# Example/ an analog signal f ( t) ) is sample by f s = 5000 Hz draw the sampling signal spectrum. Calculate min. sampling frequency.

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5 Example/ an analog signal f ( t) = 1+ cos(4000πt ) is sample by f s = 5000 Hz draw the sampling signal spectrum. Calculate min. sampling frequency. Sol/ H(f) -7KHz -5KHz -3KHz -2KHz 0 2KHz 3KHz 5KHz 7KHz f f s min= 2*f m f s min=2* 2000=4000 Hz 5

6 Pulse Modulation Recall that in analog (continuous-wave) modulation, some parameter of a sinusoidal carrier Ac cos(2πfct + θ), Where the amplitude A c, the frequency f c, or the phase θ, is varied continuously in accordance with the message signal m(t). Similarly, in pulse modulation, some parameter of a pulse train is varied in accordance with the sample values of a message signal. Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) is the simplest and most basic form of analog pulse modulation. In PAM, the amplitudes of regularly spaced pulses are varied in proportion to the corresponding sample values of a continuous message signal. In general, the pulses can be of some appropriate shape. In the simplest case. It should be noted that PAM transmission does not improve the noise performance over baseband modulation (which is the transmission of the original continuous signal). The main (perhaps the only) advantage of PAM is that it allows multiplexing, i.e., the sharing of the same transmission media by different sources (or users). This is because a PAM signal only occurs in slots of time, leaving the idle time for the transmission of other PAM signals. However, this advantage comes at the expense of a larger transmission bandwidth. As mentioned before, PAM signals require a larger transmission bandwidth without any improvement in noise performance. This suggests that there should be better pulse modulations than PAM in terms of noise performance. Two such forms of pulse modulation are: Pulse-width modulation (PWM): in PWM, the samples of the message signal are used to vary the width of the individual pulses in the pulse train. Pulse-position modulation (PPM): in PPM, the position of a pulse relative to its original time of occurrence is varied in accordance with the sample values of the message. 6

7 Note that in PWM, long pulses (corresponding to large sample values) expend considerable power, while bearing no additional information. In fact, if only time transitions are preserved, then PWM becomes PPM. Accordingly, PPM is a more power-efficient form of pulse modulation than PWM. Regarding the noise performance of PWM and PPM systems, since the transmitted information (the sample values) is contained in the relative positions of the modulated pulses, the additive noise, which mainly introduces amplitude distortion, has much less effect. As a consequence, both PWM and PPM systems have better noise performance than PAM. 7

8 - PAM Modulator and Demodulator The PAM modulator that satisfy the sampling condition have transmitted bandwidth BW PAM 1 = 2T S The modulator and demodulator of PAM shown below f(t) Sampler LPF T f cut =BW PAM Analog Modulator Channel Analog Modulator S&H LPF R f cut = W f^(t) Pulse Generator Clock f clock =1/T s Pulse Generator Clock f clock =1/T s PAM Modulator PAM Demodulator The transmit LPF T use to minimize the transmit signal when the receive LPF R used to reconstruct the received signal. The analog modulator can by AM, DSBSC, SSBSC, PM, or FM. - Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) T S T X 8

9 T S : sampling time T X : TDM sampling time TS TX = n n: number of multiplexed channels. The bandwidth and the number of sample transmitted by sec for the TDM transmit signal are 1 BWTDM = ( Hz) 2T X 1 Sampling Rate = T X ( Sample / sec) The TDM modulator and demodulator shown in figure below f 1 (t) Commentator f 2 (t) Sampler LPF T f cut =BW TDM Analog Modulator Transmit signal f n (t) Pulse Generator Clock f clock =1/T X TDM Modulator ( for n channel) Received signal Analog Modulator Clock f clock =1/T X S&H Pulse Generator Commentator LPF R f cut = W LPF R f cut = W f 1 (t) f 2 (t) TDM Demodulator LPF R f cut = W f n (t) 9

10 Example / Ten low-pass signal each band limited to 4KHz are to be multiplex in Time by sampling frequency 10KHz. calculate SOL/ 1- min clock frequency of TDM system f f clock clock 1 = T x = n f s = = 100KHz 2- what is the min cutoff frequency of the transmitted LPF T f f Cut off ( T ) Cut off ( T ) 1 n fs = BWTDM = = 2Tx = = 50KHz 2 3- what is the min and max. (Range) cutoff frequency of the received f f LPF R Cut off ( R) min Cut off ( R) Max = W = 4KHz = f / 2 = 5KHz s 4- What is the total system pulse rate 1 Rate = T x = n Rate = = 100 f s Pulse / sec - FDM-TDM system This system can sampled N channel y rate less than sampling rate that done by using FDM system one or more stages Example Three band limited signals of frequencies 10KHz, 5KHz, and 5KHz respectively used FDM-TDM system. Calculate the bandwidth and pulse rate of the transmitted signal. 10

11 SOL./ Channel 2, and 3 are FDM then in to TDM as one channel band limited to 10KHz then samples by f s = 20KHz with channel 1as shown in the multiplexed system 5 Channels 3.3KHz Example The 18 channels the first 15 channels band limited to3.3 KHz, the others band limited to 20KHz design FDM-TDM system, then Calculate the bandwidth and pulse rate of the transmitted signal. SOL/ every 5 channel of the first 15 channels multiplexed by FDM with f g =0.7 KHz the Bandwidth BW FDM =5*(3.3K+0.7K)=20KHz The group of 6 output of FDM systems with 5 channels band limited to 20KHz is TDM BW TDM =(N*f S )/2=(6*40KHz)/2=120KHz Pulse rate =11*40KHz=240pulse/sec FDM Fg=0.7Hz FDM BW=20KHz channel 20Hz TDM fs=20hz BW= 120KHz 5 Channels 3.3KHz 5 Channels 3.3KHz FDM Fg=0.7Hz FDM Fg=0.7Hz 11

12 Sheet 1 Q1) 30 low-pass signal each band limited to 3.3 KHz are to be multiplex in Time by sampling frequency 10KHz. calculate min clock frequency of TDM system, total system pulse rate and Bandwidth. Q2) 10 low-pass signal each band limited to W KHz are to be multiplex in Time by min. sampling frequency if the transmitted ideal LPF cut-off is 100 KHz calculate W. Q3) The three signal f 1 (t), f 2 (t), and f 3 (t) is sampled by f s = 4 Hz draw the TDM signal from 0 sec to 1.5 sec. Then design TDM modulator and demodulator.(hint assume the pulse duration neglected) f ( t) = 2t 1 f ( t) = 3 2 f ( t) = e 3 3t 0 t < 1 0 t < 2 0 t Q4) The 1200 voice channels band limited to3.3 KHz, are time multiplexed with Two TV channel Band limited to 4.8MHz.Design FDM-TDM system. Calculate the bandwidth and pulse rate of the transmitted signal. Q5) The 30 channels first 15 band limited to3 KHz, the other 5 band limited to 9 KHz and the last 5 channels Band limited to 45KHz. Design FDM-TDM system. Calculate the bandwidth and pulse rate of the transmitted signal. 12

13 Quantization In all the sampling processes described in the previous section, the sampled signals are discrete in time but still continuous in amplitude. To obtain a fully digital representation of a continuous signal, two further operations are needed: quantization of the amplitude of the sampled signal and encoding of the quantized values, as illustrated in Figure below. m(nts) of a message signal m(t) at time t = nts into a discrete amplitude mˆ (nts) taken from a finite set of possible amplitudes. Clearly, if the finite set of amplitudes is chosen such that the spacing between two adjacent amplitude levels is sufficiently small, then the approximated (or quantized) signal, mˆ (nts). This implies that it is not possible to completely recover the sampled signal from the quantized signal. Assume that the quantization process is memoryless and instantaneous, meaning that the quantization of sample value at time t = nts is independent of earlier or later samples. With 13

14 this assumption, the quantization process can be described as in Figure 4.8. Let the amplitude range of the continuous signal be partitioned into L intervals Dl and Dl+1: Il : {Dl < m Dl+1}, l = 1,..., L. (4.18) Then the quantizer represents all the signal amplitudes in the interval Il by some amplitude Tl Il referred to as the target level (also known as the representation level or reconstruction level). The spacing between two adjacent decision levels is called the step-size. If the step-size is the same for each interval, then the quantizer is called a uniform quantizer, otherwise the quantizer is nonuniform. The uniform quantizer is the simplest and most practical one. Besides having equal decision intervals, the target level is chosen to lie in the middle of the interval From the description of the quantizer, it follows that the input output characteristic of the quantizer (or quantizer characteristic) is a staircase function. Figures 4.9(a) and 4.9(b) display two uniform quantizer characteristics, called midtread and midrise. For both characteristics, the decision levels are equally spaced and the lth target level is the midpoint of the lth interval, i.e., Tl =( D l + D l+1 )/2 14

15 Uniform Quantization SNR The performance of a quantizer is usually evaluated in terms of its SNR. In what follows, this parameter is derived for the uniform quantizer. Typically, the input of the quantizer can be modeled as a zero-mean random variable m with some PDF f m (m). Furthermore, assume that the amplitude range of m is m max m m max, that the uniform quantizer is of midrise type, and that the number of quantization levels is L. Then the quantization step-size is given by = 2m max /L Let q = m mˆ be the error introduced by the quantizer, then - /2 q /2. If the step-size is sufficiently small (i.e., the number of quantization intervals L is sufficiently large), then it is reasonable to assume that the quantization error q is a uniform randomvariable over the range [ /2, /2]. The pdf of the random variable q is therefore given by 15

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17 Nonuniform Quantizers Consider a general compression characteristic as shown in Figure below where g(m) maps the interval [ m max,m max ] into the interval [ y max, y max ]. Note that the output of the compressor is uniformly quantized. Let yl and denote, respectively, the target level and the (equal) step-size of the lth quantization region for the compressed signal y. Recall that for an L-level midrise quantizer one has = 2y max /L. The corresponding target level and step-size of the lth region for the original signal m are ml and _l respectively. 4.4 Pulse-code modulation (PCM) The last block in Figure below to be discussed is the encoder. A PCM signal is obtained from the quantized PAM signal by encoding each quantized sample to a digital codeword. If the PAM signals are quantized using L target levels, then in binary PCM each quantized sample is digitally encoded into an R-bit binary codeword, where R = [log 2 L] + 1. The quantizing and encoding operations are usually performed in the same circuit known as an A/D converter. The advantage of having a PCM signal over a quantized PAM signal is that the binary digits of a PCM signal can 17

18 be transmitted using many efficient modulation schemes compared to the transmission of a PAM signal. There are several ways to establish a one-toone correspondence between target levels and the codeword. A convenient method, known as Natural Binary Coding (NBC), is to express the ordinal number of the target level as a binary number as described in Figure Another popular mapping method is called Gray Mapping. Gray mapping is important in the demodulation of the signal because the most likely errors caused by noise involve the erroneous selection of a target level that is adjacent to the transmitted target level. Still another mapping, called Foldover Binary Coding (FBC), is also sometimes encountered. Q) Write the Binary codeword of 16 level quantization ( 4 bit PCM encoder) using NBC, Gray Mapping, and FBC coding methods 18

19 The PCM Bandwidth and Bit Rate The sampling time T S is divided into equal space call T b bit time in this space the bit represented by an electrical shape TS Tb = R R : number of bit / sample The transmitted bandwidth and it rate are BW BW PCM PCM 1 2T b Log 2 ( L) 2T 1 Bit Rate = T b S = R Hz f S bit / sec Example/ SOL/ 1-2 mmax 2 *1 L = = = 2 level 1 ln( L) R = log 2 ( L) = = 1 bit ln(2) 2-2 = L = 2 R m L max mmax = 1 volt R = 8 L = *1 = = volt This solution repeated for other case 19

20 Example/ Sol/ a) f s = 2f m f s =8000 Hz bit Rate = R f S bit Rate = 8*8000=64000 bit/sec MAX. recording Time= total memory size/bit rate MAX. recording Time=10 9 *8/64000 = sec = 2083 min and 20sec = 34 Hour, 43 min, and 20 sec b) f s = 2f m f s = Hz bit Rate = R f S bit Rate = 16*44000= bit/sec MAX. recording Time= total memory size/bit rate MAX. recording Time=10 9 *8/ = sec = 189 min and 23.6 sec = 3 Hour, 9 min, and 23.6 sec 20

21 c) f s = 2f m f s = 10 MHz bit Rate = R f S bit Rate = 12*10*10 6 =120 Mbit/sec bit Rate = 16*44000= bit/sec ( Video) (Sound) total bit/sec= 120* *10 6 = *10 6 bit/sec MAX. recording Time= total memory size/bit rate MAX. recording Time=10 9 *8/( *10 6 )= sec d) pixel bit fram Rate = * * fram pixel sec Rate = 1024*768*(8) *1 Rate = bit / sec = 1 min, and 6.28 sec MAX. recording Time=10 9 *8/( )= sec Example/ The PCM modulator have resolution ± 1% used to transmit binary data the analog signal have max, frequency 3 khz and sampling frequency is 2.5 time the analog frequency. Calculate PCM modulator parameters SOL/ Analog 3KHz Sample fs Quantizer L, SNR q Coder R Binary BW PCM Bit Rate fs = 2.5 f m fs = 7.5 KHz L = 1/(resolution) 21

22 L=1/.02 = 50 level R=log 2 (L) =ln(l)/ln(2) = bit R = 6 bit/sample 1 Let the input is sin or cos then F = 2 SNR q (db) = 6.02*R -20*log(F) +4.77= 43.9 db 1 BWPCM = Hz 2Tb Log 2 ( L) R f S BWPCM = = 2TS 2 1 Bit Rate = = R f S = 45 T b = 6 * 7500 = 22.5KHz 2 Kbit / sec Statistical Averages or Joint Moments As in the case of random variables, statistical averages or expected values can provide a partial but useful characterization for a random process. Consider N random variables x(t1), x(t2),..., x(tn). The most general form for the joint moments of these random variables is Mean value or the first moment: The mean value of the process at time t is Note that the average is across the ensemble and if the PDF varies with time, then the mean value is a (deterministic) function of time. If, however, the process is stationary, then the mean is independent of t or a constant, i.e., 22

23 Mean-squared value or the second moment: This is defined, as per the discussion for random variables as the variance: The physical interpretations of these moments are DC value (m x ), total power (MSV x ), AC power (σ 2 x ), and DC power (m 2 x). Q/ The statistic variable moments equation f(x)=x 2. Find the DC value (m x ), total power (MSV x ), AC power (σ 2 x ), and DC power (m 2 x). 3.5 The Gaussian Random Variable and Process Unquestionably the Gaussian PDF model is the one most frequently encountered in nature. This, as mentioned earlier, is because most random phenomena are due to the action of many different factors. By the central limit theorem, the resultant random variable tends to be Gaussian regardless of the underlying probabilities of the individual actors. A sample function is shown in Figure (1-a), along with the experimentally determined histogram in Figure (1-b). The histogram is an estimate of the 23

24 amplitude s PDF and we attempt to determine a reasonable analytical model for the PDF. The Gaussian PDF in the standard form in which one always sees it written. Of course f x (x) should be a valid PDF. This means that it needs to satisfy the two basic conditions: (i) f x (x) 0 for all x and (ii). 24

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37 Example/ The low pass signal of max. frequency 3.3KHz sampled 8 KHz and code by eight bit/ sample transmit by QPSK with E b /N 0 =6dB. Calculate 1- total transmit bit rate Transmit bit rate = (R*f S )/2 Transmit bit rate = (8*8000)/2=32 Kbit/sec 2- probability of error P e = Q((2E b /N 0 ) 0.5 ) E b /N 0 (db)=10 Log(E b /N 0 ) E b /N 0 = 10 (6/10) = P e = Q(2.2817) P e =(1/2)*erfc(2.2817/2 0.5 )=

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43 Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) In the context of communication engineering the appropriate statement is: You can use some of the bandwidth all of the time (FDMA), all of the bandwidth some of the time (TDMA), and you can also use all of the bandwidth all of the time (CDMA). Multiple access schemes can be classified into three broad categories. 1- Perhaps the earliest multiple access scheme was frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) in which each user is assigned a frequency band. The assigned bands typically do not overlap and the users transmit their messages simultaneously in time but over disjoint frequency bands. Commercial AM and FM radio, and television are classical examples of 43

44 this multiple access scheme as well as the first generation of mobile communications known as Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS). 2-In the second generation of mobile communication as exemplified by the GSM standard, time-division multiple access (TDMA) is used. Users now occupy the same frequency band simultaneously but send their messages in different time slots. 3-CDMA is different from the above in that users now occupy the same frequency band and transmit/receive simultaneously in time. Different users are separated or distinguished by distinct codes assigned to them. applications the called third generations of mobile communications have adopted CDMA as the multiple access scheme. 44

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