1 Energy and Flow Measurement for Hydronic Systems Presented By: George Szyszko Applications Consultant MCR for ONICON Incorporated
2 Why Measure Thermal Energy? To control something, you must first measure it Lord Kelvin Non-Electric Utilities: Chilled Water, Hot Water, Condenser Water Saturated Steam Natural Gas & Compressed Air
3 Typical Btu Measurement Applications Campus Environments Metering each building provides: Basis for cost allocation Growth planning data Promotes conservation Basis for LEED points
4 Campus Applications Building Tertiary Loops
5 Typical Btu Measurement Applications Central Plants Accurate kw/ton monitoring Boiler efficiency Chiller/Boiler staging Basis for LEED points
6 Typical Btu Measurement Applications Submetering Within Buildings
7 Hydronic Cooling/Heating System Heat Load Calculation: Btu Rate = Flow Rate x Delta-T x Specific Heat x Density
8 Btu Measurement Accuracy Evaluation Sources of Error Using Traditional Methods Flow Meter accuracy Signal D/A conversion Control input offset Temperature Sensor accuracy Transmitter accuracy Sensor matching Signal transmission error Control input offset Resolution Of inputs Of calculations Specific heat corrections Density corrections
9 Traditional Approach to Energy Measurement in Hydronic Systems Building Automation or SCADA System
10 Btu Measurement Accuracy Evaluation Potential Cost of Measurement Error The effect of using typical HVAC grade flow and temperature sensors into standard analog control system inputs for energy measurement is widely misunderstood.
11 Btu Measurement Accuracy Evaluation Sources of Error Using Traditional Methods Example: 6 pipe, 300 gpm, 10 degree F delta-t Flow Measurement Error Combined Error = 1.6% of reading Temperature Differential (RTDs) Combined Error = 0.5 to over 1 degree F Total Energy Error = > 5% to 10% of Rate
12 Btu Measurement With a Factory-Calibrated System Btu Meter, Flow Meter and Matched Temperature Sensors Installed as a Complete, Factory-Calibrated System
13 Btu Measurement Accuracy Evaluation Btu Measurement System Flow Measurement Accuracy (turbine): +/- 0.5% to 1% of reading over wide flow range Delta Temperature Measurement Accuracy: +/ F (+/- 1.5% of 10 delta-t) Calculation Accuracy: +/- 0.05%
14 Error Analysis: Btu System Typical HVAC flow velocity and 10 degree F delta-t Flow Meter (frequency output) Combined Error = 0.5 to 1% of reading Bath Calibrated & Matched Temperature Sensors Combined Error = 0.15 deg. F = 1.5% of reading Computational Error Combined Error = 0.05 % of reading Total Energy Error = 1.58 to 1.8% of Rate
15 Btu Measurement System
16 Compact Btu Meters For light commercial and residential use Inline flow meter, temperature sensors and BTU meter in a single compact package Low voltage or battery power Network or pulse output Typical sizes range from ½ through 2
17 Temperature Sensors for Btu Measurement Should be calibrated and characterized over an application specific temperature range. Consider using a signal conditioner (transmitter) to provide current based output signal for stability over long wire runs vs. trying to control lead lengths. Consider the total differential temperature accuracy (including A/D conversion and transmitter error) relative to the actual delta-t to determine if the error (uncertainty) is acceptable.
18 Flow Meter Selection for Btu Measurement Choose the flow meter that is most appropriate for the application or specification: Inline Turbine Inline Mag Inline DP Inline Ultrasonic Inline Vortex: Insertion Turbine Insertion Mag Insertion DP (Annular Element) Clamp-on Ultrasonic Insertion Vortex
19 Hot Tap Installation Detail for Thermowell in Welded Pipe
20 Output Signal Options for BTU Meters: Pulse for Energy Total Analog (4-20 ma)for Instantaneous Load, GPM, Temps Serial Network Communication (LAN) Open Communication protocols: BACnet (MS/TP & IP) Modbus RTU (RS-485 & TCP/IP) LONWORKS (FTTP) Industrial: Profibus & HART (Proprietary?)
21 Benefits of Btu Meters with Serial Network Communications Improved data accuracy All flow, temperature, and energy data available with a single network connection Reduces the need for additional controllers by eliminating the hard analog input points typically required for the BTU calculation. Reduced installation costs for wire and conduit Seamless Totalization Values throughout Network
22 Important Considerations for a Btu Measurement System System & Component Traceability Calibrated & matched temperature sensors with clearly defined differential error Standard Building Control Network communications protocol Single source for all system components and factory calibration of the entire system Serviceability & Re-calibration
23 Flow Meters Measurement & Selection Flow Measurement A. Water B. Steam C. Gas
24 A. Definitions and Relationships Rangeability the range over which an instrument can measure (i.e ft/s, GPM) Turndown the instrument range specified as a ratio of high measured value to low measured value (i.e. In above examples 30:1, 10:1) Effective Turndown the instrument range as related to the maximum flow of the specific application (i.e ft/s, 30:1 turndown, 4 ft/s design max, yields a 4:1 effective turndown)
25 A. Definitions and Relationships Accuracy The ability of an instrument to make the measurement as referenced to a standard Repeatability The deviation of multiple measurements of the same quantity under the same conditions. Not a measure of absolute accuracy. Linearity The departure of the calibration curve from a straight line. Not a measure of absolute accuracy.
26 Typical Water Flow Meter Types Turbine Best cost vs. performance Insertion Turbine (1 ¼ - 72 pipes) In-line Turbine (small pipes) Full Bore Mag Highest accuracy Insertion Mag no moving parts Full Bore & Insertion Vortex Shedding Clamp-on Ultrasonic
27 Calibration Standards Differentiate wet calibration of the primary flow element vs. calibration of the transmitter. Transmitters and electronics can be adjusted or calibrated against multi-meters and signal generators that may be traceable to NIST standards, but that have nothing to do with flow measurement. (Some vendors use the term NIST Traceable Calibration very loosely, selling an un-calibrated primary element with a calibrated transmitter.)
28 Calibration Questions to ask: Is every meter individually wet-calibrated? How is the meter calibrated? What is the calibration standard?
29 Installation Considerations - Straight Pipe Run Requirements Most (All) flow meters require minimum lengths of straight pipe before and after the meter location to maintain accuracy. Example of straight pipe run recommendation:
30 Velocity Profile of Water in Pipes Velocity profile is distorted by pipe obstructions and direction changes. Friction from the pipe wall conditions the velocity profile, eventually flattening the profile. (based on velocity and viscosity typically found in HVAC applications) LAMINAR Flow is needed
31 Straight Pipe Run Requirements Actual upstream/downstream dimensions typically depend on type of pipe obstruction & meter type. Consider both supply and return for available pipe run.
32 Straight Run Requirements Industry Standard (Reality)
33 General Piping Requirements
34 Basic Flow Meter Configurations: Basic Configurations (measuring what): Full Bore/Inline (volume or velocity) Insertion (velocity) Clamp-on (velocity)
35 Full Bore/ Inline Flow Meters A full bore or inline type flow meter occupies an entire pipe section. All flow must go through it. Basic Features: Controlled measurement area = high accuracy Cost increases with size Installation or service requires shutdown (or bypass)
36 Insertion Type Flow Meters (velocity) An insertion type flow meter measures flow velocity at a specific point (or several points) inside the pipe. Basic Features: Price is independent of pipe size Hot tap feature allows installation and service with no shutdown no bypass required
37 Clamp-on Type Flow Meters (velocity) A clamp-on type flow meter is non-invasive and measures flow velocity along a specific pathway inside the pipe via ultrasonic sound waves (Doppler effect or transit-time differential). Basic Features: Accuracy depends on proper installation. Price is independent of line size. Non-invasive installation.
38 Turbine Flow Meter Principle of Operation FLOW Water strikes the blades of the turbine causing it to spin. The speed of the turbine is directly proportional to the velocity of the water. Turbine technology is inherently linear and repeatable, and is even used as a calibration standard in many applications.
39 Straight Run Requirements ONICON Single Turbine Meter 5
40 Magnetic Flow - Principle of Operation Faraday s Law of Induction Four electrodes measure the induced voltage on opposite sides of the flow sensor. The two voltage readings are sampled and averaged. The induced voltage is directly proportional to the flow velocity and is independent of the fluid temperature, pressure or viscosity.
41 In-Line Mag Meter Principle of Operation Accurate measurement depends on the generation of a uniform magnetic field.
42 In-Line Straight Run: 3d up & 2 d downstream Insertion Straight Pipe Run Requirements
43 Ultrasonic Transit Time One transducer sends out a signal, in the direction of the flow of the fluid, which is reflected off of the far wall of the pipe and received by the other transducer. FLOW
44 Ultrasonic Transit Time The process is then repeated in the opposite direction against the flow. FLOW
45 Ultrasonic Transit Time By measuring the difference between transit times of ultrasonic waves travelling between two transducers, the processor accurately determines the flow velocity and direction of the fluid in the pipe.
47 Principle of Vortex Shedding When any liquid, gas or vapor in motion hits a solid body in its path, it flows around it, shedding vortices alternately on either side of the body. The frequency of the vortices is directly proportional to the velocity of the flow.
48 Swirl Meters What is a Swirl Meter? Like a vortex meter, swirl meters use the detection of pressure pulsations in establishing a frequency of pulsations relative to flow rate. Pulsations are formed within the meter using swirling vanes instead of separating the flow into vortices Swirl meters require only 3D upstream and 1D downstream Vortex meters require a minimum of 15D upstream and 5 D downstream Meters may be installed horizontally or vertically Must be full at all times of operation
49 Technology Selection Swirl Meters Cut-a-way Sensor De-Swirler Swirler Meter Body
50 Vortex/Swirl Meters Installation Lengths Vortex Swirl Meter 15D 5D Straight Pipe 3D 1D Process Control 50D 5D Valve 5D 1D 90 Elbow 25D 5D 3D 1D Reduction 25D 5D 3D 1D
51 Mass Flow Measurement of Saturated Steam Traditional Method: Flow, Temp and Pressure Recent Trend: Integral Density Compensation Flow Mass Flow Computer Pressure Temp o More complex to install o Determining mass flow uncertainty is more involved o Less complex to install o High accuracy easily achieved
52 Steam Meter Sizing Challenges with HVAC Applications Steam meters must be sized based on true system pressure and flow conditions for proper operation. Unfortunately, steam systems are not well understood and are typically oversized in the HVAC world, leading to the following problems: Choosing meters based on pipe size, without regard to operating conditions (meter size = pipe size = oversized!) Using PRV (pressure reducing valve) ratings to predict max flow conditions, especially when redundant PRV s are used. Using total equipment load data to predict max flow conditions. Changing system pressure significantly after meters are sized and submitted.
53 Thermal Mass Flow Meter Natural Gas & Compressed Air
54 Principle of Operation Thermal mass flow meters directly measure the mass of the flowing gas by utilizing the principle of convective heat transfer. Each Meter has a pair of encapsulated platinum sensors that are in direct contact with the gas. The reference sensor measures the ambient gas temperature. The flow sensor is self-heated.
55 Principle of Operation As gas flows by the heated flow sensor, our proprietary sensing circuitry maintains a constant temperature differential between the two sensors. The energy (mw) required to maintain this temperature differential is directly proportional to the mass flow. There is no need for additional temperature or pressure compensation! Note: Requires 8-15 diameters of straight run Applicaiton Dependent
56 Hydraunic & Gas Utilities Metering Considerations Factory Calibrated BTU Sytem - Traceability Temp Sensor Pairing improved BTU Calc Flow Metering Selection Cost/Application Integration with Energy Monitoring System Serviceability
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