-JET

CORONA E / FLYPPER ELECTRONIC METER MULTI-JET APPLICATION Fully electronic compact water meter with impeller scanning for recording volume. Highly accurate recording of all billing data at medium temperatures up to 90 C. FEATURES 4 Electronic sensor

More information

Methodology for Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Measurement within the Laminar to Turbulent Transitional Zone

Methodology for Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Measurement within the Laminar to Turbulent Transitional Zone Methodology for Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Measurement within the Laminar to Turbulent Transitional Zone Dave Seiler Daniel Measurement and Control March 25, 2014 Heavy Oil Definition!!!!the API classifies

More information

Thermal Mass Flow Meter (Series MST)

Thermal Mass Flow Meter (Series MST) Overview MaxiFlo TM MST series Thermal Mass Flow Meter is the instrument of choice for reliable and accurate measurement of mass flows for various gases. It measures the mass flow of gas based on constant

More information

CORONA MDI 110. CBR-EnergySolution ApS FLERSTRÅLET MÅLER TØRLØBER

CORONA MDI 110. CBR-EnergySolution ApS FLERSTRÅLET MÅLER TØRLØBER CORONA MDI 110 APPLICATION Domestic water meter FEATURES 4 Modular multi-jet domestic meter with inductive scanning (without magnetic influence) 4 System capability, with standard applicable pulse output

More information

STATIC WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENT FLOW METER USER MANUAL.

STATIC WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENT FLOW METER USER MANUAL. STATIC WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENT FLOW METER USER MANUAL www.enoscientific.com Eno Scientific 1606 Faucette Mill Rd Hillsborough, NC 27278 USA www.enoscientific.com 919-778-2660 Copyright Notice Copyright

More information

BaseCal 3. BaseCal, the web-based performance calculation tool for Diaphragm Seals

BaseCal 3. BaseCal, the web-based performance calculation tool for Diaphragm Seals BaseCal 3 BaseCal, the web-based performance calculation tool for Diaphragm Seals BaseCal: the diaphragm seal performance calculation tool BaseCal is the web-based performance calculation tool for diaphragm

More information

Battery Powered Thermal Mass Flow Meters for Gases

Battery Powered Thermal Mass Flow Meters for Gases red-y compact series product information Battery Powered Thermal Mass Flow Meters for Gases Digital advantage: Thermal Mass Flow Meters for Gases The flow meters red-y compact series are characterized

More information

Continuous flow direct water heating for potable hot water

Continuous flow direct water heating for potable hot water Continuous flow direct water heating for potable hot water An independently produced White Paper for Rinnai UK 2013 www.rinnaiuk.com In the 35 years since direct hot water systems entered the UK commercial

More information

Understanding Pressure and Pressure Measurement

Understanding Pressure and Pressure Measurement Freescale Semiconductor Application Note Rev 1, 05/2005 Understanding Pressure and Pressure Measurement by: David Heeley Sensor Products Division, Phoenix, Arizona INTRODUCTION Fluid systems, pressure

More information

Effect of Self-Heat Circulation on VOCs Decomposition in Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer

Effect of Self-Heat Circulation on VOCs Decomposition in Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer Effect of Self- Circulation on VOCs Decomposition in Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer Shinsuke Iijima 1, Katsuya Nakayama 1, Koichi Ushiroebisu 1 Mitsuhiro Kubota 2 and Hitoki Matsuda 2 1. Engineering Division,

More information

The World Market for Thermal Flowmeters

The World Market for Thermal Flowmeters Overview Published: October 2009 www.flowthermal.com 2 27 Water Street Wakefield, MA 01880 United States [1] 781-245-3200 [1] 781-224-7552 (fax) www.flowresearch.com Flow Research has completed a new market

More information

KRAL Electronics BEM 300 and BEM 500.

KRAL Electronics BEM 300 and BEM 500. KRAL Electronics BEM 300 and BEM 500. KRAL Electronics BEM 300 and BEM 500 Electronic units that are coordinated to KRAL flowmeters and their diverse applications. Coordinated to the flowmeters and their

More information

Flow Sensors. - mass flow rate - volume flow rate - velocity. - stream line parabolic velocity profile - turbulent vortices. Methods of measurement

Flow Sensors. - mass flow rate - volume flow rate - velocity. - stream line parabolic velocity profile - turbulent vortices. Methods of measurement Flow Sensors Flow - mass flow rate - volume flow rate - velocity Types of flow - stream line parabolic velocity profile - turbulent vortices Methods of measurement - direct: positive displacement (batch

More information

Take total control of your HVAC system with cost-saving flow and thermal energy meters

Take total control of your HVAC system with cost-saving flow and thermal energy meters Take total control of your HVAC system with cost-saving flow and thermal energy meters Because you can t manage what you don t measure usa.siemens.com/pi Answers for Industry. Contents Introduction 03

More information

Gas Custody Transfer Calibration

Gas Custody Transfer Calibration Gas Custody Transfer Calibration Using multi variable temperature / pressure calibrators for flowmeter calibration 2013 Introduction Gas custody transfer flow computers require special calibration to perform

More information

Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

More information

Battery Powered Digital Mass Flow Meters for Gases

Battery Powered Digital Mass Flow Meters for Gases Next Generation red-y compact: AA Battery Powered Touch Technology Micro-UB Port red-y compact series product information Battery Powered Digital Mass Flow Meters for Gases Independent digital convenience:

More information

Battery Powered Thermal Mass Flow Meters for Gases

Battery Powered Thermal Mass Flow Meters for Gases red-y compact series product information Battery Powered Thermal Mass Flow Meters for Gases Digital advantage: Thermal Mass Flow Meters for Gases The flow meters red-y compact series are characterized

More information

Practice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22

Practice Problems on Boundary Layers. Answer(s): D = 107 N D = 152 N. C. Wassgren, Purdue University Page 1 of 17 Last Updated: 2010 Nov 22 BL_01 A thin flat plate 55 by 110 cm is immersed in a 6 m/s stream of SAE 10 oil at 20 C. Compute the total skin friction drag if the stream is parallel to (a) the long side and (b) the short side. D =

More information

Minor losses include head losses through/past hydrants, couplers, valves,

Minor losses include head losses through/past hydrants, couplers, valves, Lecture 10 Minor Losses & Pressure Requirements I. Minor Losses Minor (or fitting, or local ) hydraulic losses along pipes can often be estimated as a function of the velocity head of the water within

More information

CALDON LEFM 380Ci Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meter. Integrating experience, proven technology and innovation

CALDON LEFM 380Ci Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meter. Integrating experience, proven technology and innovation CALDON LEFM 380Ci Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meter Integrating experience, proven technology and innovation VALVES & MEASUREMENT Cameron s CALDON LEFM 380Ci gas ultrasonic flow meter combines world-leading flow

More information

du u U 0 U dy y b 0 b

du u U 0 U dy y b 0 b BASIC CONCEPTS/DEFINITIONS OF FLUID MECHANICS (by Marios M. Fyrillas) 1. Density (πυκνότητα) Symbol: 3 Units of measure: kg / m Equation: m ( m mass, V volume) V. Pressure (πίεση) Alternative definition:

More information

ngenieros Ingenieros Asociados De Control S.L.

ngenieros Ingenieros Asociados De Control S.L. ngenieros sociados de ontrol 1 Company founded in 1985 to serve commercial and technical assistance in the fields of instrumentation, control and installation for all types of industries. We offer top

More information

Laminar Flow Elements

Laminar Flow Elements Laminar Flow Elements Meriam Laminar Flow Elements (LFEs) are excellent for measuring low gas flow rates from 0.2 SCCM up to 2250 SCFM. They are inherently accurate and repeatable and are calibrated traceable

More information

APPENDIX A CONTROL VALVE TESTING PROCEDURES AND EQUATIONS FOR LIQUID FLOWS

APPENDIX A CONTROL VALVE TESTING PROCEDURES AND EQUATIONS FOR LIQUID FLOWS APPENDIX A CONTROL VALVE TESTING PROCEDURES AND EQUATIONS FOR LIQUID FLOWS Section A.1. Flow Coefficients Definition The flow coefficient or pressure loss coefficient is used to relate the pressure loss

More information

VAD Variable Area Desuperheaters

VAD Variable Area Desuperheaters Local regulations may restrict the use of this product to below the conditions quoted. In the interests of development and improvement of the product, we reserve the right to change the specification without

More information

THEORY AND APPLICATION OF KURZ THERMAL CONVECTION MASS FLOW METERS INSTRUMENTS

THEORY AND APPLICATION OF KURZ THERMAL CONVECTION MASS FLOW METERS INSTRUMENTS THEORY AND APPLICATION OF KURZ THERMAL CONVECTION MASS FLOW METERS INTRODUCTION Many versions of thermal convection mass flow meters have been made, starting in the early 1900 s. Originally labeled, hot

More information

Testing methods applicable to refrigeration components and systems

Testing methods applicable to refrigeration components and systems Testing methods applicable to refrigeration components and systems Sylvain Quoilin (1)*, Cristian Cuevas (2), Vladut Teodorese (1), Vincent Lemort (1), Jules Hannay (1) and Jean Lebrun (1) (1) University

More information

Non-invasive CLAMP-ON ultrasonic flowmeter for liquids

Non-invasive CLAMP-ON ultrasonic flowmeter for liquids Non-invasive CLAMP-ON ultrasonic flowmeter for liquids Model CU100: non-invasive installation flowmeter, with transducers installed outside the pipe Installation in horizontal or vertical pipe Easy and

More information

RESULTS OF ICARUS 9 EXPERIMENTS RUN AT IMRA EUROPE

RESULTS OF ICARUS 9 EXPERIMENTS RUN AT IMRA EUROPE Roulette, T., J. Roulette, and S. Pons. Results of ICARUS 9 Experiments Run at IMRA Europe. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido,

More information

Flow System Calibration in Medical and Bio-medical Production Processes.

Flow System Calibration in Medical and Bio-medical Production Processes. Flow System Calibration in Medical and Bio-medical Production Processes. Speaker / Author: Mark Finch Fluke Calibration Norfolk, Norwich, NR6 6JB, UK e-mail: mark.finch@fluke.com Phone: + 44 (0)1908 678

More information

Advanced Monolithic Systems

Advanced Monolithic Systems Advanced Monolithic Systems FEATURES Three Terminal Adjustable or Fixed oltages* 1.5, 1.8, 2.5, 2.85, 3.3 and 5. Output Current of 1A Operates Down to 1 Dropout Line Regulation:.2% Max. Load Regulation:.4%

More information

Regulations for custody transfer measurements: meeting the needs? Focus on liquid flow measurement systems/applications

Regulations for custody transfer measurements: meeting the needs? Focus on liquid flow measurement systems/applications Regulations for custody transfer measurements: meeting the needs? Focus on liquid flow measurement systems/applications Contents - Requirements in OIML publications - Uncertainty effects on trade - Back

More information

No.LV31JE2 2008.05 To prevent accidents arising from the misuse of this instrument, please ensure the operator receives this manual.

No.LV31JE2 2008.05 To prevent accidents arising from the misuse of this instrument, please ensure the operator receives this manual. INSTRUCTION MANUAL LEVEL SWITCH LV-300 No.LV31JE2 2008.05 To prevent accidents arising from the misuse of this instrument, please ensure the operator receives this manual. Safety Precautions (Be sure to

More information