# FC - Fundamentals of Communications

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1 Coordinating unit: Teaching unit: Academic year: Degree: ECTS credits: EETAC - Castelldefels School of Telecommunications and Aerospace Engineering TSC - Department of Signal Theory and Communications BACHELOR'S DEGREE IN NETWORK ENGINEERING (Syllabus 2009). (Teaching unit Compulsory) BACHELOR'S DEGREE IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (Syllabus 2009). (Teaching unit Compulsory) 6 Teaching languages: Catalan, Spanish Teaching staff Coordinator: Others: Definit a la infoweb de l'assignatura. Definit a la infoweb de l'assignatura. Prior skills Operations with complex numbers. Product and sum, rationalisation, inversion, calculation of the module and phase of a complex number. Operations with trigonometric functions. Operations with matrices. Knowledge of probability. Operations with signals and systems in the frequency domain based on Fourier series and transform, and application of their main properties. Operations with convolutions of functions. Knowledge of the concept of signal filtering. Operations in the linear and logarithmic scales (db). Requirements Pre-requisites: o Calculus o Mathematics for Telecommunications o Electronics for Telecommunications o Linear Algebra and Applications o Linear Circuits and Systems Particular importance is given to knowledge of the Fourier transform and Fourier series, probability and trigonometric calculation. Degree competences to which the subject contributes Specific: 1. CE 10 TELECOM. Capacidad para evaluar las ventajas e inconvenientes de diferentes alternativas tecnológicas de despliegue o implementación de sistemas de comunicaciones, desde el punto de vista del espacio de la señal, las perturbaciones y el ruido y los sistemas de modulación analógica y digital. (CIN/352/2009, BOE ) 2. CE 9 TELECOM. Capacidad de analizar y especificar los parámetros fundamentales de un sistema de comunicaciones.(cin/352/2009, BOE ) Transversal: 3. EFFECTIVE USE OF INFORMATI0N RESOURCES - Level 1. Identifying information needs. Using collections, premises and services that are available for designing and executing simple searches that are suited to the topic. 4. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING - Level 1. Completing set tasks within established deadlines. Working with recommended information sources according to the guidelines set by lecturers. 1 / 8

2 5. THIRD LANGUAGE. Learning a third language, preferably English, to a degree of oral and written fluency that fits in with the future needs of the graduates of each course. Teaching methodology The materials prepared by the teaching staff slides, class notes, model exercises, etc. are available on the digital campus and should provide students with sufficient material for self-directed work, either individually or in groups. By working through this material before each class, students will be able to use the face-to-face sessions to consolidate their understanding of the course content and resolve any doubts. Lectures (groups of no more than 40 students) are essentially expository sessions combining formal presentation of the course content and informal questions for students to discuss. This approach is designed to facilitate the understanding and assimilation of basic concepts. The course materials enable students to prepare for lectures in advance so that they can take a more active role in each session (rather than simply focusing on note-taking). In the problem-solving sessions (groups of no more than 20 students) students work in pairs or groups of three to complete exercises related to the theory covered in the lectures. Once students have solved the problems set for the session, the teacher will work through some of the exercises with the whole group and may set additional work to be completed as self-directed learning. Learning objectives of the subject On completion of Fundamentals of Communications, students will be able to: recognise the functional blocks that make up a communication system; perform operations with modulated signals in the time and frequency domains; study and calculate the parameters of analogue and digital communications; understand the basic quality criteria for communication systems (signal-to-noise ratio and probability of error); understand multiplexing techniques; understand multiple access techniques; understand the basic techniques for channel encoding (error detection and correction). Study load Total learning time: 150h Hours large group: 39h 26.00% Hours medium group: 13h 8.67% Hours small group: 0h 0.00% Guided activities: 14h 9.33% Self study: 84h 56.00% 2 / 8

3 Content Introduction to Communication Systems Learning time: 8h Theory classes: 3h Practical classes: 1h Guided activities: 0h Self study : 4h This topic introduces the main concepts of the subject by providing an overview of telecommunications systems and establishing the links between these systems and the topics covered in other subjects. Students first learn the basic elements that must be considered in the design of any type of communications system. This is followed by an introduction to the concept of modulation and, finally, a general overview of a complete communication system (information source, source encoding, channel encoding, modulation, multiplexing, multiple access, transmission, reception, demodulation, equalisation, synchronisation, etc.). Analogue Communication Learning time: 29h Theory classes: 6h Practical classes: 3h Guided activities: 0h Self study : 20h The second topic focuses on basic aspects of analogue amplitude and frequency modulation such as bandwidth, power, information signal recovery and the signal-to-noise ratio. Students are given a brief presentation of the main characteristics of analogue communication systems. Related activities: Class test. 3 / 8

4 Digital Communication Learning time: 78h Theory classes: 18h Practical classes: 6h Laboratory classes: 0h Guided activities: 14h Self study : 40h The third topic introduces the fundamental concepts in digital signal transmission. Baseband digital transmission. Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM). Signal model. Rectangular pulses (line coding). NRZ, RZ, etc. PAM signal spectrum. Detection of binary PAM signals in an AWGN channel. Receiver scheme. Adaptive filter and eye diagram. ML and MAP detection. Probability of error. Transmission in band-limited channels. Pole distribution. Bandpass digital transmission. Digital modulations. Signal model. In-phase and quadrature components. Constellation. Amplitude modulations (M-ASK). Phase modulations (QPSK, M-PSK). Frequency modulations (M-FSK). Amplitude-phase modulations (QAM, APSK). Advanced modulations: Continuous phase modulation (CPM: MSK, GMSK). Note: For each modulation, students will learn about the constellation, the spectrum of the equivalent lowpass signal and the spectrum efficiency, consider possible schemes for signal detection in an AWGN channel, and evaluate the probability of error. Related activities: Practical activities using the WinIQSIM software. Class test. Media Access Multiplexing Learning time: 17h Theory classes: 6h Practical classes: 1h Laboratory classes: 0h Guided activities: 0h Self study : 10h This topic provides an overview of the techniques for shared use of a transmission medium by different TDM, FDM, CDM and OFDM connections (multiplexing) and management of simultaneous access to the shared transmission medium by different terminals (media access management). TDMA, FDMA, CDMA (DS-CDMA and FH-CDMA), OFDMA, SDMA. Related activities: Class test. 4 / 8

5 Channel Encoding Learning time: 18h Theory classes: 6h Practical classes: 2h Laboratory classes: 0h Guided activities: 0h Self study : 10h Introduction. ARQ vs. FEC. Classification of FEC codes and notation uses. Block codes. Convolutional codes. Concatenated codes. Note: For each type of code, students will be given a general description and a range of examples. The complexity and performance of each type of code will be described. Interleaved turbo codes. LDPC codes (despite their complexity, these codes are widely used and can therefore be described generically for the purposes of this topic). 5 / 8

6 Planning of activities CLASS TEST ON CONTENT UP TO TOPIC 2 Hours: 1h Practical classes: 1h Students must complete a test to demonstrate their understanding of the content covered in the lectures and problem-solving sessions up to this point in the course. Support materials: None. Students may not consult reference material. Descriptions of the assignments due and their relation to the assessment: The test counts for 15% of the final mark for the subject. Specific objectives: The test is designed to monitor the progress of each student up to this point in the course. Specifically, students should demonstrate that they are able to: understand the advantages and disadvantages of different analogue frequency modulations; use the required notation and units for communication systems analysis; formulate and interpret time signals in the frequency domain. PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 1, DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS USING WINIQSM SOFTWARE Hours: 21h Guided activities: 7h Self study: 14h Three 2-hour sessions and one 1-hour session. Students work individually. - Use a digital transmission simulation tool for in-depth study of the operation of a digital transmission system and the impact of different real-world phenomena that affect the operation of these types of systems. In the first session the lecturer will give a practical explanation of the WinIQSIM software and its basic operating parameters. In the following sessions, students will develop practical solutions to the problems set. Support materials: WinIQSIM. Software developed by Rohde & Schwarz that offers simulation capabilities for a large number of digital transmission systems and configurations. Offers connectivity with other equipment developed by the same manufacturers for working with RF frequencies, in particular I/Q Modulation Generator AMIQ and the SMIQB60 arbitrary waveform generator. Students' personal computers. Descriptions of the assignments due and their relation to the assessment: Attendance is compulsory. Assessment of students' laboratory skills will be based on: - Attendance and completion of the practical sessions. - Individual preparatory work. - Individual report or scientific paper outlining and explaining the results of the activity and offering a critical analysis based on the theoretical knowledge acquired during the course. Assessment will be based on the report/paper and a question sheet that must completed during the activity. Specific objectives: On completion of the practical activity, students will be able to: - characterise a digital communication system using WinIQSIM, analyse the system dynamics and discuss the system's performance; - use the analytical skills and laboratory techniques acquired to design and analyse the basic performance parameters of a digital communication system; - write a report or scientific paper containing a synthesis and critical appraisal of the laboratory work carried out. 6 / 8

7 PRACTICAL ACTIVITY 2, DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS USING THE WINIQSIM SOFTWARE Three 2-hour sessions and one 1-hour session. Students work individually. - Use a digital transmission simulation tool for in-depth study of the operation of a digital transmission system and the impact of different real-world phenomena that affect the operation of these types of systems. In the first session the lecturer will give a practical explanation of the WinIQSIM software and its basic operating parameters. In the following sessions, students will develop practical solutions to the problems set. Support materials: WinIQSIM. Software developed by Rohde & Schwarz that offers simulation capabilities for a large number of digital transmission systems and configurations. Offers connectivity with other equipment developed by the same manufacturers for working with RF frequencies, in particular I/Q Modulation Generator AMIQ and the SMIQB60 arbitrary waveform generator. Students' personal computers. Hours: 21h Guided activities: 7h Self study: 14h Descriptions of the assignments due and their relation to the assessment: Attendance is compulsory. Assessment of students' laboratory skills will be based on: - Attendance and completion of the practical sessions. - Individual preparatory work. - Individual report or scientific paper outlining and explaining the results of the activity and offering a critical analysis based on the theoretical knowledge acquired during the course. Assessment will be based on the report/paper and a question sheet that must completed during the activity. Specific objectives: On completion of the practical activity, students will be able to: - analyse and solve academic problems based on real communication situations to verify the practical usefulness of the theory covered in the course; - analyse the effect of multipath propagation on communication systems; - represent and analyse constellations, eye diagrams and impulse responses in communication systems with multipath propagation; - calculate, identify and evaluate the effects of phase and frequency desynchronisation; - write a report or scientific paper containing a synthesis and critical appraisal of the laboratory work carried out. CLASS TEST ON CONTENT UP TO TOPIC 3 Hours: 1h Practical classes: 1h Students must complete a test to demonstrate their understanding of the content covered in the lectures and problem-solving sessions up to this point in the course. Support materials: None. Students may not consult reference material. Descriptions of the assignments due and their relation to the assessment: The test counts for 15% of the final mark for the subject. 7 / 8

8 Specific objectives: The test is designed to monitor the progress of each student up to this point in the course. Specifically, students should demonstrate that they are able to: understand the advantages and disadvantages of different digital modulations; use the required notation and units for digital communication systems analysis; formulate and interpret time signals in the frequency domain. Qualification system Examinations - 50%. Mid-semester examination (20%) and final examination (30%). Class tests - 30%. Two class tests. Directed activities - 20%. Two reports on practical sessions + completed question sheet, each worth 10%. Regulations for carrying out activities Students work individually in directed activity sessions. Any student who fails to complete an activity or submit the corresponding report will be awarded a mark of 0 for the activity in question. Bibliography Basic: Carlson, A.B. Communication systems : an introduction to signals and noise in electrical communication. 4a ed. New York: Ed. Mc Graw Hill, ISBN Sklar, B. Digital communications : fundamentals and applications. 2a ed. Upper Saddle River: Ed. Prentice Hall, ISBN Faúndez, M. Sistemas de comunicaciones. Barcelona: Ed. Marcombo Boixareu, ISBN Proakis, J.G. Communication systems engineering. 2a ed. Upper Saddle River: Ed. Prentice Hall, ISBN Complementary: Proakis, J.G. Digital communications. 5a ed. Boston: Ed. Mc Graw-Hill, ISBN / 8

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