Lecture 1: Introduction

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1 Mobile Data Networks Lecturer: Victor O.K. Li EEE Department Room: CYC601D Tel.: Course home page: 1 Lecture 1: Introduction Mobile data network architecture Applications Generations of Wireless networks Syllabus References and assessment

2 Wireless comes of age Guglielmo Marconi invented the wireless telegraph in 1896 Communication by encoding alphanumeric characters in analog signal Sent across the Atlantic Ocean Communication satellites launched in 1960s Advances in wireless technology Radio, television, mobile telephone, communication satellites More recently Satellite communications, wireless networking, cellular technology 3 Infrastructure-based mobile data networks 4

3 Infrastructure-less mobile data networks 5 Evolving wireless applications Asset positioning Tele-metering M-commerce Internet access Sensor networks 6

4 Generations of Wireless Networks 1G wireless standards: AMPS Analog Frequency division duplexing Non-compatible standards G: CDMA, GSM Voice dominant Digital TDMA/FDD, CDMA/FDD 3G: WCDMA, cdma000, TDSCDMA CDMA Voice, data High speed 7 Comparison of different networks Mobility Vehicle Outdoor Pedestrian Fixed G 3G Indoor Pedestrian Fixed WPAN WLAN Bitrate (Mbps) 8

5 Limitations of wireless technologies Wireless is convenient and less expensive Political and technical difficulties may inhibit wireless technologies Lack of an industry-wide standard Device limitations E.g., small LCD on a mobile telephone can only display a few lines of text E.g., browsers of most mobile wireless devices use wireless markup language (WML) instead of HTML 9 Chapter 1: Basic Concepts of Wireless Data Networks Network architecture Applications Development of wireless networks Alternatives for physical transmission Medium access control design Basic operation of mobile data networks 10

6 Chapter : Data services in GSM Basic concepts of GSM system Short Message services (SMS) services in GSM High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) services General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) 11 Chapter 3: Data services in 3G Basic concept of 3G system Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) service WCDMA system cdma000 1

7 Chapter 4: Bluetooth technology Bluetooth air interface Protocol stack Bluetooth networking Development considerations 13 Chapter 5: Wireless LANs Evolution of WLAN industry Architecture and services PHY layer specification MAC layer 14

8 Chapter 6: Mobile IP Mobile IP overview Details of mobile IP Tunneling Security issues 15 References Textbook: Principles of wireless networks, Kaveh Pahlavan and Prashant Krishnamurthy, Prentice Hall, 00 Mobile IP, James Solomon, Prentice Hall, 1998 Data over wireless networks: Bluetooth, WAP and Wireless LANs, Gilbert Held, McGraw-Hill, 000 GPRS from A-Z, Artech House,

9 Assessment HW: 10% Mid-term examination: 35% Final examination: 55% 17 Chapter 1 Basic concepts of wireless data networks Part 1: Alternatives of physical transmission for mobile data networks 18

10 Considerations of wireless modem Bandwidth efficiency Power efficiency Out-of-band radiation Resistance to mutipath Constant envelope modulation 19 Three categories of transmission schemes Baseband pulse transmission Baseband pulse Ultra wide band (UWB) Traditional modulated transmission Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) Spread spectrum transmission Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) 0

11 Short distance baseband transmission No modulation with a carrier No frequency division multiplexing (FDM) No attention to out-of-band radiation Two steps: Line coding for synchronization and DC offset Pulse modulation: amplitude, location or duration Applications: IR-based WLAN 1 An example of baseband transmission: IR-based WLAN Non-Return-to-Zero stream encoded by Manchester code Line-coded signal, then intensity modulated by emitted IR light. Receiver consists of photosensitive diode NRZ Manchester Light intensity

12 UWB pulse transmission A very narrow width and low power pulse for information transmission Width: order of a few tenths of a nanosecond High-duty cycle of several hundreds of nanoseconds Spectrum occupies a wide band: several GHz Spectral height is very low: comparable with background noise May coexist with existing systems Minimal fading effect Applications: precision geo-location, high performance radar 3 An example of UWB system Developed by Time Domain Corporation (TDC) Width: 0.ns 1.5ns Pulse-to-pulse interval: ns Pulse shape: Spectrum: V ( v( t) f ) = 6A c eπ t e 3 τ t 6π τ π 6 f eπ c = j e 3 f f f 4

13 Pulse and spectrum τ=0.5ns, f c =GHz 3-dB bandwidth: GHz 5 Traditional modulated transmission Three types: amplitude-, frequency-, or phase-modulated s(t ) = A sin(πft + φ) As fading causes extensive amplitude fluctuations, AM not desirable. FM: GMSK in GSM PM: π /4-QPSK in IS-136, US TDMA system 6

14 Digital frequency modulation bit 0: frequency f 1 bit 1: frequency f Advantage: constant envelope Challenge: orthogonality for frequency spacing Binary data Frequency modulator antenna 7 FSK Demodulation (coherent) Received signal: After demodulation: a ( t ) O O 1 0 ( T ( T 1 ) T a ( t ) = = 1 : ) = 0 = : 0 0 sin sin sin π ( f 1 f ) T π ( f f ) If orthogonal: T T 1 S t) = sin [ πf a( t) + π f (1 a( t)) ]t ( 1 ( π f t ) sin ( π f t ) ( π f t ) sin ( π f t ) 1 f 1 1 dt dt f n T ( f f ) S(t) O ( t) = 0 π T = nπ 0 1 = 1 sin πf c t LPF O(T) 8

15 Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) Challenges for FSK: for optimal detection at receiver, orthogonality of transmitted symbols should be maintained, which can be achieved by proper frequency spacing. Non-coherent detection, 1/T; coherent detection, 1/T: minimum shift keying Smaller spacing, smaller occupied bandwidth Filters used for baseband signal to further reduce side lobes, which reduces interference to others Gaussian filter used, GMSK Binary data Gaussian filter Frequency modulator antenna 9 Digital phase modulation Baseband information signal is encoded in the phase of the transmitted signal. BPSK: 1, 0 o ; 0, 180 o Multi-phase modulation possible Modulator Demodulator cos πf c t cos πf c t LPF 30

16 Quadrature PSK (QPSK) phases modulation, 0, 90, 180, 70 : 00, 70 ; 10, 0 ; 11, 90 ; 01, 180 Bandwidth efficiency doubled 1x1x0x0x cos πf c t cos πf c t LPF LPF 1x1x0x0x x0x1x0x sin πf c t sin πf c t 0x0x1x0x modulator demodulator 31 Spread spectrum transmissions Transmitted signal occupies a much larger bandwidth than traditional modulation schemes Two basic methods: direct sequence spread spectrum DSSS and frequency hopping spread spectrum FHSS Applications: 3G, IEEE WLAN 3

17 Advantages of spread spectrum SS signals overlaid onto bands used by other systems Better performance on fading channel Anti-interference Greater flexibility and capacity 33 Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) Information stream modulated in traditional scheme Central frequency shifted randomly Data in Traditional modulation Random freq. hopper Random freq. hopper Traditional Demod. Data out 34

18 An example of FHSS system 35 Direct sequence spread spectrum Two stage modulation: Stage 1: each transmitted bit is mapped into N smaller pulses referred as chips. Stage : chips are transmitted over a traditional digital modulator. Demodulation: Received chips are demodulated first. Then passed through a correlator to despread the signal. spreader Traditional modulation traditional Demod. correlator 36

19 An DSSS system: IEEE Barker code: [1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,1,-1,-1 1,-1] V Data bit t Spread bit chip 37 Autocorrelation calculation Equation: R ( l) = au where the value of a i is 0 when i<1 and i>n For Barker code: n j= n a j a j l R au ( l) = 11 a j= 11 j a j l l = 11, 10,,11 R au (1) = = 0 11 a j= 11 j a j 1 38

20 Summary Baseband pulse transmission: No carrier modulation Short range Traditional transmission: GMSK and QPSK Licensed spectrum Reliable, relatively simpler Suffers from multipath fading Spread spectrum Wide bandwidth occupied More complex More efficient Anti-interference 39 Summary (cont d) Other new modulations: OFDM orthogonal frequency division multiplexing π/4-qpsk, OQPSK QAM 40

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