# Measurement of Adjacent Channel Leakage Power on 3GPP W-CDMA Signals with the FSP

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Products: Spectrum Analyzer FSP Measurement of Adjacent Channel Leakage Power on 3GPP W-CDMA Signals with the FSP This application note explains the concept of Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) measurement on 3GPP W-CDMA signals with the spectrum analyzer FSP. Optimum operation for both the integrated bandwidth method and the new time domain method are shown via explanation of the signal behavior and the internal structure of the FSP. With the time domain method the spectrum analyzer family FSP provides a new approach featuring a very short measurement time compared to the integrated bandwidth method. Subject to change Josef Wolf 01/01-1EF41_0E

3 3 The Integrated Bandwidth Method For measuring channel power most modern spectrum analyzers provide software routines for calculating power within given channels. These routines calculate the power by integrating the power represented by the displayed trace pixels within the frequency range of the channel. With N trace pixels within the channel the integration is performed according to the following formula: N Pi = ai/rrc) CHBW 1 CP 10 log (1) RBW kn N 1 Whereas CP = CHBW = RBW = k n = N = P i = a i(rrc) = Channel Power in dbm Channel bandwidth in khz Resolution bandwidth used for measurement in khz Correction factor for noise bandwidth of the used RBW Number of pixels within the channel Level represented by pixel i of the trace in dbm attenuation of the 3GPP RRC filter at pixel i in db. The 3GPP standard requires a Root-Raised Cosine (RRC) filter for measuring the power within each channel. Therefore each pixel used for integration is weighted with the attenuation of the RRC filter at the respective offset from the channel center frequency. In order not to affect the RRC filter shape the spectrum analyzer resolution bandwidth needs to be narrow compared to the channel filter bandwidth. Therefore, the FSP uses the 30-kHz resolution filter. For power measurements the FSP provides the sample detector or the RMS detector. The RMS detector is preferable as it measures power more repeatably compared to the sample detector. The RMS detector measures the power of the spectrum represented by a pixel by applying the power formula to the IF envelope voltage. For higher repeatability the measuring time per pixel can be controlled by the sweep time. With higher sweep time the time for power integration for each pixel increases; the trace becomes smoother with longer sweep times and with it the test results become more stable and repeatable. With the sample detector only one sample per pixel coming from the AD Converter is displayed independent of the sweep time. The trace is rather noisy and as a consequence the test results are not as repeatable as with the RMS detector. For these reasons the FSP selects the RMS detector automatically when the adjacent ahannel power measurement is switched on. 1EF41_0E 3 Rohde & Schwarz

4 Fig 1 3GPP ACLR measurement using the IBW method The FSP screen shot in figure 1 shows an ACLR measurement on a 3GPP up-link signal loaded with 3 code channels. The upper part shows the spectrum of the signal. In the lower half the numbered values of the channel power and the ACLR of the 5- and 10-MHz offset channels is displayed. Due to the use of the RMS detector the smoothness of the trace and the stability of the test results are dependent on the sweep time set. Calculating the standard deviation of 100 consecutive ACLR measurements on a 3GPP up-link signal using different sweep times generates the graph in figure 2. Standard Deviation / db ACLR Test Time (IBW Method) Sample Detector RMS Detector (Tx channel) RMS Detector (adj channels) Sweep Time /ms Fig 2 Standard deviation of the ACLR measurement on a 3GPP up-link signal dependent on the sweep time. The x-axis shows the sweep time. On the y-axis the corresponding standard deviation of the test results is shown. For comparison it also shows the standard deviation with the sample detector used for the 1EF41_0E 4 Rohde & Schwarz

5 measurement. It is not dependent on the sweep time. Reductions in deviation of sample-detected measurements requires that multiple traces be taken. The multiple traces are then averaged, resulting in smaller deviations. Measurement time is dependent upon available processor speed. The sample-detected method generally is much slower than the RMS method for similar measurement uncertainty. In addition there is a risk of an additional error due to the averaging process. As the trace averaging is performed in logarithmic scaling, the log average value must be corrected for absolute power. The correction factor is well known for white noise (+2.51 db). Dependent on the amplitude statistics in the TX channel and in the adjacent channels it may vary between the channels. This leads to different results even with the relative power measurement in case of the ACLR measurement. For 95 % confidence level for the measured power being within 0.5 db of the true result the standard deviation is 0.25 db (assuming a Gaussian distribution of the test results). The sweep time needed for 0.25 db standard deviation using RMS detection is about 90 ms. The overhead for internal calculation of the power in the 5 channels and the transfer of the test results via GPIB to an external controller is 22 ms. This results in a total test time of 122 ms. The narrow resolution bandwidth necessary with the Integration Bandwidth (IBW) method has the primary impact on sweep time. The sweep time of a spectrum analyzer is dependent on the span and the RBW according to (2). span SWT =, whereas SWT = sweep time (2) RBW 2 This results in an enormous increase of the sweep time, if the 30-kHz RBW is used with the IBW method as opposed to the channel bandwidth maximum usable for the measurement. However, due to the limited selectivity provided by general spectrum analyzer filters, a resolution bandwidth equal to the channel bandwidth is not possible, even if it were available. 1EF41_0E 5 Rohde & Schwarz

6 4 The Time Domain Method Due to the digital filtering concept of the FSP series spectrum analyzers it is now feasible to implement the filters necessary for direct channel power measurement. Fig 3 explains with a simplified block diagram the implementation of the digital resolution filters up to 100 khz bandwidth and the channel filters for ACP measurement. IF MHz IF MHz IF 20.4 MHz Image Reject Lowpass Filter RF Input 0 to 3 GHz 2nd IF Filter B = 10 MHz Pre-filter 12 bit A D Digital Down Converter Q DDC I Resol. Filter (RBW) Envelope Detector I 2 +Q 2 RMS Detector T 1 V 2 env (t) dt T 0 Display 1st LO to GHz 2nd LO 3072 MHz 3rd LO 384 MHz BW = 2.6 x RBW 32 MHz RBW Control Fig 3 Simplified block diagram of the FSP signal path The RF input signal is converted to the 20.4 MHz final IF using triple conversion. The 10 MHz IF filter is implemented in the 2 nd IF path (404.4 MHz). In addition to the 10-MHz resolution filtering it rejects the image frequency of the 3 rd IF (f in MHz). For narrow resolution bandwidths a tunable pre-filter is available in the MHz IF. The bandwidth of the pre-filter is about 2.6 times the selected resolution bandwidth. It prevents the AD Converter from being loaded with out of band signals. In the case of modulated signals like 3GPP W-CDMA it limits the spectrum applied to the AD Converter. The 20.4-MHz IF is digitized using a 12-bit AD Converter (AD9042 from Analog Devices) with a sampling rate of 32 MHz (band-pass sampling). The maximum attainable bandwidth w/o image response is about 1.5 MHz due to the tunable analog pre-filter. For wider bandwidth the 20.4-MHz IF is shifted to 21.4 MHz and a fixed-bandwidth image rejection filter is used. Bandwidths up to 6.4 MHz can be achieved that way. The digitized IF is down-converted into IQ domain using a digital down converter (DDC). The inphase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals are lowpass filtered to achieve the desired resolution bandwidth. These digital lowpass filters are programmable and can be configured for nearly arbitrary filter characteristics. The FSP series uses digitally implemented Gaussian type resolution BW filters from 10 Hz to 100 khz for fastest sweep speed. For channel power measurement specific channel filters are available. For channel power measurement on 3GPP W-CDMA signals, for example, a Root-Raised Cosine filter is available with the 3 GPP characteristic figures (f chip = 3.84 MHz, α = 0.22). Figure 4 shows the amplitude response of the filter. 1EF41_0E 6 Rohde & Schwarz

7 Fig 4 Amplitude response of the 3GPP W-CDMA RRC channel filter At the output of the resolution filters the IF envelope voltage and its RMS value are calculated. The RMS integration time (T) is dependent on the sweep time and can be set in a wide range. With the FSP it is coupled to the selected sweep time in the frequency domain as well as in the time domain. For the time domain method the FSP steps through the different channels specified by the ACP setup and measures the power in each channel according to the sweep time set up. Measurement time for each channel is defined as the sweep time divided by the number of channels. For each channel the FSP generates a single number for the power within the channel. Fig 5 Principle of the Time Domain Method Fig 5 illustrates the procedure of the time domain method. Stepping through the different channels is equivalent to setting a channel filter to the respective channel. The total time needed for a complete ACLR measurement is determined by the sweep time plus the time the synthesizer needs for switching its frequency through the different channels. The FSP uses a VCO local oscillator design providing a fast settling time compared to the YIG oscillator design used in most spectrum analyzers. The time needed to set up a new frequency is about 6 ms. Figure 6 shows a screen shot with an ACLR measurement on a 3GPP W- CDMA up-link signal. 1EF41_0E 7 Rohde & Schwarz

8 Fig 6 3GPP ACLR measurement using the Time Domain Method The trace in the diagram in the upper half of the screen shows the power of the different channels in time domain. In the lower half of the screen the measured power levels are listed together with the channel configuration. Due to the wider bandwidth used for the channel power measurement, the time required for a measurement is short compared to the IBW method. Similar to figure 2, the graph in figure 7 shows the standard deviation of 100 consecutive measurements. Standard Deviation /db Tx channel ACLR Test Time (TD Method) Adj Channels) Sweep Time /ms Fig 7 Standard deviation of the ACLR measurement on a 3GPP up-link signal dependent on the sweep time using the TD method. According to figure 7 the net test time for a standard deviation of 0.25 db, (a repeatability of 95 % confidence level) is about 3.2 ms. Taking into account the time the sythesizer needs for switching between the different channels and the transfer of the test results to an external controller via GPIB the total test time for 5 channels is 23 ms. Compared to the total test time needed with the IBW method (112 ms) this is an improvement by a factor of EF41_0E 8 Rohde & Schwarz

10 bandwidth. When measuring the W-CDMA signal with a narrow resolution bandwidth the CCDF approaches the CCDF of white noise, also shown in figure 7. RBW 10 MHz Ref -10 dbm * Att 0 db SWT 125 ms 1 SA CLRWR 2 SA VIEW 3 SA VIEW E-3 1E-4 1E-5 RBW = 10 MHz White Noise RBW = 100 khz A SGL Center 1950 MHz 2 db/ Mean Pwr + 20 db Fig 8 Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) of the 3GPP up-link signal loaded with three code channels. The peak power of the wide band signal measured with 10 MHz resolution bandwidth is about 7 db greater than the mean power (crest factor = 7 db). Due to the bandwidth limitation in the analog signal path of the FSP the signal level applied to the AD Converter is low with the IBW method compared to the TD method. With the TD method only the 10 MHz resolution filter at the 2 nd IF (see fig 3) is available for analog pre-filtering. It does not attenuate the W-CDMA TX signal when measuring in the 5-MHz offset channel. The AD Converter has to cope with the complete signal. With a crest factor of 7 db the reference level must be set 7 db higher relative to the mean power. With the IBW method the FSP is set to 30 khz resolution bandwidth. With 30 khz resolution bandwidth an analog band pass filter is used in front of the AD Converter providing a bandwidth of 78 khz. The power of the W- CDMA signal is reduced by 3840 khz 10 lg = 16.9dB (3) 78kHz Therefore the mean power in front of the AD Converter is 16.9 db lower compared to the TD method. According to the central limit theorem the amplitude distribution of a digital modulated signal approaches the distribution of white noise in case of narrow band filtering (see figure 8); the crest factor of the filtered signal changes. For the following considerations the crest factor will be assumed to be 10 db. Taking into account the different crest factors (10 db vs. 7 db) the reference level with the IBW method can be set 14 db lower compared to the TD method. These lower reference levels used in the IBW method result in an increased gain used at the input of the AD converter. The increased gain in the IF results in a lower noise figure. The following graph shows the FSP noise figure at a -30 dbm reference level versus the set reference level. 1EF41_0E 10 Rohde & Schwarz

11 Fig 9 Relative noise figure of the FSP dependent on the reference level set to a -30 dbm reference level and 0 db RF attenuation, valid for digital implemented RBW Taking into account the different reference levels possible for the IBW method and the TD method the following graphs show the dynamic range achievable dependent on the mixer level of the FSP. (Mixer level = mean power at the input mixer = mean power at the RF input - RF attenuation) With the IBW method shown in figure 8 the optimum mixer level is determined mainly by the inherent noise floor and the spectral re-growth intercept. At about -20 to -22 dbm level at the input mixer the FSP provides a dynamic range of about 65 dbc for ACLR in the 5-MHz offset channel. Fig. 10 IBW method: FSP inherent dynamic range for 3 GPP ACLR in the 5-MHz offset channels dependent on the level at the input mixer. The dots show measured values using a FSP7 With the TD method the AD Converter must cope with the TX signal when measuring in the 5-MHz offset channel. Therefore the intermodulation products from the AD Converter contribute to the leakage power in the offset channels. Contrary to intermodulation(im) products generated in the analog signal path, the level of the IM products generated by the AD Converter are nearly independent of the signal level. The ACLR due to intermodulation of the AD Converter decreases linearly with the decrease of 1EF41_0E 11 Rohde & Schwarz

13 Fig 12 TD method: FSP inherent dynamic range for 3 GPP ACLR in the 5-MHz offset channels dependent on the level at the input mixer When selecting one of the 3GPP standards offered for ACLR measurements, the FSP adjusts the reference level automatically when measuring the power in the 10-MHz offset channel. 1 To free the user from calculating the optimum mixer level the FSP provides automatic routines to establish the optimum RF attenuation and reference level. With the signal from the device under test applied to the FSP the user simply activates the soft key ADJUST REF LEVEL in the ACPR menu of the FSP to optimize the dynamic range of the instrument. 1 Automatic reference level setting is implemented in the FSP firmware from version For previous versions the reference level is constant for all offsets. 1EF41_0E 13 Rohde & Schwarz

14 6 Measurement Accuracy When testing ACLR measurement accuracy is a very important issue. Low errors due to the test equipment leave a higher margin at the device under test or can be used to reduce test time with the trade-off of a reduced repeatability (see figure 2 and figure 7). As the ACLR is determined by the difference of two power levels only those spectrum analyzer parameters which contribute to relative display accuracy must be considered. These are the display non-linearity and the frequency response within the range of the channels considered. Due to the digital implementation of the resolution bandwidths and the detectors in the FSP, the display non-linearity is due only to the AD Converter. The FSP specification from reference level to -70 db from reference level is <0.2 db. The following graph shows the display non-linearity measured on 30 FSPs. Fig 13 Measured display non-linearity measured with 30 FSPs To avoid the influence of the FSP noise floor the 300 Hz resolution bandwidth is selected for this measurement. It shows that with all 30 FSPs the display nonlinearity is within ± 0.05 db The frequency response of the FSP is specified with <0.5 db from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. However, for ACLR measurement only frequency ranges of ±12.5 MHz around the FSP center frequency have to be regarded. In this narrow frequency band a frequency response of less than 0.1 db ought to be expected. From these two error contributions the total measurement uncertainty with 95 % confidence level is db. In addition to the inherent level errors of the FSP the signal to noise ratio is an important factor in the expected error. The inherent adjacent channel power of the FSP adds to the power of the device under test. Both linear power levels are added and result in the displayed power level. The following graph shows the error due to the signal to noise ratio. 1EF41_0E 14 Rohde & Schwarz

15 Fig 14 Level error dependent on (S+N)/N With a (S+N)/N in the offset channels of 10 db the error will be 0.5 db. In the TX channel the error is negligible due to the high S/N. Therefore a minimum margin of 10 db is desirable for low ACLR error. Regarding the limits set by the 3GPP TS specification, the FSP can easily meet this requirement for both, the IBW and the TD method. Table 2 3GPPspecifications vs. optimum dynamic range of the FSP for typical signals, IBW vs. TD method. UE channel ACLR limit FSP Dyn Rge IBW Method FSP Dyn Rge TD Method ± 5 MHz -32 dbc - 65 dbc - 57 dbc ± 10 MHz -42 dbc - 67 dbc -71 dbc 7 Literature [1] Technical Specification TS V3.1.0, 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), Technical Specification Group (TSG) RAN WG4, UE Radio transmission and Reception (FDD) [2] Application Note 1EF40_E, Measurement of Adjacent Channel Power on Wideband CDMA Signals [3] Josef Wolf and Bob Buxton, Measure Adjacent Channel Power With a Spectrum Analyzer, Microwaves & RF, January 1997, pp [4] Bob Buxton, Steve Stanton and Josef Wolf, "ACP Measurements on Amplifiers Designed for Digital Cellular and PCS Systems," Proceedings of the 6th Annual Wireless Symposium, Feb 1998, pp. 122 to 127 1EF41_0E 15 Rohde & Schwarz

16 8 Ordering information Type of instrument Ordering number FSP3 9 khz to 3 GHz FSP7 9 khz to 7 GHz FSP13 9 khz to 13,6 GHz FSP30 9 khz to 30 GHz ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG. Mühldorfstraße 15. D München. P.O.B D München. Telephone Fax Internet: This application note and the supplied programs may only be used subject to the conditions of use set forth in the download area of the Rohde & Schwarz website. 1EF41_0E 16 Rohde & Schwarz

### Fast and Accurate Test of Mobile Phone Boards

Products: R&S FSP Fast and Accurate Test of Mobile Phone Boards Short test times in conjunction with accurate and repeatable measurement results are essential when testing and calibrating mobile phones

### Optimizing IP3 and ACPR Measurements

Optimizing IP3 and ACPR Measurements Table of Contents 1. Overview... 2 2. Theory of Intermodulation Distortion... 2 3. Optimizing IP3 Measurements... 4 4. Theory of Adjacent Channel Power Ratio... 9 5.

### CRP718 RF and Microwave Measurements Laboratory

CRP718 RF and Microwave Measurements Laboratory Experiment- MW2 Handout. Updated Jan 13, 2011 SPECTRUM ANALYZER BASED MEASUREMENTS (groups of 2 may omit part 2.1, but are advised to study the procedures

### Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower. Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics

Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics Learning Objectives Name the major measurement strengths of a swept-tuned spectrum analyzer Explain the importance of frequency

### Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower. Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics

Jeff Thomas Tom Holmes Terri Hightower Learn RF Spectrum Analysis Basics Agenda Overview: Spectrum analysis and its measurements Theory of Operation: Spectrum analyzer hardware Frequency Specifications

### AM/FM/ϕM Measurement Demodulator FS-K7

Data sheet Version 02.00 AM/FM/ϕM Measurement Demodulator FS-K7 July 2005 for the Analyzers FSQ/FSU/FSP and the Test Receivers ESCI/ESPI AM/FM/ϕM demodulator for measuring analog modulation parameters

### Measuring ACLR Performance in LTE Transmitters. Application Note

Measuring ACLR Performance in LTE Transmitters Application Note Introduction As wireless service providers push for more bandwidth to deliver IP services to more users, LTE has emerged as a next-generation

### MATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES

200 WOOD AVENUE, MIDDLESEX, NJ 08846 PHONE (732) 469-9510 FAX (732) 469-0418 MATRIX TECHNICAL NOTES MTN-107 TEST SETUP FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF X-MOD, CTB, AND CSO USING A MEAN SQUARE CIRCUIT AS A DETECTOR

### APPLICATION BRIEF. Increase Power Amplifier Test Throughput with the Agilent PXI Vector Signal Generator and Analyzers

APPLICATION BRIEF Increase Power Amplifier Test Throughput with the Agilent PXI Vector Signal Generator and Analyzers Challenge the Boundaries of Test Agilent Modular Products Accelerate power amplifier

### Agilent AN 1316 Optimizing Spectrum Analyzer Amplitude Accuracy

Agilent AN 1316 Optimizing Spectrum Analyzer Amplitude Accuracy Application Note RF & Microwave Spectrum Analyzers Table of Contents 3 3 4 4 5 7 8 8 13 13 14 16 16 Introduction Absolute versus relative

### Measurement of Harmonics using Spectrum Analyzers

Application Note Dr. Florian Ramian February 01-1EF78_1E Measurement of Harmonics using Spectrum Analyzers Application Note Products: R&S FSW This Application Note focuses on measurement of harmonics using

### Conditioning and Correction of Arbitrary Waveforms Part 2: Other Impairments

From September 2005 High Frequency Electronics Copyright 2005 Summit Technical Media Conditioning and Correction of Arbitrary Waveforms Part 2: Other Impairments By Mike Griffin and John Hansen Agilent

### Agilent E6832A W-CDMA Calibration Application

Agilent E6832A W-CDMA Calibration Application For the E6601A Wireless Communications Test Set Data Sheet The next generation of mobile phone manufacturing test. E6601A is the newest test set from Agilent

### GSM/EDGE Output RF Spectrum on the V93000 Joe Kelly and Max Seminario, Verigy

GSM/EDGE Output RF Spectrum on the V93000 Joe Kelly and Max Seminario, Verigy Introduction A key transmitter measurement for GSM and EDGE is the Output RF Spectrum, or ORFS. The basis of this measurement

### Making Spectrum Measurements with Rohde & Schwarz Network Analyzers

Making Spectrum Measurements with Rohde & Schwarz Network Analyzers Application Note Products: R&S ZVA R&S ZVB R&S ZVT R&S ZNB This application note describes how to configure a Rohde & Schwarz Network

Introduction to Receivers Purpose: translate RF signals to baseband Shift frequency Amplify Filter Demodulate Why is this a challenge? Interference (selectivity, images and distortion) Large dynamic range

### Microwave signal generators

Course on Microwave Measurements Microwave signal generators Prof. Luca Perregrini Dept. of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering University of Pavia e-mail: luca.perregrini@unipv.it web: microwave.unipv.it

### A Guide to Calibrating Your Spectrum Analyzer

A Guide to Calibrating Your Application Note Introduction As a technician or engineer who works with electronics, you rely on your spectrum analyzer to verify that the devices you design, manufacture,

### The front end of the receiver performs the frequency translation, channel selection and amplification of the signal.

Many receivers must be capable of handling a very wide range of signal powers at the input while still producing the correct output. This must be done in the presence of noise and interference which occasionally

### R&S FSW signal and spectrum analyzer: best in class now up to 50 GHz

R&S FSW signal and spectrum analyzer: best in class now up to 50 GHz The new R&S FSW 43 and R&S FSW 50 signal and spectrum analyzers make the outstanding features of the R&S FSW family available now also

### Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. LAB 1 - Introduction to USRP

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of the Negev LAB 1 - Introduction to USRP - 1-1 Introduction In this lab you will use software reconfigurable RF hardware from National

### F = S i /N i S o /N o

Noise figure Many receiver manufacturers specify the performance of their receivers in terms of noise figure, rather than sensitivity. As we shall see, the two can be equated. A spectrum analyzer is a

### Conquering Noise for Accurate RF and Microwave Signal Measurements. Presented by: Ernie Jackson

Conquering Noise for Accurate RF and Microwave Signal Measurements Presented by: Ernie Jackson The Noise Presentation Review of Basics, Some Advanced & Newer Approaches Noise in Signal Measurements-Summary

### Out of Band Spurious Measurement for Bluetooth Modules

Products: Signal Analyser FSIQ26/FSP13/FSU8/FSQ26 Out of Band Spurious Measurement for Bluetooth Modules This application notes describes the out of band Spurious emission measurement for Bluetooth modules

### Swept Adjacent Channel Power Analysis on Digital TV Amplifiers

Products: AMIQ, SMIQ, FSP, FSU, FSE Swept Adjacent Channel Power Analysis on Digital TV Amplifiers Adjacent Channel Power performance of power amplifiers used in digital TV systems has to be guaranteed

### Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range. Application Note

Agilent AN 1315 Optimizing RF and Microwave Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range Application Note Table of Contents 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 1. Introduction What is dynamic range?

### In 3G/WCDMA mobile. IP2 and IP3 Nonlinearity Specifications for 3G/WCDMA Receivers 3G SPECIFICATIONS

From June 009 High Frequency Electronics Copyright 009 Summit Technical Media, LLC IP and IP3 Nonlinearity Specifications for 3G/WCDMA Receivers By Chris W. Liu and Morten Damgaard Broadcom Corporation

### Keysight Technologies 8 Hints for Better Spectrum Analysis. Application Note

Keysight Technologies 8 Hints for Better Spectrum Analysis Application Note The Spectrum Analyzer The spectrum analyzer, like an oscilloscope, is a basic tool used for observing signals. Where the oscilloscope

### RF multicarrier amplifier for third-generation systems

RF multicarrier amplifier for third-generation systems Bo Berglund, Thorsten Nygren and Karl-Gösta Sahlman Multicarrier transmitters traditionally have one power amplifier per carrier and a combiner circuit

### LTE enodeb Installation and Maintenance Tests

Application Note LTE enodeb Installation and Maintenance Tests Introduction The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) specifications are defined by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), which is part of

### Maximizing Receiver Dynamic Range for Spectrum Monitoring

Home Maximizing Receiver Dynamic Range for Spectrum Monitoring Brian Avenell, National Instruments Corp., Austin, TX October 15, 2012 As consumers continue to demand more data wirelessly through mobile

### Simplify communication system design while increasing available bandwidth

Simplify communication system design while increasing available bandwidth Clarence Mayott - July 13, 2015 Introduction In modern communications systems, the more bandwidth that is available, the more information

### Impedance 50 (75 connectors via adapters)

VECTOR NETWORK ANALYZER PLANAR TR1300/1 DATA SHEET Frequency range: 300 khz to 1.3 GHz Measured parameters: S11, S21 Dynamic range of transmission measurement magnitude: 130 db Measurement time per point:

### Understanding Phase Noise in RF and Microwave Calibration Applications.

Understanding Phase Noise in RF and Microwave Calibration Applications. Speaker/Author: Paul C. A. Roberts Fluke Precision Measurement Ltd. Hurricane Way Norwich, NR6 6JB, United Kingdom. Tel: +44 (0)1603

### Application Note Noise Frequently Asked Questions

: What is? is a random signal inherent in all physical components. It directly limits the detection and processing of all information. The common form of noise is white Gaussian due to the many random

### ANALYZER BASICS WHAT IS AN FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER? 2-1

WHAT IS AN FFT SPECTRUM ANALYZER? ANALYZER BASICS The SR760 FFT Spectrum Analyzer takes a time varying input signal, like you would see on an oscilloscope trace, and computes its frequency spectrum. Fourier's

### Using R&S FSW for Efficient Measurements on Multi- Standard Radio Base Stations Application Note

Using R&S FSW for Efficient Measurements on Multi- Standard Radio Base Stations Application Note Products: R&S FSW This application note introduces the Multi- Standard Radio Analyzer function of the R&S

### Performing Amplifier Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVB

Product: Vector Network Analyzer R&S ZVB Performing Amplifier Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVB Application Note This document describes typical measurements that are required to be made

### LTE UE RF measurements An introduction and overview

An introduction and overview February 2010 Andreas Roessler Andreas.Roessler@rohde-schwarz.com Technology Manager North America Rohde & Schwarz, Germany Guenter Pfeifer Guenter.Pfeifer@rohde-schwarz.com

### Agilent PNA Microwave Network Analyzers

Agilent PNA Microwave Network Analyzers Data Sheet This document describes the performance and features of the Agilent Technologies PNA microwave network analyzers: E8362B E8363B E8364B E836A MHz to 2

### 5/1/2015. Agenda. Improve EMC Compliance and Precompliance Testing Throughput with Time Domain Scanning. Time Domain Scan (TDS)

Agenda Improve EMC Compliance and Precompliance Testing Throughput with ning Introduction/Overview What Is ning Benefits of ning Commercial MIL STD Mark Terrien Keysight Technologies EMC Business Manager

### Advanced Test Equipment Rentals www.atecorp.com 800-404-ATEC (2832)

Established 1981 Advanced Test Equipment Rentals www.atecorp.com 800-404-ATEC (2832) Agilent E4406A Vector Signal Analyzer Data Sheet The Agilent Technologies E4406A vector signal analyzer (VSA) is a full-featured

### From 2G to 4G and MIMO. Sacha Emery

From 2G to 4G and MIMO Understanding Cellular Measurements Sacha Emery Automated Test Systems Engineer Agenda: Testing 2G to 4G Devices The progression of standards GSM/EDGE measurements WCDMA measurements

### Improve EMC Compliance Testing Throughput with Time Domain Scanning. Daniel Bockstal Keysight Technologies Belgium

Improve EMC Compliance Testing Throughput with Time Domain Scanning Daniel Bockstal Keysight Technologies Belgium Agenda Introduction/Overview What Is Time Domain Scanning Benefits of Time Domain Scanning

### Optimizing VCO PLL Evaluations & PLL Synthesizer Designs

Optimizing VCO PLL Evaluations & PLL Synthesizer Designs Today s mobile communications systems demand higher communication quality, higher data rates, higher operation, and more channels per unit bandwidth.

### RF Network Analyzer Basics

RF Network Analyzer Basics A tutorial, information and overview about the basics of the RF Network Analyzer. What is a Network Analyzer and how to use them, to include the Scalar Network Analyzer (SNA),

### ETSI EN 302 774 V1.2.1 (2012-02)

EN 302 774 V1.2.1 (2012-02) Harmonized European Standard Broadband Wireless Access Systems (BWA) in the 3 400 MHz to 3 800 MHz frequency band; Base Stations; Harmonized EN covering the essential requirements

### Truly Portable RF Signal Generators for Applications where Size, Performance, and Price matter

Truly Portable RF Signal Generators for Applications where Size, Performance, and Price matter AnaPico has recently launched a series of truly portable RF signal generators. The optional internal rechargeable

### AN-837 APPLICATION NOTE

APPLICATION NOTE One Technology Way P.O. Box 916 Norwood, MA 262-916, U.S.A. Tel: 781.329.47 Fax: 781.461.3113 www.analog.com DDS-Based Clock Jitter Performance vs. DAC Reconstruction Filter Performance

Introduction to 3GHz Spectrum Analyzer of Instek Front side Features Rear side 1Frequency Adjustment 2Ref. Input 3Ref. Out 4Ext. Trigger 5GPIB 6RS232 11 12 13 7USB 8VGA Output 9Ear Phone DC Input 11 Battery

### Spectrum Analyzer Basics www. agilent.com/find/backtobasics

www. agilent.com/find/backtobasics Abstract Learn why spectrum analysis is important for a variety of applications and how to measure system and device performance using a spectrum analyzer. To introduce

### MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY IN VECTOR NETWORK ANALYZER

MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY IN VECTOR NETWORK ANALYZER W. Li, J. Vandewege Department of Information Technology (INTEC) University of Gent, St.Pietersnieuwstaat 41, B-9000, Gent, Belgium Abstract: Precision

### Portable Spectrum Analyzer TW4950

Portable Spectrum Analyzer TW4950 Product Overview: Techwin Portable Microwave Spectrum Analyzer TW4950 is the new generation portable microwave spectrum analyzer developed by Techwin using broadband microwave

### FUNDAMENTALS OF MODERN SPECTRAL ANALYSIS. Matthew T. Hunter, Ph.D.

FUNDAMENTALS OF MODERN SPECTRAL ANALYSIS Matthew T. Hunter, Ph.D. AGENDA Introduction Spectrum Analyzer Architecture Dynamic Range Instantaneous Bandwidth The Importance of Image Rejection and Anti-Aliasing

### Understanding Mixers Terms Defined, and Measuring Performance

Understanding Mixers Terms Defined, and Measuring Performance Mixer Terms Defined Statistical Processing Applied to Mixers Today's stringent demands for precise electronic systems place a heavy burden

### RECOMMENDATION ITU-R SM.1792. Measuring sideband emissions of T-DAB and DVB-T transmitters for monitoring purposes

Rec. ITU-R SM.1792 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R SM.1792 Measuring sideband emissions of T-DAB and DVB-T transmitters for monitoring purposes (2007) Scope This Recommendation provides guidance to measurement

### Bandwidth Limitations.

The HP 71910A wide-bandwidth receiver extends modular spectrum analyzer operation for more effective measurements on modern communications and radar signals. Bandwidth Limitations. Frequency-Domain Limitations.

### Multi-Carrier GSM with State of the Art ADC technology

Multi-Carrier GSM with State of the Art ADC technology Analog Devices, October 2002 revised August 29, 2005, May 1, 2006, May 10, 2006, November 30, 2006, June 19, 2007, October 3, 2007, November 12, 2007

### The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of my R&S Digital Oscilloscope Technical Paper

The Effective Number of Bits (ENOB) of my R&S Digital Oscilloscope Technical Paper Products: R&S RTO1012 R&S RTO1014 R&S RTO1022 R&S RTO1024 This technical paper provides an introduction to the signal

Performance of an IF sampling ADC in receiver applications David Buchanan Staff Applications Engineer Analog Devices, Inc. Introduction The concept of direct intermediate frequency (IF) sampling is not

### Network analyzer and spectrum analyzer two in one

R&S ZVL Vector Network Analyzer Network analyzer and spectrum analyzer two in one The R&S ZVL is the lightest and smallest vector network analyzer in its class. On top of this, it can be used as a full-featured

### Agilent E6831A GSM/GPRS/EGPRS Calibration Application

Agilent E6831A GSM/GPRS/EGPRS Calibration Application For the E6601A Wireless Communications Test Set Data Sheet E6601A Features CW, AM, FM, DSB-SC source modulation RF analyzer Spectrum monitor Transmitter

### Technical Datasheet Scalar Network Analyzer Model 8003-10 MHz to 40 GHz

Technical Datasheet Scalar Network Analyzer Model 8003-10 MHz to 40 GHz The Giga-tronics Model 8003 Precision Scalar Network Analyzer combines a 90 db wide dynamic range with the accuracy and linearity

### R&S FPS-K10 GSM Measurement User Manual

R&S FPS-K10 GSM Measurement User Manual (;ÚâÞ2) User Manual Test & Measurement 1176.8480.02 06 This manual applies to the following R&S FPS models with firmware version 1.30 and higher: R&S FPS4 (1319.2008K04)

### 2398 9 khz to 2.7 GHz Spectrum Analyzer

Spectrum Analyzers 2398 9 khz to 2.7 GHz Spectrum Analyzer A breakthrough in high performance spectrum analysis, combining cost effectiveness and portability in a new lightweight instrument 9 khz to 2.7

### The Boonton USB Peak Power Sensor, Wi-Fi ac Signals and the ETSI EN Standard

Application Note The Boonton 55006 USB Peak Power Sensor, Wi-Fi 802.11ac Signals and the ETSI EN 300 328 Standard Stephen Shaw Applications Engineer, Boonton Electronics Abstract This application note

### R&S VSE-K10x R&S FSx-K10x R&S FS-K10xPC EUTRA/LTE Measurement Software Specifications

VSE-K100_dat-sw_en_3607-2126-22_cover.indd 1 Data Sheet 01.01 Test & Measurement R&S VSE-K10x R&S FSx-K10x R&S FS-K10xPC EUTRA/LTE Measurement Software Specifications 06.07.2015 17:35:20 CONTENTS Definitions...

### Agilent PN 8753-1 RF Component Measurements: Amplifier Measurements Using the Agilent 8753 Network Analyzer. Product Note

Agilent PN 8753-1 RF Component Measurements: Amplifier Measurements Using the Agilent 8753 Network Analyzer Product Note 2 3 4 4 4 4 6 7 8 8 10 10 11 12 12 12 13 15 15 Introduction Table of contents Introduction

### Testing S-Parameters on Pulsed Radar Power Amplifier Modules Application Note

Testing S-Parameters on Pulsed Radar Power Amplifier Modules Application Note Products: R&S ZVA R&S SMF100A R&S SMR R&S SMB100A R&S SMA100A This Application Note describes testing S- parameters under pulsed

### Supplement A to Operating Manual EMI Test Receiver ESPI3 and ESPI7 (Firmware Version 1.72)

Supplement A to Operating Manual EMI Test Receiver ESPI3 and ESPI7 (Firmware Version 1.72) Dear Customer, As far as the functionality of ESPI is concerned, the following new and modified functions are

### Vector Signal Analyzer FSQ-K70

Product brochure Version 02.00 Vector Signal Analyzer FSQ-K70 July 2004 Universal demodulation, analysis and documentation of digital radio signals For all major mobile radio communication standards: GSM

### GPS, LNA, Sensitivity, Jamming, Cohabitation, TTFF

Global Position System Low Noise Amplifier GPS, LNA, Sensitivity, Jamming, Cohabitation, TTFF This White Paper explains why an external low noise amplifier results in a better performance. Next generation

Benha Faculty of Engineering Electrical Engineering Department 5 th Year Telecommunication Final Exam: 26 May 2012 Examiner: Dr. Hatem ZAKARIA Time allowed: 3 Hours Radio and Television (E522) Answer All

### Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT)

Page 1 Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) ECC RECOMMENDATION (06)01 Bandwidth measurements using FFT techniques

### Spectrum Analysis Basics. Application Note 150

Spectrum Analysis Basics Application Note 150 Agilent Technologies dedicates this application note to Blake Peterson. Blake s outstanding service in technical support reached customers in all corners of

### R&S ZVL Vector Network Analyzer Specifications

R&S ZVL Vector Network Analyzer Specifications Test & Measurement Data Sheet 08.02 CONTENTS Specifications... 3 Measurement range... 3 Measurement speed... 3 Measurement accuracy... 4 Effective system

### PXI. www.aeroflex.com. GSM/EDGE Measurement Suite

PXI GSM/EDGE Measurement Suite The GSM/EDGE measurement suite is a collection of software tools for use with Aeroflex PXI 3000 Series RF modular instruments for characterising the performance of GSM/HSCSD/GPRS

### INTEGRATED ASSEMBLIES TELEDYNE MICROWAVE SOLUTIONS

INTEGRATED ASSEMBLIES TELEDYNE MICROWAVE SOLUTIONS INTEGRATED ASSEMBLIES FROM TELEDYNE MICROWAVE SOLUTIONS Teledyne Microwave Solutions (TMS) offers full first-level integration capabilities, providing

### ESA Series Firmware Revision History (Standard Memory)

sa ESA Series Firmware Revision History (Standard Memory) Notes: This document only covers firmware releases that do not require Option B72 (expanded memory) to be installed. Option B72 has been standard

### LTE System Specifications and their Impact on RF & Base Band Circuits. Application Note. Products: R&S FSW R&S SMU R&S SFU R&S FSV R&S SMJ R&S FSUP

Application Note Dr. Oliver Werther/Roland Minihold 04.2013 1MA221_1E LTE System Specifications and their Impact on RF & Base Band Circuits Application Note Products: R&S FSW R&S SMU R&S SFU R&S FSV R&S

### Comparing Spectral Purity in Microwave Signal Generators

Comparing Spectral Purity in Microwave Signal Generators Written by: Leonard Dickstein Giga-tronics Incorporated Published: March 2010 Revision: A Comparing Spectral Purity in Microwave Signal Generators

### Agilent Technologies. Generating Custom, Real-World Waveforms Integrating Test Instrumentation into the Design Process Application Note 1360

Agilent Technologies Generating Custom, Real-World Waveforms Integrating Test Instrumentation into the Design Process Application Note 1360 Table of Contents Introduction...............................................................................3

### How PLL Performances Affect Wireless Systems

May 2010 Issue: Tutorial Phase Locked Loop Systems Design for Wireless Infrastructure Applications Use of linear models of phase noise analysis in a closed loop to predict the baseline performance of various

### Agilent Spectrum Analysis Basics Application Note 150

Agilent Spectrum Analysis Basics Application Note 150 Contents Chapter 1 Introduction...3 What is a spectrum?...3 Why measure spectra?...4 Chapter 2 The superheterodyne spectrum analyzer...6 Tuning equation...8

### Video Feedthrough. A common source of RF distortion in pulse-modulated RF sources

Video Feedthrough El Toro 68C/69B Microwave Synthesizers Application Note A common source of RF distortion in pulse-modulated RF sources Introduction Video feedthrough is a very misunderstood term, which

### R&S FSW-K10 GSM Measurement User Manual

R&S FSW-K10 GSM Measurement User Manual (; êí2) User Manual Test & Measurement 1173.9263.02 08 This manual applies to the following R&S FSW models with firmware version 2.00 and higher: R&S FSW8 (1312.8000K08)

### RF SYSTEM DESIGN OF TRANSCEIVERS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

RF SYSTEM DESIGN OF TRANSCEIVERS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS Qizheng Gu Nokia Mobile Phones, Inc. 4y Springer Contents Preface xiii Chapter 1. Introduction 1 1.1. Wireless Systems 1 1.1.1. Mobile Communications

### &"#' ( "#' )*! #+ #,# 1" 1! 2"# ' 6! #* #!"#" +" )\$# # # "#\$#\$ '2 2 ## #1##9 # # ##2 #( # 8##! #9# 9@8!( " " "32#\$#\$2#9 # "#!#1#\$#\$#9 '29# # #9\$

!"## \$#!%!"# &"#' ( "#' )*! #+ #,# "##!\$ -+./0 1" 1! 2"# # -&1!"#" (2345-&1 #\$6.7 -&89\$## ' 6! #* #!"#" +" 1##6\$ "#+# #-& :1# # \$ #\$#;1)+#1#+

### Coexistence Tips the Market for Wireless System Simulation Chris Aden, MathWorks

Coexistence Tips the Market for Wireless System Simulation Chris Aden, MathWorks Introduction From time to time, marshalling events occur in stable markets placing difficult new requirements on established

### Spectrum Analyzers vs. Monitoring Receivers. Paul Denisowski, Application Engineer Rohde & Schwarz

Spectrum Analyzers vs. Monitoring Receivers Paul Denisowski, Application Engineer Rohde & Schwarz Spectrum Management Requirements What signals are present at which frequencies? Additional responsibilities

### FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYZERS

FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYZERS Dynamic Response Analyzers Servo analyzers When you need to stabilize feedback loops to measure hardware characteristics to measure system response BAFCO, INC. 717 Mearns Road

### Application Note. Bluetooth test capability on 2026B.

Application Note Bluetooth test capability on 2026B The integration of Bluetooth interfaces into cellular mobile products brings new challenging test issues in the design and manufacture stages. This application

### RF Module for sending audio signal in the new European MHz band

RF Module for sending audio signal in the new European 863-865MHz band with quality of professional wireless microphone system - Its technical feature - By Yukinaga Koike, Circuit Design, Inc. Circuit

### Testing the Ericsson Node B Typ RBS 3202 with R&S CMU300 BTS Radio Communication Tester and NetHawk RNC/Iub Simulator

Products: R&S CMU300, NetHawk RNC/Iub Simulator Testing the Ericsson Node B Typ RBS 3202 with R&S CMU300 BTS Radio Communication Tester and NetHawk RNC/Iub Simulator Testing the RF parameters of a WCDMA

### DSA800 Series Spectrum Analyzer

DSA800 Series Spectrum Analyzer Configuration Guide This guide is used to help users to configure DSA800 series spectrum analyzer according to their requirements. You can get an overall understanding of