4 Digital Video Signal According to ITU-BT.R.601 (CCIR 601) 43

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1 Table of Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Analog Television 7 3 The MPEG Data Stream The Packetized Elementary Stream (PES) The MPEG-2 Transport Stream Packet Information for the Receiver Synchronizing to the Transport Stream Reading out the Current Program Structure Accessing a Program Accessing Scrambled Programs Program Synchronisation (PCR, DTS, PTS) Additional Information in the Transport Stream The PSIP according to ATSC Other Important Details of the MPEG-2 Transport Stream The Transport Priority The Transport Scrambling Control Bits The Adaptation Field Control Bits The Continuity Counter 40 4 Digital Video Signal According to ITU-BT.R.601 (CCIR 601) 43 5 Transforms to and from the Frequency Domain Fourier Transform Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Implementation and Practical Applications of DFT and FFT Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) Time-Domain Signals and their Transforms to the Frequency Domain Systematic Errors Associated with DFT or FFT 60

2 XII Table of Contents 5.8 Window Functions 62 6 MPEG-2 Video Coding Video Compression Reducing the Quantization from 10 Bits to Omitting the Horizontal and Vertical Blanking Intervals Reduction in Vertical Color Resolution (4:2:0) Further Data Reduction Steps Differential Pulse Code Modulation of Moving Pictures Discrete Cosine Transform Followed by Quantization Zig-Zag Scanning with Variable-Length Coding of Zero Sequences Huffman Coding Summary Structure of the Video Elementary Stream 87 7 Compression of Audio Signals to MPEG and Dolby Digital Digital Audio Source Signal History of Audio Coding Psychoacoustic Model of the Human Ear Basic Principle of Audio Coding Subband Coding in Accordance with MPEG Layer I, II Transform Coding to MPEG Layer III and Dolby Digital Teletext Transmission to DVB A Comparison of Digital Video Standards Ill 9.1 MPEG-1 and MPEG-2, VCD and DVD, M-JPEG, MiniDV/DV MPEG-3, MPEG-4, MPEG-7 and MPEG Physical Interfaces for Digital Video Signals Parallel and Serial CCIR Synchronous Parallel Transport Stream Interface Asynchronous Serial Transport Stream Interface Measurements on the MPEG-2 Transport Stream MPEG-2 Measurements to DVB Measurement Guidelines Loss of Synchronisation Errored Sync Bytes Missing or Errored Program Association Table Missing or Errored Program Map Table The PIELError The Continuity_Count_Error 129

3 Table of Contents XIII The Transport_Error The Cyclic Redundancy Check Error The Program Clock Reference Error The Presentation Time Stamp Error The Conditional Access Table Error Service Information Repetition Rate Error Monitoring the NIT, SDT, EIT, RST, TDT/TOT Tables Undefined PIDs Errors in the Transmission of Additional Service Information NIT_other_error, SDT_other_error, EIT_other_error Monitoring an ATSC-Compliant MPEG-2 Transport Stream Picture Quality Analysis of Digital TV Signals Methods for Measuring Picture Quality Subjective Picture Quality Analysis Double Stimulus Continual Quality Scale Method Single Stimulus Continual Quality Evaluation Method Objective Picture Quality Analysis Digital Modulation Basics Introduction Mixer Amplitude Modulator IQ Modulator IQ Demodulator Use of Hilbert Transform in IQ Modulation Practical Applications of the Hilbert Tansform Transmitting Digital Television Signals by Satellite - DVB-S The DVB-S System Parameters The DVB-S Modulator How Does Convolutional Coding Work? The DVB-S Receiver Influences Affecting the Satellite Transmission Link DVB-S Measuring Technology Introduction Measuring Bit Error Rates Measuring DVB-S Signals using a Spectrum Analyzer Measuring the Shoulder Attenuation DVB-S Receiver Test 202

4 XIV Table of Contents 15 Broadband Cable Transmission of Digital TV Signal (DVB-C)...2O The DVB-C Standard The DVB-C Modulator The DVB-C Receiver Interference Effects on the DVB-C Transmission Link Broadband Cable Transmission According to ITU-T J83B Measuring Digital TV Signals in the Broadband Cable DVB-C/J83A,B,C Test Receivers with Constellation Analysis Detecting Interference Effects Using Constellation Analysis Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) Phase Jitter Sinusoidal Interferer Effects of the VQ Modulator Modulation Error Ratio (MER) Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) Measuring the Bit Error Rate (BER) Measuring the DVB-C/J83ABC Carrier Power and Estimating the Signal-to-Noise Ratio Using a Spectrum Analyzer Measuring the Shoulder Attenuation Measuring the Ripple or Tilt in the Channel DVB-C/J83A,B,C Receiver Test Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) Introduction Why Multi-Carrier? What is OFDM? Generating the OFDM Symbols Supplementary Signals in the OFDM Spectrum Hierarchical Modulation Summary The Terrestrial Transmission of DTV Signals (DVB-T) The DVB-T Standard The DVB-T Carriers Hierarchical Modulation DVB-T System Parameters of the 8-/7-/6-MHz Channel The DVB-T Modulator and Transmitter The DVB-T Receiver Interference on the DVB-T Transmission Link and its Effects The Transmission Path 289

5 Table of Contents XV 19.9 DVB-T Single-Frequency Networks (SFN) Measuring DVB-T Signals Measuring the Bit Error Rates Measuring the DVB-T Signals Using a Spectrum Analyzer Constellation Analysis of DVB-T Signals Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) Phase Jitter Interference Sources Echoes, Multipath Reception Doppler Effect VQ Errors of the Modulator Cause and Effect of I/Q Errors in DVB-T Modulation Error Ratio (MER) Measuring the Crest Factor Measuring the Amplitude, Phase and Group Delay Response Measuring the Impulse Response Measuring the Shoulder Attenuation Digital Terrestrial TV to North American ATSC Standard ATSC Standard VSB Modulator VSB Gross Data Rate and Net Data Rate ATSC Receiver Causes of Interference on ATSC Transmission Path ATSC/8VSB Measurements Bit Error Rate (BER) Measurement VSB Measurements by Means of a Spectrum Analyzer Constellation Analysis on 8VSB Signals Measurement of Amplitude and Group Delay Response Digital Terrestrial Television according to ISDB-T Digital Television throughout the World - an Overview 361 Bibliography 365 Definition of Terms 369 Index 381

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