# Digital Baseband Modulation

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1 Digital Baseband Modulation

2 Later Outline

3 Baseband & Bandpass Waveforms

4 Baseband & Bandpass Waveforms, Modulation A Communication System

5 Dig. Baseband Modulators (Line Coders) Sequence of bits are modulated into waveforms before transmission à Digital transmission system consists of: The modulator is based on: The symbol mapper takes bits and converts them into symbols a n ) this is done based on a given table Pulse Shaping Filter generates the Gaussian pulse or waveform ready to be transmitted (Baseband signal) Waveform; Sampled at T

6 Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

7 Example: Binary PAM

8 Example: Quaternary PAN

9 PAM Randomness Since the amplitude level is uniquely determined by k bits of random data it represents, the pulse amplitude during the nth symbol interval (a n ) is a discrete random variable s(t) is a random process because pulse amplitudes {an} are discrete random variables assuming values from the set AM The bit period Tb is the time required to send a single data bit Rb = 1/ Tb is the equivalent bit rate of the system

10 PAM T= Symbol period D= Symbol or pulse rate

11 Example Amplitude pulse modulation If binary signaling & pulse rate is 9600 find bit rate If quaternary signaling & pulse rate is 9600 find bit rate

12 Example Amplitude pulse modulation If binary signaling & pulse rate is 9600 find bit rate M=2à k=1à bite rate Rb=1/Tb=k.D = 9600 If quaternary signaling & pulse rate is 9600 find bit rate M=2à k=1à bite rate Rb=1/Tb=k.D = 9600

13 Binary Line Coding Techniques Line coding - Mapping of binary information sequence into the digital signal that enters the baseband channel Symbol mapping Unipolar - Binary 1 is represented by +A volts pulse and binary 0 by no pulse during a bit period Polar - Binary 1 is represented by +A volts pulse and binary 0 by A volts pulse. Also called antipodal coding Bipolar (pseudoternary)- Binary 1 is alternately mapped into +A volts and A volts pulses. The binary 0 is represented by no pulse. Also called alternate mark inversion (AMI) coding Pulse shape Non-return-to-zero (NRZ). The pulse amplitude is held constant throughout the pulse or bit period

14 Binary Line Coding Techniques Return-to-zero (RZ). The pulse amplitude returns to a zerovolt level for a portion (usually one-half) of the pulse or bit period Manchester. A binary 1 is denoted by a transition from a positive pulse to a negative pulse in the middle of the bit period, and a binary 0 by a transition from a negative pulse to a positive pulse There is another set of coding schemes that transmit changes between successive data symbols called differential encoding A binary 1 causes toggling of the waveform transmitted during the previous symbol interval. No toggling is forced to transmit a binary 0

15 Binary Line Coding Examples Symbol Mapping Symbol Mapping AMI (alternate mark inversion) Symbol Mapping

16 Which Line Coding? How do we know which line coding to choose? Depends on a number of factors: How to deal with long stream of 1 s and 0 s (low frequency content) Spectral characteristics how much cross-talk or roll-off BW Efficiency what is the bit rate when BW is limited Error detection capacity Power efficiency - how much power is required to send the data We look at several key parameters for each line coding: Power Spectral Density Bandwidth Bit rate

17 Spectra of Linearly Modulated Digital Signals Linear modulation in the presence of random pulse (PAM) We assume WSS (cyclo-stationary) random process See notes!

18 Spectra of Linearly Modulated Digital Signals

19 Spectra of Linearly Modulated Digital Signals 1/T = D = symbol rate

20 Find the SD for Multi-Level Unipolar NRZ ß Definition Remember:

21 Find the SD for Multi-Level Unipolar NRZ ß Definition Remember:

22 Find the SD for Multi-Level Unipolar NRZ Spectral Density: Null-BW D

23 PSD for Multilevel Polar NRZ ß Definition Remember:

24 Example We see an impulse at f=0 à DC energy à Long 1 s results in f=d Hertz First Null Bandwidth f/rb (Rb=1)

25 Example We see an impulse at f=0 à DC energy à If this signal passes through an SC-coupled circuit The DC part will get lost à distortion (signal droop) f=d Hertz First Null Bandwidth f/rb (Rb=1)

26 Comparison of spectra of popular line codes ( Rb=1).

27 Comparison of spectra of popular line codes

28 BW

29 Power Out of Band (POB) Power out-of-band plots of popular binary line codes. 029dB Equivalent to 99 percent Of power

30 Binary Block Codes (kbnb)

31 Binary Block Codes (HDB3) HIGH DENSITY BIPORAL (3-ZEROS) Uses NRZ-I (1à + and next 1à -) Substitute FOUR zeros with 000V followed by B00V

32 References Leon W. Couch II, Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 8 th edition, Pearson / Prentice, Chapter 6 "M. F. Mesiya, Contemporary Communication Systems, 1st ed./2012, , McGraw Hill. Chapter 9

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