# EFFECTIVE BENDING CAPACITY OF DOWEL-TYPE FASTENERS

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 EFFECTIVE BENDING CAPACITY OF DOWEL-TYPE FASTENERS Hans Joachim Blass 1), Adriane Bienhaus 1) and Volker Krämer 1) 1) Lehrstuhl für Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktionen, University of Karlsruhe, Germany Abstract The design of connections with dowel-type fasteners according to Eurocode 5 is based on Johansen's yield theory. Here, the bending capacity of the fastener is an important parameter. Tests with timber connections with dowel-type fasteners show plastic deformations of fasteners in failure modes and 3. The plastic hinge, however, is in most cases not fully developed and consequently the full plastic fastener bending moment is not reached. Depending on the moment-angle relation of fasteners in bending a modified equation was derived to determine the fastener bending capacity. 1. Introduction The load-carrying capacity of connections with dowel-type fasteners like bolts, dowels or nails may be determined on the basis of Johansen []. According to Johansen the load-carrying capacity depends on the geometry of the connection, the bending resistance of the dowel and the embedding strength of the timber or wood-based material. For the bending resistance of the dowel, Johansen assumed the elastic moment capacity of the dowel's cross-section, the possible increase due to plastic deformations was disregarded. The design equations in Eurocode 5 [3], which are derived from Johansen's work, are based on a rigid-plastic behaviour of both, the dowel under bending moments and the wood under embedding stresses and take into account the plastic moment capacity of the dowel. According to Johansen, three different failure modes are possible for timber-timberconnections in double shear (see figure 1). Failure mode 1 corresponds to the embedding failure of the middle or side member, respectively, where the embedding strength according to EN 383 [5] is defined as an average compressive stress at maximum load in a specimen of timber or wood-based sheet product under the action of a stiff linear fastener. In failure modes and 3, apart from the embedding strength of the wood the BLASS & KRÄER, Effective Bending Capacity of Dowel-Type Fasteners, Page 1 of 10

2 bending capacity of the fastener is reached. Failure modes and 3 of dowels loaded in double shear correspond to identical failure modes of dowels loaded in single shear. According to EN 409 [6] the yield moment of a nail is determined at a bending angle of 45. For such a large bending angle, the whole cross-section of the fastener is assumed to be under plastic strain. In [7] results of fastener bending tests are published where the bending capacity of fasteners with d > 8mm is also determined on the basis of EN 409. For bending angles below 45 only the outer areas of the cross-section of a fastener are additional deforr/med plastically. In this case, the plastic capacity can only be partially used and the fastener bending moment lies between the elastic and plastic bending capacity of the mostly circular dowel cross-section. R/ R/ R/ y y δ δ δ t 1 t / t 1 t / t 1 t / y R/ R/ R/ Figure 1 Failure modes of a double shear timber-to-timber connection BLASS & KRÄER, Effective Bending Capacity of Dowel-Type Fasteners, Page of 10

3 . Deformation behaviour of dowel-type fasteners If the load-carrying capacity and the deformation behaviour of connections with doweltype fasteners is determined by tests according to EN 6891 [8], the connection strength is defined as the maximum load before a deformation of δ = 15 mm parallel to the load direction is reached. For a large number of connections tested at Delft University of Technology, Jorissen [7, 9] measured the bending angles α of dowels after the connection had reached the maximum load. In most cases where failure modes or 3 occurred, the bending angles were significantly below α = 45. This means that the plastic hinge was not fully developed and the plastic moment capacity of the dowel was not attained in the connection (see Figure ). Figure Test specimen opened after reaching maximum load Since the fastener's cross-sections were only partially plasticised, their bending capacity was lower than according to EN 409. This lower bending capacity influences the loadcarrying capacity of the connection for failure modes and 3 and results in lower connection strength values. For a realistic connection design the actually reached bending moment is therefore important. If a deformation limit of 15 mm is assumed for the connection, the effective bending capacity depends on the yield strength of the fastener material, the fastener diameter and the shape of the moment-angle-diagram of the fastener. In order to determine the moment-angle-diagrams of the fasteners bending tests with different fasteners were evaluated. Since different steel grades and different fastener diameters lead to large differences in absolute moment values, the moment-anglediagrams were normalised by dividing the moment values by the moment capacity corresponding to a bending angle of α = 45 (see Figure 3): BLASS & KRÄER, Effective Bending Capacity of Dowel-Type Fasteners, Page 3 of 10

4 ( α,d) = ( α,d) ( α= 45,d) (1) 1,0 0,9 0,8 0,7 0,6 ( ) α 0,5 0,4 0,3 0, 0,1 0, Bending Angle α [ ] Figure 3 Normalised moment-angle-diagrams of dowel-type fasteners of different diameter d. Since the shape of ( α, d) is very similar for different fastener diameters d, a mean curve ( α) was determined. This relation neither depends on the fastener diameter d nor on the fastener material properties and may be approximated by an exponential function (see Figure 4). 0,48 α ( α ) = ( + α ) 0,866 0,866 0, e () BLASS & KRÄER, Effective Bending Capacity of Dowel-Type Fasteners, Page 4 of 10

5 1,0 0,9 0,8 ( ) α 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0, Equation () ( α) 0,1 0, Figure 4 Bending angle α [ ] ean normalised moment-angle-diagram of dowel-type fasteners and approximation 3. Theoretical bending angles in connections Figure 5 shows the failure modes and 3, where the angle α is defined as δ α= arctan (3) Here, δ is the maximum deformation of δ = 15 mm parallel to the load direction. The length corresponds to the length of the wood or wood-based material where the embedding strength is reached. For failure mode the length results as = a + b 1 + b (4.1) BLASS & KRÄER, Effective Bending Capacity of Dowel-Type Fasteners, Page 5 of 10

6 and failure mode 3 as = b 1 + b. (4.) R R a) b) y y α α δ α y δ t1 t t t1 R R a a b b b b fh,1 fh,1 fh, fh,1 fh, Figure 5 Failure mode (left) and 3 (right) for a fastener in single or double shear In both cases depends on the fastener diameter d, the embedding strength f h and the yield moment y. The fastener yield moment itself depends on the fastener diameter d and the yield strength f y of the fastener material, the embedding strength also is a function of d and of the density ρ. Subsequently the derivation of α as a function of the fastener diameter d is shown as an example for failure mode 3. For a load-grain angle of 0 and for the same densities ρ of the middle and side member the embedding strength f h is constant and the connection is BLASS & KRÄER, Effective Bending Capacity of Dowel-Type Fasteners, Page 6 of 10

7 symmetrical. Consequently b 1 = b = b and = b. The dimension b may now be determined from the equilibrium of forces (see figure 5) and results as y b=. (5) f d h The bending angle α consequently is calculated as α= arctan δ f d h y. (6) α depends on the fastener bending moment y. Since in general at maximum load α < 45, the full plastic bending capacity is not reached. Using equation (7), the dependence between the bending moment y and the bending angle α may be taken into account by an iterative procedure. α = 45 is taken as a first value. In the next step the normalised moment according to equation () is calculated and inserted in equation (7). After three iteration steps the difference α is generally less than 1. α i + 1 = arctan f δ y,k h,k d ( α) (7) The parameters influencing α(d) depend on the fastener material and the embedding strength and therefore require a different determination of the effective bending capacity for different types of fastener. For bolts, dowels and nails in predrilled holes the embedding strength is determined as f h,k = 0,08 ( 1 0,01 d) ρ k The corresponding equation to calculate the embedding strength for nails in non predrilled members is: f h,k = 0,08 d ρ 0,3. (9) k (8) BLASS & KRÄER, Effective Bending Capacity of Dowel-Type Fasteners, Page 7 of 10

8 The yield strength in bending f y according to Eurocode 5 is 80% of the tensile strength f u,k of the steel grade used. Scheer, Peil and Nölle (1988) have published the results of bending tests with bolts 4.6 and 5.6 and give a 5-percentile value of the yield strength in bending of 67% of the actual tensile strength. The value of 67% includes the strain hardening due to large strains in the outer areas of the circular cross-section and relates to a bending angle α = 10. The plastic bending moment for α = 45 is 19% higher than for α = 10 (see figure 4). Consequently, for α = 45 a value for the yield strength in bending of 67% 1,19 = 80% of f u,k results. This confirms the equation for the fastener yield moment for bolts and dowels given in Eurocode 5 independently of the steel grade: 3 d y,k = 0,8 f u,k. (10) 6 The yield moment of nails with circular cross-section with a minimum wire tensile strength of 600 N/mm is according to Eurocode 5:,6 y,k = 180 d. (11) Figure 6 shows as an example the bending angle α depending on the fastener diameter d for failure modes (fm) and 3 (fm3) according to Johansen. The parameters tensile strength f u,k and characteristic density ρ k were chosen as 1000 N/mm and 350 kg/m 3, respectively. A large value of the tensile strength and a low value of the density lead to comparatively low values of the bending angle α and are therefore conservative. Bending angle [ ] fm3 fm Diameter [mm] Figure 6 Bending angle α depending on fastener diameter d for failure modes and 3. BLASS & KRÄER, Effective Bending Capacity of Dowel-Type Fasteners, Page 8 of 10

9 4. Effective bending capacity of dowel-type fasteners For the different types of fastener the function α(d) was determined, resulting in minimum values of the bending angle α. For this purpose, the governing parameters were conservatively chosen, resulting in maximum values for the steel tensile strength and minimum values for the characteristic density. For connections with bolts or dowels, the tensile strength f u,k was chosen as 1000 N/mm and the characteristic density ρ k as 350 kg/m 3. Inserting these values in equation () results in a relation between the normalised moment and the fastener diameter d. ultiplying ( α ( d) ) and the yield moment according to equation (10), a simplified approximate expression for the effective bending capacity of dowel-type fasteners for a deformation δ = 15 mm results: where,6 y,k= 0,3 fu,k d Nmm (1) f u,k fastener tensile strength in N/mm d fastener diameter in mm Equation (1) should be used for all dowel-type fasteners and gives about 10 % higher values than equation 10.0 (Dowels) in E DIN 105. This is acceptable, since all unfavourable conditions mentioned above will only very rarely occur at the same time. The proposed equation is also identical to the one used for nails in the current version of the EC5 draft. Using equation (1) for the bending capacity of dowel-type fasteners, the decreasing bending angle with increasing fastener diameter is implicitly taken into account. 5. Conclusion The design of connections with dowel-type fasteners according to Eurocode 5 is based on Johansen's theory. Here, the bending capacity of the fastener is an important parameter. Tests with timber connections with dowel-type fasteners show plastic deformations of fasteners in failure modes and 3. The plastic hinge, however, is in most cases not fully developed and consequently the full plastic fastener bending moment is not reached. Depending on the moment-angle relation of fasteners in bending a modified equation was derived to determine the fastener bending capacity. The bending capacity of dowel-type fasteners according to the proposed modified equation leads to significantly lower bending capacities especially for large fastener diameters. Using the BLASS & KRÄER, Effective Bending Capacity of Dowel-Type Fasteners, Page 9 of 10

10 modified equation results in a better agreement between test results and theoretically determined connection capacities. References [1] Bienhaus, A.: Die Ermittlung des Fließmomentes stiftförmiger Verbindungsmittel. Vertieferarbeit am Lehrstuhl für Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktionen, Universität Karlsruhe, 1999 [] Johansen, K. W.: Theory of Timber Connections. In: International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering, 1949 [3] DIN V ENV Teil1-1 Eurocode 5 : Design of timber structures; Part 1-1 : General rules and rules for buildings; German version ENV : 1993 [4] E DIN 105. Entwurf, Berechnung und Bemessung von Holzbauwerken. November 1999 [5] EN 383, Timber structures; Test methods; Determination of embedding strength and foundation values for dowel type fasteners; German version EN 383 : 1993 [6] EN 409, Timber structures; Test methods; Determination of the yield moment of dowel type fasteners; Nails; German version EN 409 : 1993 [7] Jorissen, A.; Blaß, H.J.: The fastener yield strength in bending. Paper , Proceedings CIB-W18 meeting, Savonlinna, Finnland, 1998 [8] EN 6891 Timber structures; Joints made with mechanical fasteners; General Principles for the determination of strength and deformation characteristics ( ISO 6891 : 1983); German version EN 6891 : 1991 [9] Jorrisen, A.: Double Shear Timber Connections with Dowel Type Fasteners, Dissertation, TU Delft, Niederlande, 1998 [10] Scheer, J.; Peil, U.; Nölle, H.: Schrauben mit planmäßiger Biegebeanspruchung. Stahlbau 57, 1988, S BLASS & KRÄER, Effective Bending Capacity of Dowel-Type Fasteners, Page 10 of 10

### SELF-TAPPING SCREWS AS REINFORCEMENT PERPENDICULAR TO THE GRAIN IN TIMBER CONNECTIONS

SELF-TAPPING SCREWS AS REINFORCEMENT PERPENDICULAR TO THE GRAIN IN TIMBER CONNECTIONS Hans Joachim Blaß 1) and Martin Schmid 1) 1) Lehrstuhl für Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktionen, University of Karlsruhe

### LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY OF AXIALLY LOADED RODS GLUED-IN PERPENDICULAR TO THE GRAIN

LOAD-CARRYING CAPACITY OF AXIALLY LOADED RODS GLUED-IN PERPENDICULAR TO TE GRAIN Prof. Dr.-Ing..J. Blaß, Dipl.-Ing. B. Laskewitz Universität Karlsruhe (T), Germany Abstract Glued-in rods have been used

### Pin jointed structures are often used because they are simple to design, relatively inexpensive to make, easy to construct, and easy to modify.

4. FORCES in PIN JOINTED STRUCTURES Pin jointed structures are often used because they are simple to design, relatively inexpensive to make, easy to construct, and easy to modify. They can be fixed structures

### TIMBER CONNECTIONS by Dr. Ad Leijten TU-Eindhoven The Netherlands Former PT-member

Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 1 TIMBER CONNECTIONS by Dr. Ad Leijten TU-Eindhoven The Netherlands Former PT-member Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information

### Non-Linear Analysis of Bolted Extended End-Plate Steel Beam-To Column Connection Cut Ainul Mardziah Amir,Redzuan Abdullah

Non-Linear Analysis of Bolted Extended End-Plate Steel Beam-To Column Connection Cut Ainul Mardziah Amir,Redzuan Abdullah Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia redzuan@utm.my

### Structural fire design Eurocode 5-1.2 Timber structures

Background and Applications Brussels, 18-20 February 2008 Dissemination of information workshop 1 Structural fire design Eurocode 5-1.2 Timber structures Jochen Fornather Austrian Standards Institute jochen.fornather@on-norm.at

### Failure analysis of bolted steel flanges

Failure analysis of bolted steel flanges P. Schaumann and M. Seidel Institute for Steel Construction, University of Hannover Appelstr. 9A, D-30167 Hannover, Germany Internet: http://www.stahlbau.uni-hannover.de

### Structural Grades of Timber by Bending and Compression Tests Jorge Branco 1,a, Humberto Varum 2,b and Paulo Cruz 1,c

Structural Grades of Timber by Bending and Compression Tests Jorge Branco 1,a, Humberto Varum 2,b and Paulo Cruz 1,c 1 DECivil Engineering School, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal 2 DECivil,

### HUS-V Screw anchor. HUS-V Screw anchor. Basic loading data (for a single anchor) Mean ultimate resistance

HUS-V Screw anchor Anchor version HUS-V 8 / 10 Carbon steel concrete screw with hexagonal head Benefits - High productivity less drilling and fewer operations than with conventional anchors - Technical

### Failure analysis of bolted steel flanges

Veröffentlicht in: Zhao, X.L.; Grzebieta, R.H. (Hrsg.): Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Structural Failure and Plasticity (IMPLAST 2000), Amsterdam: Elsevier 2000. Failure analysis of

### Structural materials Characteristics, testing, strength evaluation

Budapest University of Technology and Economics Department of Mechanics and Materials of Structures English courses General course /2013 Fundamentals of Structures BMEEPSTG201 Lecture no. 3: Structural

### Eurocode 9 Design of aluminium structures

BRITISH STANDARD Eurocode 9 Design of aluminium structures BS EN 1999-1-4:2007 +A1:2011 Incorporating corrigendum November 2009 Part 1-4: Cold-formed structural sheeting ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.10 National

### Strength of Bolted Timber Connections with Steel Side Members

United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory Research Paper FPL-RP-513 Strength of Bolted Timber Connections with Steel Side Members T. L. Wilkinson Abstract This study

### Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck

7th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering 2008 September 10-13, Universität Stuttgart, Germany Numerical modelling of shear connection between concrete slab and sheeting deck Noémi Seres

### Fundamentals of Structural Design Part of Steel Structures

undamentals of Structural Design Part of Steel Structures Civil Engineering for Bachelors 133STD Teacher: Zdeněk Sokol Office number: B619 1 Syllabus of lectures 1. Introduction, history of steel structures,

### European Technical Approval ETA-12/0500

ETA-Danmark A/S Kollegievej 6 DK-2920 Charlottenlund Tel. +45 72 24 59 00 Fax +45 72 24 59 04 Internet www.etadanmark.dk Authorised and notified according to Article 10 of the Council Directive 89/106/EEC

### Optimising plate girder design

Optimising plate girder design NSCC29 R. Abspoel 1 1 Division of structural engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands ABSTRACT: In the design of steel plate girders a high degree

### HUS Screw anchor, carbon steel

HUS Screw anchor, Anchor version HUS-A 6 Carbon steel Concrete Screw with hex head HUS-H 6 Carbon steel Concrete Screw with hex head HUS-H 8 HUS-H 10 HUS-H 14 Carbon steel Concrete Screw with hex head

### Lap Shear Tests of Bolted and Screwed Ferritic Stainless Steel Connections. A. Talja, M. Torkar

Lap Shear Tests of Bolted and Screwed Ferritic Stainless Steel Connections A. Talja, M. Torkar VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland. IMT, Institute of Metals and Technology, Ljubljana, Slovenia Abstract

### BOLTED CONNECTIONS 1.1 RANGE AND CLASS OF THE SCREW FASTENERS. Steel structures Laboratory

1. BOLTED CONNECTIONS 1.1 RANGE AND CLASS OF THE SCREW FASTENERS Diameter of bolts for building structures: M10, M12, M16, M20, M24, M27, M30 Class of bolts: 3.6, 4.6, 4.8, 5.6, 5.8, 6.6, 8.8, 10.9, 12.9

### Laboratory Weeks 9 10 Theory of Pure Elastic Bending

Laboratory Weeks 9 10 Theory of Pure Elastic Bending Objective To show the use of the Sagital method for finding the Radius of Curvature of a beam, to prove the theory of bending, and find the elastic

### European Technical Approval ETA-10/0210

ETA-Danmark A/S Kollegievej 6 DK-2920 Charlottenlund Tel. +45 72 24 59 00 Fax +45 72 24 59 04 Internet www.etadanmark.dk Authorised and notified according to Article 10 of the Council Directive 89/106/EEC

### Failure analysis on timber structures in Germany

Failure analysis on timber structures in Germany 1 Failure analysis on timber structures in Germany A contribution to COST Action E55 M. Frese, H.J. Blaß Lehrstuhl für Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktionen

### European Technical Assessment ETA-10/0153 of 10/06/2015

ETA-Danmark A/S Göteborg Plads 1 DK-2150 Nordhavn Tel. +45 72 24 59 00 Fax +45 72 24 59 04 Internet ww.etadanmark.dk Authorised and notified according to Article 29 of the Regulation (EU) No 305/2011 of

### RING SHANK NAIL COLLATED

ELECTRO GALVANIZED / / Dokument no: CE-300006-A2 Used for fix boarding, panels and secondary spaced boarding to a timber base Dimensions: El.galv.: d: 3,1-3,4 mm L: 45-65 mm HDG: d: 2,3-3,1 mm L: 48-90

### Timber Frame Moment Joints with Glued-In Steel Rods - A Designer s Perspective. Mark L Batchelar 1

Timber Frame Moment Joints with Glued-In Steel Rods - A Designer s Perspective Abstract: Mark L Batchelar 1 Significant evidence based on experimental research exists to give designers confidence in the

### Deflection Calculation of RC Beams: Finite Element Software Versus Design Code Methods

Deflection Calculation of RC Beams: Finite Element Software Versus Design Code Methods G. Kaklauskas, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 1223 Vilnius, Lithuania (gintaris.kaklauskas@st.vtu.lt) V.

### Anchor HSA Fastening. Technology Manual. Hilti. Stud anchor. Carbon steel and stainless steel HSA HSA-BW HSA-R2 HSA-R. Hot dipped galvanized HSA-F

Anchor HSA Fastening Stud anchor Technology Manual Hilti Stud anchor Carbon steel and stainless steel HSA HSA-BW HSA-R2 HSA-R Hot dipped galvanized HSA-F M6 M20 Version 2012-11 11 / 2012 1 HSA Stud anchor

### Behaviour of Prefabricated Timber Wall Elements Under Static and Cyclic Loading

Behaviour of Prefabricated Timber Wall Elements Under Static and Cyclic Loading Patrick Schädle, Hans Joachim Blaß Lehrstuhl für Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktionen Universität Karlsruhe, Germany 1

### The Dutch pavilion at the EXPO 2000 in Hannover

The Dutch pavilion at the EXPO 2000 in Hannover André Jorissen 1 ABSTRACT The Dutch pavilion for the world exhibition EXPO 2000 in Hannover is not a typical timber structure. However, the structural use

### Mechanical properties PU steel sheet piles can be supplied in grades up to yield strength of 430 N/mm 2. Figure 11 PU Steel Sheet Piles: Dimensions

STEEL SHEET PILES 167 Steel Sheet Piles PU Steel Sheet Piles Mechanical properties PU steel sheet piles can be supplied in grades up to yield strength of 430 N/mm 2. Dimensions and sectional properties

### Study on Behaviour of Bolted Cold-formed Steel Angle Tension Members

Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol 8(S7), 102 109, April 2015 ISSN (Print) : 0974-6846 ISSN (On) : 0974-5645 Study on Behaviour of Bolted Cold-formed Steel Angle Tension Members R. Padma Priya

### KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK. UNIT I STRESS STRAIN DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS PART- A (2 Marks)

KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK SUB CODE/NAME: CE1259 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS YEAR/SEM: II / IV 1. What is Hooke s Law? 2. What are the Elastic Constants?

### Unit 48: Structural Behaviour and Detailing for Construction. Chapter 13. Reinforced Concrete Beams

Chapter 13 Reinforced Concrete Beams Concrete is a material strong in its resistance to compression, but very weak indeed in tension. good concrete will safely take a stress upwards of 7 N/mm 2 in compression,

### EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 2 ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

ENGINEERING COMPONENTS EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS Structural members: struts and ties; direct stress and strain,

### MATERIALS SELECTION FOR SPECIFIC USE

MATERIALS SELECTION FOR SPECIFIC USE-1 Sub-topics 1 Density What determines density and stiffness? Material properties chart Design problems LOADING 2 STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS Stress is applied to a material

### 2.75 6.525 Problem Set 1 Solutions to ME problems Fall 2013

2.75 6.525 Problem Set 1 Solutions to ME problems Fall 2013 2. Pinned Joint problem Jacob Bayless a) Draw a free-body diagram for the pin. How is it loaded? Does the loading depend on whether the pin is

### EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR TECHNICAL APPROVALS

E TA TECHNICAL REPORT Design of Bonded Anchors TR 29 Edition June 27 EUROPEAN ORGANISATION FOR TECHNICAL APPROVALS TABLE OF CONTENTS Design method for bonded anchors Introduction..4 1 Scope...2 1.1 Type

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas 77058 REVISION A JULY 6, 1998 REPLACES BASELINE SPACE SHUTTLE CRITERIA FOR PRELOADED BOLTS CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION..............................................

### Page 1 of 18 28.4.2008 Sven Alexander Last revised 1.3.2010. SB-Produksjon STATICAL CALCULATIONS FOR BCC 250

Page 1 of 18 CONTENT PART 1 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS PAGE 1.1 General 1. Standards 1.3 Loads 1. Qualities PART ANCHORAGE OF THE UNITS.1 Beam unit equilibrium 3. Beam unit anchorage in front..1 Check of capacity..

### European Technical Approval ETA-09/0105

ETA-Danmark A/S Kollegievej 6 DK-2920 Charlottenlund Tel. +45 72 24 59 00 Fax +45 72 24 59 04 Internet www.etadanmark.dk Authorised and notified according to Article 10 of the Council Directive 89/106/EEC

### ETAG 001 Edition 1997

European Organisation for Technical Approvals Europäische Organisation für Technische Zulassungen Organisation Européenne pour l Agrément Technique ETAG 1 Edition 1997 GUIDELINE FOR EUROPEAN TECHNICAL

### Local buckling of plates made of high strength steel

Local buckling of plates made of high strength steel Tapani Halmea, Lauri Huusko b,a, Gary Marquis a, Timo Björk a a Lappeenranta University of Technology, Faculty of Technology Engineering, Lappeenranta,

### HUS-HR,CR. Anchor Fastening. Screw anchor. Technology Manual HUS-HR HUS-CR. Screw anchor. Version /

Anchor Fastening Technology Manual HUS-HR HUS-CR Version 2015-09 09 / 2015 1 HUS-HR, CR, stainless steel Anchor version HUS-HR 6 / 8 / 10 / 14 Stainless steel concrete Screw with hexagonal head HUS-CR

### Densified Veneer Wood for Notched Joints in Timber Concrete Composite Structures

Densified Veneer Wood for Notched Joints in Timber Concrete Composite Structures 1 Summary Dias, A.M.P.G. (alfgdias@dec.uc.pt) Assistant Professor University of Coimbra Coimbra-Portugal Kuilen, J.W.G.,

### POWER SCREWS (ACME THREAD) DESIGN

POWER SCREWS (ACME THREAD) DESIGN There are at least three types of power screw threads: the square thread, the Acme thread, and the buttress thread. Of these, the square and buttress threads are the most

### Statics and Mechanics of Materials

Statics and Mechanics of Materials Chapter 4-1 Internal force, normal and shearing Stress Outlines Internal Forces - cutting plane Result of mutual attraction (or repulsion) between molecules on both

### HSL-3 carbon steel, heavy duty anchor

HSL-3 carbon steel, HSL-3 Bolt version Threaded rod version HSL-3-B Safety cap version Benefits - suitable for non-cracked and cracked concrete C 20/25 to C 50/60 - high loading capacity - force-controlled

### Finite Element Analysis of Structural Steelwork Beam to Column Bolted Connections

Finite Element Analysis of Structural Steelwork Beam to Column Bolted Connections Jim Butterworth Constructional Research Unit, School of Science & Technology, University of Teesside, UK. Abstract A combination

### ANALYSIS OF A LAP JOINT FRICTION CONNECTION USING HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS

Nordic Steel Construction Conference 212 Hotel Bristol, Oslo, Norway 5-7 September 212 ANALYSIS OF A LAP JOINT FRICTION CONNECTION USING HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS Marouene Limam a, Christine Heistermann a and

### Hilti HIT-HY 150 MAX with rebar

Hilti HIT-HY 150 MAX Injection mortar system Hilti HIT- HY 150 MAX 330 ml foil pack (also available as 500 ml and 1400 ml foil pack) Static mixer rebar BSt 500 S Benefits - suitable for non-cracked and

### The following are building standards, relevant to timber frame construction and are referenced in the TGDs:

Appendix 7: Reference Standards The following are building standards, relevant to timber frame construction and are referenced in the TGDs: Loading: BS 6399: Loading for Buildings Part 1: 1984, Code of

### EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology

Notched Beams Robert Widmann Image: Robert Butler EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology With strong contributions from: Robert Jockwer ETHZ, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology,

### Fire Engineering Research - Key Issues for the Future II Naples, Italy, 6 9 June Contents

Fire Engineering Research - Key Issues for the Future II Naples, Italy, 6 9 June 013 Contents (State of the art) PhD planning PhD: BEHAVIOUR OF COLD-FORMED STEEL BEAM-COLUMNS IN CASE OF FIRE Motivation

### ME 215 Engineering Materials I

ME 215 Engineering Materials I Chapter 3 Properties in Tension and Compression (Part III) Mechanical Engineering University of Gaziantep Dr. A. Tolga Bozdana www.gantep.edu.tr/~bozdana True Stress and

### Structures and Stiffness

Structures and Stiffness ENGR 10 Introduction to Engineering Ken Youssefi/Thalia Anagnos Engineering 10, SJSU 1 Wind Turbine Structure The Goal The support structure should be optimized for weight and

### P4 Stress and Strain Dr. A.B. Zavatsky MT07 Lecture 4 Stresses on Inclined Sections

4 Stress and Strain Dr. A.B. Zavatsky MT07 Lecture 4 Stresses on Inclined Sections Shear stress and shear strain. Equality of shear stresses on perpendicular planes. Hooke s law in shear. Normal and shear

### New approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design

New approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design Part 1: 3D model based analysis using general beam-column FEM Ferenc Papp* and József Szalai ** * Associate Professor, Department of Structural

### Mechanical joining Tensile shear testing of single joint specimens Specimen dimensions and test procedure

Mechanical joining Tensile shear testing of single joint specimens Specimen dimensions and test procedure Assemblage mécanique Essais quasi statiques de traction-cisaillement des échantillons à jonction

### European Technical Approval ETA-04/0013

ETA-Danmark A/S Kollegievej 6 DK-2920 Charlottenlund Tel. +45 72 24 59 00 Fax +45 72 24 59 04 Internet www.etadanmark.dk Authorised and notified according to Article 10 of the Council Directive 89/106/EEC

### SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN

CHAPTER Structural Steel Design LRFD Method Third Edition SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part II Structural

### EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON EPOXY BONDED SHEAR CONNECTION FOR TIMBER-CONCRETE COMPOSITES

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON EPOXY BONDED SHEAR CONNECTION FOR TIMBER-CONCRETE COMPOSITES Rijun Shrestha, James Mak, Keith Crews ABSTRACT: This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation

### CLT Cross Laminated Timber

CLT Cross Laminated Timber Connections Date: 21.08.2014 Disclaimer The below presented structural analysis is an exemplified calculation. This calculation is solely a proposal for a design approach. This

### Chapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?

Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility

### Evaluation of stress distribution in bolted steel angles under tension

17 Evaluation of stress distribution in bolted steel angles under tension Mohan Gupta Reader, Department of Civil Engineering, Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg 491 001 (India) L. M. Gupta Professor

### SHEAR STHRENGTH OF CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER (CLT) WITH INTEGRATED ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES

SHEAR STHRENGTH OF CROSS LAMINATED TIMBER (CLT) WITH INTEGRATED ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES Geir Glasø 1 and Kristine Nore 2 ABSTRACT: Cross laminated timber (CLT) elements are usually designed for performance

### GLUED TIMBER-CONCRETE BEAMS ANALYTICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELS FOR ASSESSMENT OF COMPOSITE ACTION

Engineering Review Vol. Issue -9. GLUED TIMBER-CONCRETE BEAMS ANALYTICAL AND NUMERICAL MODELS FOR ASSESSMENT OF COMPOSITE ACTION L. Škec A. Bjelanović * G. Jelenić Faculty of Civil Engineering University

### European Technical Approval ETA-11/0024

ETA-Danmark A/S Kollegievej 6 DK-2920 Charlottenlund Tel. +45 72 24 59 00 Fax +45 72 24 59 04 Internet www.etadanmark.dk Authorised and notified according to Article 10 of the Council Directive 89/106/EEC

### Critical Filling Levels of Silos and Bunkers in Seismic Design

Critical Filling Levels of Silos and Bunkers in Seismic Design A. Mueller hmb engineering, Karlsruhe, Germany P. Knoedel Dr Knoedel Engineering Consultants, Ettlingen, Germany B. Koelle hmb engineering,

### HVU with HAS/HAS-E rod adhesive anchor

HVU with HAS/HAS-E rod HVU with HAS/HAS-E rod adhesive anchor Mortar system Benefits Hilti HVU foil capsule HAS HAS-R HAS-HCR rod - suitable for non-cracked concrete C 20/25 to C 50/60 - high loading capacity

### EN 1995-2 Timber Structures Bridges Eurocodes - Background & Applications 18 th 20 th of February 2008, Brussels

Flisa, Norwegen 2 Bridge over river Saalach Bavaria - Salzburg, 70m span 3 Rules given in EC5 part 2 are supplements and should be added to the rules given in EC5 part 1 4 Section 1 General 2 3 1 Timber

### Introduction to Mechanical Behavior of Biological Materials

Introduction to Mechanical Behavior of Biological Materials Ozkaya and Nordin Chapter 7, pages 127-151 Chapter 8, pages 173-194 Outline Modes of loading Internal forces and moments Stiffness of a structure

CH 6: Fatigue Failure Resulting from Variable Loading Some machine elements are subjected to static loads and for such elements static failure theories are used to predict failure (yielding or fracture).

### FOUR-PLATE HEB-100 BEAM SPLICE BOLTED CONNECTIONS: TESTS AND COMMENTS

FOUR-PLATE HEB- BEAM SPLICE BOLTED CONNECTIONS: TESTS AND COMMENTS M.D. Zygomalas and C.C. Baniotopoulos Institute of Steel Structures, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece ABSTRACT The present

### Shear Reinforcements in the Reinforced Concrete Beams

American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) e-issn : 2320-0847 p-issn : 2320-0936 Volume-02, Issue-10, pp-191-199 www.ajer.org Research Paper Open Access Shear Reinforcements in the Reinforced Concrete

### FAILURE MODES and MATERIALS PROPERTIES. Component failures. Ductile and Brittle Fracture COMPONENT FAILURES. COMPONENT FAILURE MODES examples:

FAILURE MODES and MATERIALS PROPERTIES MECH2300 - Materials Lecture 10 R. W. Truss Materials Engineering R.Truss@uq.edu.au COMPONENT FAILURES Structures lectures es on component es cause response in component

### Description of mechanical properties

ArcelorMittal Europe Flat Products Description of mechanical properties Introduction Mechanical properties are governed by the basic concepts of elasticity, plasticity and toughness. Elasticity is the

### 10 Space Truss and Space Frame Analysis

10 Space Truss and Space Frame Analysis 10.1 Introduction One dimensional models can be very accurate and very cost effective in the proper applications. For example, a hollow tube may require many thousands

### European Technical Approval ETA-10/0153

ETA-Danmark A/S Kollegievej 6 DK-2920 Charlottenlund Tel. +45 72 24 59 00 Fax +45 72 24 59 04 Internet www.etadanmark.dk Authorised and notified according to Article 10 of the Council Directive 89/106/EEC

### Punching shear behavior of steel-concrete composite decks with different shear connectors

Punching shear behavior of steel-concrete composite decks with different shear connectors *Xiao-Qing Xu 1) and Yu-Qing Liu 2) 1), 2) Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092,

### Design Manual to BS8110

Design Manual to BS8110 February 2010 195 195 195 280 280 195 195 195 195 195 195 280 280 195 195 195 The specialist team at LinkStudPSR Limited have created this comprehensive Design Manual, to assist

### Stress-Strain Relationship

(Strength of Materials) Dave Morgan Stress-Strain Relationship p. 1/21 The tension test: Stress-Strain Relationship p. 2/21 The tension test: Is a common standardised test that can

### ENGINEERING COUNCIL CERTIFICATE LEVEL

ENGINEERING COUNCIL CERTIICATE LEVEL ENGINEERING SCIENCE C103 TUTORIAL - BASIC STUDIES O STRESS AND STRAIN You should judge your progress by completing the self assessment exercises. These may be sent

### Fire resistance assessment of steel structures

Workshop Structural Fire Design of Buildings according to the Eurocodes Brussels, 27-28 November 2012 1 Fire resistance assessment of steel structures Basic design methods Worked examples ZHAO Bin CEN/TC250

### Hilti HIT-HY 200 with rebar

Hilti HIT-HY 200 Injection mortar system Benefits Hilti HIT- HY 200-A 500 ml foil pack (also available as 330 ml) Hilti HIT- HY 200-R 500 ml foil pack (also available as 330 ml) Static mixer rebar BSt

### European Technical Approval ETA-09/0015

ETA-Danmark A/S Kollegievej 6 DK-2920 Charlottenlund Tel. +45 72 24 59 00 Fax +45 72 24 59 04 Internet www.etadanmark.dk Authorised and notified according to Article 10 of the Council Directive 89/106/EEC

### MANUAL ON THE DELFT WIRE LACING TOOL

1 MANUAL ON THE DELFT WIRE LACING TOOL By Dr. Pieter Huybers May, 1999 Building Technology Group Faculty of Civil Engineering Delft University of Technology 1, Stevinweg 2628 CN DELFT, The Netherlands

### Structural Integrity Analysis

Structural Integrity Analysis 1. STRESS CONCENTRATION Igor Kokcharov 1.1 STRESSES AND CONCENTRATORS 1.1.1 Stress An applied external force F causes inner forces in the carrying structure. Inner forces

### European Technical Approval ETA-11/0298

ETA-Danmark A/S Kollegievej 6 DK-2920 Charlottenlund Tel. +45 72 24 59 00 Fax +45 72 24 59 04 Internet www.etadanmark.dk Authorised and notified according to Article 10 of the Council Directive 89/106/EEC

### MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES AND AFTER COOLING DOWN

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL STEEL AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES AND AFTER COOLING DOWN Jyri OUTINEN and Pentti MÄKELÄINEN Laboratory of Steel Structures, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,

### Nonlinear Models of Reinforced and Post-tensioned Concrete Beams

111 Nonlinear Models of Reinforced and Post-tensioned Concrete Beams ABSTRACT P. Fanning Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, University College Dublin Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland. Email:

### Stress Strain Relationships

Stress Strain Relationships Tensile Testing One basic ingredient in the study of the mechanics of deformable bodies is the resistive properties of materials. These properties relate the stresses to the

### Z-PURLINS TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION

Z-PURLINS TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION Zeman & Co Gesellschaft mbh A-1120 Vienna, Schönbrunner Str. 213-215 Telephone: +43 1 / 814 14-0, Fax: +43 1 / 812 27 13 http://www.zeman-steel.com, e-mail: info@zeco.at

### Objectives. Experimentally determine the yield strength, tensile strength, and modules of elasticity and ductility of given materials.

Lab 3 Tension Test Objectives Concepts Background Experimental Procedure Report Requirements Discussion Objectives Experimentally determine the yield strength, tensile strength, and modules of elasticity

### Griffith theory of brittle fracture:

Griffith theory of brittle fracture: Observed fracture strength is always lower than theoretical cohesive strength. Griffith explained that the discrepancy is due to the inherent defects in brittle materials

### Sheet metal operations - Bending and related processes

Sheet metal operations - Bending and related processes R. Chandramouli Associate Dean-Research SASTRA University, Thanjavur-613 401 Table of Contents 1.Quiz-Key... Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.Bending

### Standards, Codes and Regulations

Standards, Codes and Regulations 1.0 Introduction The production of a European standard for reinforcing steels began in 1988. The key stumbling block to bringing this to fruition was the inability to agree

### MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS. IE-114 Materials Science and General Chemistry Lecture-6

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS IE-114 Materials Science and General Chemistry Lecture-6 Overview 1) ELASTIC DEFORMATION - Elastic Behavior - Anelasticity - Elastic Properties of Materials 2) PLASTIC