# Bit Error Rate Performance Analysis on Modulation Techniques of Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

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4 25 There are many different ways to characterize CDMA codes, but nothing can be more intuitive and effective than the auto-correlation function (ACF) and cross-correlation function (CCF). The ACF is defined as the result of chip-wise convolution, correlation or matched-filtering operation between two time-shifted versions of the same code, which can be further classified into two sub-categories: periodic ACF and aperiodic ACF, depending on the same and different signs of two consecutive bits. Usually the periodic and aperiodic ACFs appear equally likely due to the fact that the binary data of +1 and 1 always appear with equal probability in binary bit streams. The crosscorrelation function (CCF) is defined as the result of a chip-wise convolution operation between two different spreading codes in a family of codes. For a similar reason to that mentioned earlier for the ACF, there are also two different types of CCF, i.e. periodic and aperiodic CCF. The argument of this function is the number of periods of the code for which the autocorrelation function is to be obtained. The equation-4 is used to calculate the value of cross-correlation function between two distinct codes X(t) and Y(t). linear binary shift register of n sections is described by a generator polynomial, which is a binary polynomial of degree n. n, in this case, is the number of register of the shift register. H(x)=h nx n +h n-1x n h 1x 1 +1( h i {0,1}..(5) Also, in this case, three-stage M-sequence and a random sequence with a code length of 7 will be used. M-sequence is a sequence generated by a single LFSR where a sequence of possible period, (Nc= 2n -1), is generated by an n-stage binary shift register with linear feedback. To generate an M- sequence, the generator polynomial must be of degree n. Thus, the periodic autocorrelation function of an M-sequence is given by The system is configured based on synchronous W_CDMA system. Each user employs their own sequence to spread the information data. In this downlink transmission, the information data are modulated by modulation scheme. The arguments of this function are the name of the sequence and the number of periods of the code for which the autocorrelation function is to be obtained. The following function will be typed to calculate the cross-correlation function of codes X(t) and Y(t). In this task Linear feedback shift register will be used to generate code sequences in WCDMA. A shift register contains a number of cells identified by numbers 1 to r, and each cell is a storage unit that, under the control of a clock pulse, moves the contents to its output while reading its new contents from the input. In a standard configuration of a feedback register, the input of cell m will be a function of the output of cell m-1 and the output of cell r (the last cell of the shift register) forms the desired code sequence. In linear feedback shift registers (linear FSRs), the function combining the outputs of cell m-1 and cell r with the input of cell m is linear. Fig. 2 shows a single linear binary shift register, which can generate a sequence from generation polynomial h(x) = x5 + x In general, the configuration of a After, the modulated data are spreaded by the code that is M-sequence. The spreaded data of all users in the system are transmitted to the mobile users at the same time. The mobile user detects the information data of each user by correlating the received signal with a code sequence allocated to each user. The performance of W-CDMA system is studied based on QPSK and 16-QAM modulation techniques that has been used in this simulation. 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION Based on data generated by computer simulation of W-CDMA models, relationship for model using QPSK and QAM modulation techniques between BER as a function of the following parameters are obtained.

5 26 TABLE 1 Simulation result for evaluation on BER vs. SNR channel) and AWGN with Multipath fading channel. Signal to Noise Ratio(Eb No) Number of Error Bit Error Rate(BER) e e e e e-002 The simulation is followed by using m file. In this approach, the simulation is successfully done using QPSK modulation technique. The desired BER graphs are obtained for simulation in AWGN channel. QPSK and 16-QAM modulation techniques in AWGN channel has good performance when it is compared to that of Multipath Rayleigh channel. Also, the performance of QPSK and 16-QAM degrades when the channel is subjected to Multipath fading with increasing value of Doppler shift (Hz). In other words, it performs poorly as the speed of mobile terminal is increased. Moreover, the system performs badly as the number of users is increased. Comparison between QPSK and 16- QAM modulation schemes shows that 16-QAM performs very poorly in both AWGN (LOS

6 27 The simulation of 16-QAM modulation technique using m files cannot be done because it is suspected that the variation of amplitude with phase causes errors in the constellation of 16-QAM signal. The reason behind this poor performance of 16-QAM of W-CDMA system in multipath fading channel is basically due to the interference between adjacent carriers phase in the constellation of 16-ary QAM. A sound approach is needed to be used in 16-QAM of W- CDMA system to ensure zero or minimal interference between adjacent carriers phase in the constellation of 16-QAM. It is suggested that error correction coding such as convolution coding or turbo coding is used in this system to ensure better performance of 16-QAM modulation technique of W-CDMA system. Also, it is possible to consider the use of a RAKE receiver or a smart antenna (MIMO) in this system to exploit the delayed signals generated in multipath fading channel. It is discovered, as well, that the performance of multiuser in the m file is limited to a maximum of 7 users. Thus, this system needs to be improved to simulate more number of users so that the performance of multiple accesses in W-CDMA can be studied more dynamically. 5 CONCLUSION In telecommunication field the major challenges is to convey the information as efficiently as possible through limited bandwidth, though the some of information bits are lost in most of the cases and signal which is sent originally will face fading. To reduce the bit error rate the loss of information and signal fading should be minimized. In our thesis we analyze two modulation techniques, QPSK and 16-QAM to reduce the error performance of the signal and compare which technique is better through Rayleigh Fading Channel in the presence of AWGN. The performance of W-CDMA system in AWGN channel shows that QPSK modulation technique has a better performance compared to that of 16-QAM. Furthermore, similar trend is

8 29 [11] Bernard Sklar, "Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications", Prentice- Hall, 2nd Edition, pp M. A. Masud received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degree in Information and Communication Engineering from Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh in 2005 and 2006 respectively. Since March 2007, he has been on the faculty of the Department of Computer Science and Information Technology at Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh. His current research interests are Cellular Communication, WCDMA, and OFDMA technology. M. Samsuzzaman completed the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degree in Computer Science and Engineering from Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh in 2007 and 2008 respectively. He has been working as a lecturer in the department of Computer and Communication Engineering at Patuakhali Science and Technology University since 0n Feb His research interests are WSN, WCDMA and GSM. M. A. Rahman Completed B. Sc. in Computer Science and Engineering from Patuakhali Science and Technology University.

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