1 Energy and Flow Measurement for Hydronic Systems Presented By: George Szyszko Applications Consultant MCR for ONICON Incorporated
2 Why Measure Thermal Energy? To control something, you must first measure it Lord Kelvin Non-Electric Utilities: Chilled Water, Hot Water, Condenser Water Saturated Steam Natural Gas & Compressed Air
3 Typical Btu Measurement Applications Campus Environments Metering each building provides: Basis for cost allocation Growth planning data Promotes conservation Basis for LEED points
4 Campus Applications Building Tertiary Loops
5 Typical Btu Measurement Applications Central Plants Accurate kw/ton monitoring Boiler efficiency Chiller/Boiler staging Basis for LEED points
6 Typical Btu Measurement Applications Submetering Within Buildings
7 Hydronic Cooling/Heating System Heat Load Calculation: Btu Rate = Flow Rate x Delta-T x Specific Heat x Density
8 Btu Measurement Accuracy Evaluation Sources of Error Using Traditional Methods Flow Meter accuracy Signal D/A conversion Control input offset Temperature Sensor accuracy Transmitter accuracy Sensor matching Signal transmission error Control input offset Resolution Of inputs Of calculations Specific heat corrections Density corrections
9 Traditional Approach to Energy Measurement in Hydronic Systems Building Automation or SCADA System
10 Btu Measurement Accuracy Evaluation Potential Cost of Measurement Error The effect of using typical HVAC grade flow and temperature sensors into standard analog control system inputs for energy measurement is widely misunderstood.
11 Btu Measurement Accuracy Evaluation Sources of Error Using Traditional Methods Example: 6 pipe, 300 gpm, 10 degree F delta-t Flow Measurement Error Combined Error = 1.6% of reading Temperature Differential (RTDs) Combined Error = 0.5 to over 1 degree F Total Energy Error = > 5% to 10% of Rate
12 Btu Measurement With a Factory-Calibrated System Btu Meter, Flow Meter and Matched Temperature Sensors Installed as a Complete, Factory-Calibrated System
13 Btu Measurement Accuracy Evaluation Btu Measurement System Flow Measurement Accuracy (turbine): +/- 0.5% to 1% of reading over wide flow range Delta Temperature Measurement Accuracy: +/ F (+/- 1.5% of 10 delta-t) Calculation Accuracy: +/- 0.05%
14 Error Analysis: Btu System Typical HVAC flow velocity and 10 degree F delta-t Flow Meter (frequency output) Combined Error = 0.5 to 1% of reading Bath Calibrated & Matched Temperature Sensors Combined Error = 0.15 deg. F = 1.5% of reading Computational Error Combined Error = 0.05 % of reading Total Energy Error = 1.58 to 1.8% of Rate
15 Btu Measurement System
16 Compact Btu Meters For light commercial and residential use Inline flow meter, temperature sensors and BTU meter in a single compact package Low voltage or battery power Network or pulse output Typical sizes range from ½ through 2
17 Temperature Sensors for Btu Measurement Should be calibrated and characterized over an application specific temperature range. Consider using a signal conditioner (transmitter) to provide current based output signal for stability over long wire runs vs. trying to control lead lengths. Consider the total differential temperature accuracy (including A/D conversion and transmitter error) relative to the actual delta-t to determine if the error (uncertainty) is acceptable.
18 Flow Meter Selection for Btu Measurement Choose the flow meter that is most appropriate for the application or specification: Inline Turbine Inline Mag Inline DP Inline Ultrasonic Inline Vortex: Insertion Turbine Insertion Mag Insertion DP (Annular Element) Clamp-on Ultrasonic Insertion Vortex
19 Hot Tap Installation Detail for Thermowell in Welded Pipe
20 Output Signal Options for BTU Meters: Pulse for Energy Total Analog (4-20 ma)for Instantaneous Load, GPM, Temps Serial Network Communication (LAN) Open Communication protocols: BACnet (MS/TP & IP) Modbus RTU (RS-485 & TCP/IP) LONWORKS (FTTP) Industrial: Profibus & HART (Proprietary?)
21 Benefits of Btu Meters with Serial Network Communications Improved data accuracy All flow, temperature, and energy data available with a single network connection Reduces the need for additional controllers by eliminating the hard analog input points typically required for the BTU calculation. Reduced installation costs for wire and conduit Seamless Totalization Values throughout Network
22 Important Considerations for a Btu Measurement System System & Component Traceability Calibrated & matched temperature sensors with clearly defined differential error Standard Building Control Network communications protocol Single source for all system components and factory calibration of the entire system Serviceability & Re-calibration
23 Flow Meters Measurement & Selection Flow Measurement A. Water B. Steam C. Gas
24 A. Definitions and Relationships Rangeability the range over which an instrument can measure (i.e ft/s, GPM) Turndown the instrument range specified as a ratio of high measured value to low measured value (i.e. In above examples 30:1, 10:1) Effective Turndown the instrument range as related to the maximum flow of the specific application (i.e ft/s, 30:1 turndown, 4 ft/s design max, yields a 4:1 effective turndown)
25 A. Definitions and Relationships Accuracy The ability of an instrument to make the measurement as referenced to a standard Repeatability The deviation of multiple measurements of the same quantity under the same conditions. Not a measure of absolute accuracy. Linearity The departure of the calibration curve from a straight line. Not a measure of absolute accuracy.
26 Typical Water Flow Meter Types Turbine Best cost vs. performance Insertion Turbine (1 ¼ - 72 pipes) In-line Turbine (small pipes) Full Bore Mag Highest accuracy Insertion Mag no moving parts Full Bore & Insertion Vortex Shedding Clamp-on Ultrasonic
27 Calibration Standards Differentiate wet calibration of the primary flow element vs. calibration of the transmitter. Transmitters and electronics can be adjusted or calibrated against multi-meters and signal generators that may be traceable to NIST standards, but that have nothing to do with flow measurement. (Some vendors use the term NIST Traceable Calibration very loosely, selling an un-calibrated primary element with a calibrated transmitter.)
28 Calibration Questions to ask: Is every meter individually wet-calibrated? How is the meter calibrated? What is the calibration standard?
29 Installation Considerations - Straight Pipe Run Requirements Most (All) flow meters require minimum lengths of straight pipe before and after the meter location to maintain accuracy. Example of straight pipe run recommendation:
30 Velocity Profile of Water in Pipes Velocity profile is distorted by pipe obstructions and direction changes. Friction from the pipe wall conditions the velocity profile, eventually flattening the profile. (based on velocity and viscosity typically found in HVAC applications) LAMINAR Flow is needed
31 Straight Pipe Run Requirements Actual upstream/downstream dimensions typically depend on type of pipe obstruction & meter type. Consider both supply and return for available pipe run.
32 Straight Run Requirements Industry Standard (Reality)
33 General Piping Requirements
34 Basic Flow Meter Configurations: Basic Configurations (measuring what): Full Bore/Inline (volume or velocity) Insertion (velocity) Clamp-on (velocity)
35 Full Bore/ Inline Flow Meters A full bore or inline type flow meter occupies an entire pipe section. All flow must go through it. Basic Features: Controlled measurement area = high accuracy Cost increases with size Installation or service requires shutdown (or bypass)
36 Insertion Type Flow Meters (velocity) An insertion type flow meter measures flow velocity at a specific point (or several points) inside the pipe. Basic Features: Price is independent of pipe size Hot tap feature allows installation and service with no shutdown no bypass required
37 Clamp-on Type Flow Meters (velocity) A clamp-on type flow meter is non-invasive and measures flow velocity along a specific pathway inside the pipe via ultrasonic sound waves (Doppler effect or transit-time differential). Basic Features: Accuracy depends on proper installation. Price is independent of line size. Non-invasive installation.
38 Turbine Flow Meter Principle of Operation FLOW Water strikes the blades of the turbine causing it to spin. The speed of the turbine is directly proportional to the velocity of the water. Turbine technology is inherently linear and repeatable, and is even used as a calibration standard in many applications.
39 Straight Run Requirements ONICON Single Turbine Meter 5
40 Magnetic Flow - Principle of Operation Faraday s Law of Induction Four electrodes measure the induced voltage on opposite sides of the flow sensor. The two voltage readings are sampled and averaged. The induced voltage is directly proportional to the flow velocity and is independent of the fluid temperature, pressure or viscosity.
41 In-Line Mag Meter Principle of Operation Accurate measurement depends on the generation of a uniform magnetic field.
42 In-Line Straight Run: 3d up & 2 d downstream Insertion Straight Pipe Run Requirements
43 Ultrasonic Transit Time One transducer sends out a signal, in the direction of the flow of the fluid, which is reflected off of the far wall of the pipe and received by the other transducer. FLOW
44 Ultrasonic Transit Time The process is then repeated in the opposite direction against the flow. FLOW
45 Ultrasonic Transit Time By measuring the difference between transit times of ultrasonic waves travelling between two transducers, the processor accurately determines the flow velocity and direction of the fluid in the pipe.
47 Principle of Vortex Shedding When any liquid, gas or vapor in motion hits a solid body in its path, it flows around it, shedding vortices alternately on either side of the body. The frequency of the vortices is directly proportional to the velocity of the flow.
48 Swirl Meters What is a Swirl Meter? Like a vortex meter, swirl meters use the detection of pressure pulsations in establishing a frequency of pulsations relative to flow rate. Pulsations are formed within the meter using swirling vanes instead of separating the flow into vortices Swirl meters require only 3D upstream and 1D downstream Vortex meters require a minimum of 15D upstream and 5 D downstream Meters may be installed horizontally or vertically Must be full at all times of operation
49 Technology Selection Swirl Meters Cut-a-way Sensor De-Swirler Swirler Meter Body
50 Vortex/Swirl Meters Installation Lengths Vortex Swirl Meter 15D 5D Straight Pipe 3D 1D Process Control 50D 5D Valve 5D 1D 90 Elbow 25D 5D 3D 1D Reduction 25D 5D 3D 1D
51 Mass Flow Measurement of Saturated Steam Traditional Method: Flow, Temp and Pressure Recent Trend: Integral Density Compensation Flow Mass Flow Computer Pressure Temp o More complex to install o Determining mass flow uncertainty is more involved o Less complex to install o High accuracy easily achieved
52 Steam Meter Sizing Challenges with HVAC Applications Steam meters must be sized based on true system pressure and flow conditions for proper operation. Unfortunately, steam systems are not well understood and are typically oversized in the HVAC world, leading to the following problems: Choosing meters based on pipe size, without regard to operating conditions (meter size = pipe size = oversized!) Using PRV (pressure reducing valve) ratings to predict max flow conditions, especially when redundant PRV s are used. Using total equipment load data to predict max flow conditions. Changing system pressure significantly after meters are sized and submitted.
53 Thermal Mass Flow Meter Natural Gas & Compressed Air
54 Principle of Operation Thermal mass flow meters directly measure the mass of the flowing gas by utilizing the principle of convective heat transfer. Each Meter has a pair of encapsulated platinum sensors that are in direct contact with the gas. The reference sensor measures the ambient gas temperature. The flow sensor is self-heated.
55 Principle of Operation As gas flows by the heated flow sensor, our proprietary sensing circuitry maintains a constant temperature differential between the two sensors. The energy (mw) required to maintain this temperature differential is directly proportional to the mass flow. There is no need for additional temperature or pressure compensation! Note: Requires 8-15 diameters of straight run Applicaiton Dependent
56 Hydraunic & Gas Utilities Metering Considerations Factory Calibrated BTU Sytem - Traceability Temp Sensor Pairing improved BTU Calc Flow Metering Selection Cost/Application Integration with Energy Monitoring System Serviceability
Thermatel Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Measurement Handbook Table of Contents Introduction...1 What is Mass Flow Measurement?...1 Types of Flow Transmitters...4 Differential Pressure...4 Orifice...4 Venturi...6
Technical Publication Flow Meter Selection for Improved Gas Flow Measurements: Comparison of Differential Pressure and Thermal Dispersion Technologies Art Womack, Sr. Applications Engineer Fluid Components
Aeration Air & Digester Gas Flow Metering Using Thermal Mass Technology HWEA 2011 Conference Craig S. Johnson Presentation Overview Introduction Aeration Air & Digester gas challenges Gas flow metering
Grant Agreement No. 228296 SFERA Solar Facilities for the European Research Area SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME Capacities Specific Programme Research Infrastructures Integrating Activity - Combination of
Advances in Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Meter Accuracy By Dan McQueen President Fluid Components International (FCI) Advances in Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Meter Accuracy By Dan McQueen President Fluid
Flow and Flow rate. Laminar and Turbulent flow Laminar flow: smooth, orderly and regular Mechanical sensors have inertia, which can integrate out small variations due to turbulence Turbulent flow: chaotic
Overview of the state of the art heat measurement technologies for larger solar thermal systems Overview of the state of the art heat measurement technologies for larger solar thermal systems... 1 Introduction...
The Unique Accelabar Flow Meter The Accelabar is a new and unique flow meter that combines two differential pressure technologies to produce operating ranges never before attainable in a single flow meter.
White paper ABB Flowmeters Review of industrial processing flowmeters Understanding flowmeters and their pros and cons By Ron DiGiacomo, ABB Measurement Products One of the most critical measurements in
BULLETIN BULLETIN EM20607 VORTEX IN-LINE FLOW METERS Design Features For Multi-Parameter Meters see m Principles of Operation n No moving parts to wear or fail. n Electronics can be remotely mounted up
Flow Measurement Options for Pipeline and Open Channel Flow October 2013 Presented by Molly Skorpik - 2013 Montana Association of Dam and Canal Systems Conference Irrigation Training and Research Center
FLOW METER SPECIFICATION AND APPLICATION ANALYSIS Class #41 Curtis Gulaga Business Development Manager CB Engineering Ltd. #20, 5920 11 th Street SE Calgary, AB T2H 2M4 1.0 Introduction Today s working
Chapter 10 Flow Measurements Material from Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements; Figliola, Third Edition Flow Rate Flow rate can be expressed in terms of volume flow rate (volume/time) or mass
www.kem-kueppers.com Certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001 Technical Datasheet KVO Series Vortex Flow Meter Description The KVO Vortex flow meters utilize two primary sensing elements a vortex shedding
Thermal Mass meter and Temperature Transmitter Description The MTI10 insertion thermal mass flowmeter and the MTL10 in-line thermal mass flowmeter provide accurate mass flow measurement of clean, dry gases
Liquid Flowmeters A Guide for Selecting a Flowmeter for Pressurized Systems Selecting a meter requires a first-rate technical assessment of the pressurized system and a thorough evaluation of the capabilities
Page 1 of 6 April 1998 Plant Engineering SELECTING NEW TECHNOLOGY: PROBLEM SOLVING Using meters to measure steam flow Jesse L. Yoder, Ph.D., Senior Analyst, Automation Research Corp., Dedham, MA Key Concepts
Turbine Flowmeters for Gas Applications Description Flow Technology s FT Series turbine flowmeters utilize a proven flow measurement technology to provide exceptionally reliable digital outputs. Because
Catalog CG/FLOW/001 EN Rev. B catalog Flow products Whatever your need our team will keep your measurement and plant performing Measurement made easy Introduction When it comes to ensuring your flowmeters
PROCESS CONTROL INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN CERTIFICATE Process Control (T5552) Course 1 Introduction to Process Control Course 2 Instrument Tags Course 3 Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams Course
GE Measurement & Control Solutions Sentinel LCT Panametrics Ultrasonic Flowmeter for Liquid Custody Transfer Measurement Benefits Extremely reliable and highly accurate flowmeter, designed specifically
Rev 8/15 AW/GW CHE 253M Experiment No. 3 LIQUID FLOW MEASUREMENT The objective of this experiment is to familiarize the student with several types of flow-measuring devices commonly used in the laboratory
M&V of Hot Water Boiler Plant Boban Ratkovich, P. Eng, CEM, BESA, LEED AP President CES Engineering Ltd AIA Quality Assurance Learning Objectives 1. Case study examples of procedures and obstacles in measuring
THE THERMAL FLOW METER, A GAS METER FOR ENERGY MEASUREMENT Kazuto Otakane, Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd Katsuhito Sakai, Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd Minoru Seto, Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd 1. INTRODUCTION Tokyo Gas s new gas meter,
Custody Transfer Measurement with the V-Cone Flowmeter Stephen A. Ifft McCrometer Inc. Hemet, California, USA Abstract This paper will discuss the approval of the McCrometer V-Cone flowmeter for custody
SECTION 16002C CAMPUS CENTRAL METERING SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA 1. General A. Electrical usage on the Brown campus is presently monitored by a Siemens-brand, web-based central metering system, which includes
CALDON LEFM 380Ci Gas Ultrasonic Flow Meter Integrating experience, proven technology and innovation VALVES & MEASUREMENT Cameron s CALDON LEFM 380Ci gas ultrasonic flow meter combines world-leading flow
INLINE flowmeter for continuous flow measurement Economic integration in pipe systems without any additional piping 3-wire frequency pulse version to directly interface with PLC s (both PNP and NPN) Connection
San Diego Community College District District-Wide Smart Metering Guidelines for NEW & RENOVATED BUILDINGS City College, Mesa College, and Miramar College Prepared by: Randall Lamb September 20, 2011 Revised:
Non-invasive CLAMP-ON ultrasonic flowmeter for liquids Model CU100: non-invasive installation flowmeter, with transducers installed outside the pipe Installation in horizontal or vertical pipe Easy and
MASS FLOW METERS Design Features n Rigid metallic construction. n Maximum pressure of 1000 psig (70 bars). n Leak integrity 1 x 10-9 of helium. n NIST traceable certification. n Built-in tiltable LCD readout.
Flow Measurement in Pipes and Ducts, Course #503 Presented by: PDH Enterprises, LLC PO Box 942 Morrisville, NC 27560 www.pdhsite.com This course is about measurement of the flow rate of a fluid flowing
TERMINOLOGY USED IN INSTRUMENT ACCURACY Rick Williams Rawson & Co., Inc. P.O. Box 924288, Houston, TX 77292 The purpose of this paper is to offer a brief explanation and discussion of many key terms used
ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS AND THEIR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS Many mechanical energy systems are devoted to transfer of energy between two points: the source or prime mover (input) and the load (output). For chemical
GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies DigitalFlow GF868 Panametrics Flare Gas Mass Ultrasonic Flowmeter with Extended Performance Range Applications The DigitalFlow GF868 flowmeter is a complete ultrasonic
White Paper FSG-WP-0012 February 2014 Fiscal Measurement Natural Gas Fiscal Measurement How much? Fiscal Measurement must not be confused with Custody Transfer; in fact, fiscal measurement is a more general
THEORY AND APPLICATION OF KURZ THERMAL CONVECTION MASS FLOW METERS INTRODUCTION Many versions of thermal convection mass flow meters have been made, starting in the early 1900 s. Originally labeled, hot
Gas Custody Transfer Calibration Using multi variable temperature / pressure calibrators for flowmeter calibration 2013 Introduction Gas custody transfer flow computers require special calibration to perform
INDIAN STANDARDS FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM 1. IS 15663(Part 1):2006 This code covers requirements and recommendations for the design, materials, construction and testing of pipelines made of steel
FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE METERS John Gorham Sensus Metering Systems 805 Liberty Blvd. DuBois, PA 15801 INTRODUCTION The majority of all gas measurement used in the world today is performed by two basic
Testing methods applicable to refrigeration components and systems Sylvain Quoilin (1)*, Cristian Cuevas (2), Vladut Teodorese (1), Vincent Lemort (1), Jules Hannay (1) and Jean Lebrun (1) (1) University
ME 120 Experimental Methods Flow Measurement 02MAY06 Fluid Flow Measurement Classification of flow rate measurements Volume flow Industrial process control Heat transfer and cooling Mass flow Industrial
2001 Canadian Gas Association Gas Measurement School Winnipeg, Manitoba Implementing New Technology at TransCanada Meter Stations -- Better, Faster, Cheaper Prepared by: Dean Mah, P.Eng. Warren Peterson
Methodology for Liquid Ultrasonic Flow Measurement within the Laminar to Turbulent Transitional Zone Dave Seiler Daniel Measurement and Control March 25, 2014 Heavy Oil Definition!!!!the API classifies
Laminar Flow Elements Meriam Laminar Flow Elements (LFEs) are excellent for measuring low gas flow rates from 0.2 SCCM up to 2250 SCFM. They are inherently accurate and repeatable and are calibrated traceable
The Versatile Differential Pressure Transmitter By David Gunn Honeywell Process Solutions The Versatile Differential Pressure Transmitter 2 Table of Contents Abstract... 3 Pressure Fundamentals... 3 Applications...
Gas Fluxi 2000/TZ Turbine Gas Meter Turbine gas meters are flow meters. The flow of gas turns a turbine wheel, and thus, the rotating speed of the turbine is proportional to the linear speed of the gas.
Applications Features The DigitalFlow GF868 flowmeter is a complete ultrasonic flow metering system for: Flare gas Track down or prevent losses from leakage with positive material identification Account
Fundamentals of HVAC Controls Course Content Fundamentals of HVAC Controls The application of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) controls starts with an understanding of the building and
Fundamentals of Mass Flow Control Critical Terminology and Operation Principles for Gas and Liquid MFCs A mass flow controller (MFC) is a closed-loop device that sets, measures, and controls the flow of
501:440-13 User s Manual Laminar Flow Elements 10920 Madison Avenue Cleveland, Ohio 44102 Tel: 216.281.1100 email:email@example.com Web:www.meriam.com 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Subject Page Introduction... 3
GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies Flow Measurement Solutions for Thermal Cracking Processes Single Source for Proven Sensing Solutions Refineries use thermal cracking processes to meet the demand for
Testing Protocol for Differential Pressure Measurement Devices API MPMS Chapter 22.2 Steve Baldwin Chevron Energy Technology Company Houston, Texas USA Casey Hodges CEESI Measurement Solutions. Nunn, Colorado
Transit Time Flow Meters TT-TDS-100H-HS ECEFast offers amazing prices on Transit Time Flow Meter portable kits. We are buying from the manufacturer who supplies 60% of the Chinese market and the majority
Applying Pressure Independent Control Valves in H.V.A.C. Systems A Presentation to: Orange Empire ASHRAE Santa Ana Nov. 17, 2009 1 Introduction I know, as building design consultants, so much of your effort
GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies DigitalFlow XMT868i Panametrics Liquid Flow Ultrasonic Transmitter The DigitalFlow XMT868i liquid flow transmitter is a complete ultrasonic flow metering system for
1 Abstract The goal of this project was to create precise optical flow meters for the oil & gas industry optimized for measuring flare gas flow in explosive atmospheres. The flow meters had to incorporate
Commissioning - Construction Documents (Page 1 of 6) A. General Information Climate Zone: Building Type: Conditioned Area (sf): Reviewer's Name: Reviewer's Agency: Note: Design Review for each system/subsystem
red-y smart series product information Thermal Mass Flow Meters and Controllers for Gases Reliable and accurate: Thermal Mass Flow Meters and Controllers Reliable technology and industry standard interfaces
00870-0100-4810 January 2006 Page 1 Rosemount Orifice Plate in Wet Gas This paper discusses the phenomenon of wet gas measurement, definitions, and the need to accurately measure this mixture. This paper
Data Sheet Electro-Magnetic Flowmeters COPA-XT 2-Wire DT43 2-Wire Operation Significantly reduces installation costs when compared to a traditional 4-wire magmeter. ±0.5% of rate system accuracy. Patented
January Page Entrained Gas Diagnostic with Intelligent Differential Pressure Transmitter Dave Wehrs - Director, Pressure Engineering Andrew Klosinski - Application Engineer, Pressure Diagnostics Emerson
CEE 410: Hydraulic Engineering Lab 2 Flow Measurement Test at Unit Well 30 November 26 th 2014 Tyler Gates Bill Hussey Megan Long Senn Mettel Introduction This laboratory experiment involved the collecting
Frequently Asked Questions System and Valve Basics: 1. Q: What is good cooling coil performance? A: The temperature range is controlled within +/- 0.5 F (0.28 C) off the cooling coil at set point or below.
Mass Flow Meter Product Guide 2 thermal Mass technology Kurz Instruments manufactures thermal mass flow meters designed to accurately monitor and measure dry air, dry gas, and wet gas environments. Thermal
Fluid Flow Instrumentation In the physical world, mechanical engineers are frequently required to monitor or control the flow of various fluids through pipes, ducts and assorted vessels. This fluid can
Overview MaxiFlo TM MST series Thermal Mass Flow Meter is the instrument of choice for reliable and accurate measurement of mass flows for various gases. It measures the mass flow of gas based on constant
Electromagnetic Flow Meter Description The EL 2200 series of electromagnetic sensors represent the state of the art for the accurate measurement for water cycle and process applications. Flow meters are
Turbine Flowmeters for Liquid pplications (Metric) Description Flow Technology s FT Series turbine flowmeters utilize a proven flow measurement technology to provide exceptionally reliable digital outputs.
191: Calibration and Standards in Measurement Richard Paton National Engineering Laboratory, Scotland, UK 1 General Principles 1 2 Gravimetric Calibration of Liquid meters 2 3 Volumetric Calibration of
TELEDYNE HASTINGS TECHNICAL PAPERS INSTRUMENTS A LAMINAR FLOW ELEMENT WITH A LINEAR PRESSURE DROP VERSUS VOLUMETRIC FLOW Proceedings of FEDSM 98: June -5, 998, Washington, DC FEDSM98 49 ABSTRACT The pressure
FLOW COMPUTERS METERING, MONITORING, & DATA ACQUISITIONS Sami Halilah Dynamic Flow Computers Houston, Texas GENERAL LAYOUT This paper presents information about applications of flow computers in the oil
Centauri Condensing Fire Tube Water Boiler 399 to 1000 MBH Pre-mix surface burner with up to a 7-to-1 turndown NOx levels as low a 5 ppm at full rate Operates on 4" gas pressure shown with optional gauges
STATIC WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENT FLOW METER USER MANUAL www.enoscientific.com Eno Scientific 1606 Faucette Mill Rd Hillsborough, NC 27278 USA www.enoscientific.com 919-778-2660 Copyright Notice Copyright
Overview Published: October 2009 www.flowthermal.com 2 27 Water Street Wakefield, MA 01880 United States  781-245-3200  781-224-7552 (fax) www.flowresearch.com Flow Research has completed a new market
College of Technology Instrumentation and Control Module # 4 Flow Measurement Document Intent: The intent of this document is to provide an example of how a subject matter expert might teach Flow Measurement.
V-Cone, An Alternative to Orifice Meter in Wet Gas Applications Stephen A. Ifft McCrometer Inc. Hemet, California, USA Abstract This paper will discuss the use of the V-Cone differential pressure flowmeter