E-commerce and Small Businesses

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "E-commerce and Small Businesses"

Transcription

1 October 2007 No. 22 Executive Summary E-commerce and Small Businesses Leah Sperer Koret-Milken Institute Fellow

2 About the Koret-Milken Institute Fellows Program The Koret-Milken Institute Fellows Program accelerates Israel s economic growth through innovative, market-based solutions for long-term economic, social, and environmental issues. The program focuses on connecting government, philanthropic, and business resources that are vital to national growth and development. Directed by the Milken Institute Israel Center, the Koret-Milken Institute Fellows Program awards annual fellowships to outstanding graduates of Israeli and international institutes of higher education. Fellows serve yearlong internships at the center of the nation s decision-making the Knesset, government ministries, and other Israeli agencies and aid policymakers by researching and developing solutions for various economic and social challenges. In addition, fellows craft their own policy studies aimed at identifying barriers to economic and employment growth in Israel. The fellows studies, carried out under the guidance of an experienced academic and professional staff, support legislators and regulators who shape the economic reality in Israel. The program offers the ultimate educational exercise, combining real-life work experience with applied research five days a week. Throughout the year, fellows receive intensive training in economic policy, government processes, and research methods. They acquire tools for writing memorandums, presentations, and policy papers, and they develop management, marketing, and communication skills. The fellows participate in a weekly workshop, where they meet senior economic and government professionals, business leaders, and top academics from Israel and abroad. They also participate in an accredited MBA course that awards three graduate-level academic credits that are transferable to other universities in Israel. The course, which focuses on financial and economic innovations, is taught at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem s School of Business Administration by Professor Glenn Yago, Director of the Milken Institute Israel Center and Director of Capital Studies at the Milken Institute in California. Fellows Program alumni can be found in senior positions in the public and private sectors. Some serve as advisers to government ministries while others work at private-sector companies or go on to advanced studies at leading universities in Israel, the United States, and Great Britain. Within the program s framework, more than 80 research papers have been published, catalyzing reforms, reducing barriers, bringing about economic growth, and improving the quality of life for Israeli citizens. The Koret-Milken Institute Fellows Program is nonpolitical and nonpartisan. It is funded by the Koret Foundation, the Milken Institute, and other leading philanthropic organizations and individuals in the United States and Israel. More about the program: Contact us:

3 E-commerce and Small Businesses Leah Sperer KIEDF Koret Fellow E-commerce is increasing around the world, but small businesses in Israel lag far behind. We recommend: Reforming the State Tender Law to allow tenders to be issued online. The Bank of Israel should license Internet banks to facilitate online payment by Israelis. The public and private sectors should offer small businesses information and training in the use of e-commerce. E-commerce in Israel In 2005, e-commerce in Europe totaled $97 billion, 1 and in Australia, $39.6 billion. 2 In the U.S., Business-to-Consumer (B2C) e-commerce in 2007 is expected to total $200 billion. 3 Israel lacks official statistics a problem in its own right but worse, estimates of Israeli e-commerce at the end of 2005 were only $350 million. 4 Consumer use Almost four million Israelis, comprising 72% of the total population above 13, use the Internet. 5 In 2005, 62% of households owned a computer and 49% were connected to the Internet. The percentage of computer ownership and Internet connections in Israel rises with the level of income, indicating that the populations with the greatest purchasing potential are heavy users of the Internet. 6 A demographic mapping of the Internet in Israel supports this conclusion. At the start of 2006, the average Internet user was younger, more educated and with a relatively higher income than the representation of these groups in the total population. 7 Fifty-five percent of Internet users purchase goods and services over the Internet; a percentage that has been on the rise since 2000, as the figures in Table 1 show. Most use the Internet to search for information, so that even those who have not made online purchases are exposed to businesses operating online. 42 [ 1 ]

4 Table 1: Internet Use among Internet Users in Israel, Information search Purchase of goods and services 2000 (June) 2001 (June) 2002 (May) 2003 (November) 2004 (May) 2004 (November) 2005 (Annual average) 2006 (January July) 2007 (January) 70.6% 92% 88% 95.6% 93.5% 93% 95% 96% N/A 20.7% 29% 37% 40.3% 40.4% 42% 41% 60% 55% Source: TNS data quoted at Gal Mor, 1.7 Million Israelis Surf the Net, Ynet, June 17, 2002; Gal Mor, Survey: About 40 Percent of Israelis Surf the Net, Ynet, June 23, 2004; Gal Mor, 3.4 Million Israelis Surf the Net, Ynet, July 12, 2005; Gal Mor, 2.7 Million Israelis Surf Every Day, Ynet, July 31, 2006; Gal Mor, Tim Survey: The Israeli Users are More Diverse, Ynet, January 17, The percentage of Israelis making purchases online in 2005 is not high in comparison with international figures. In Israel, 21% of Internet users, approximately 1.4 million individuals, made online purchases; a figure slightly lower than the EU s 23.1%. 60 Graph 1: Percentage of Individuals Purchasing Online, Czech Republic Spain Belgium Israel EU-25 Average Austria Finland Germany UK Denmark Sweden Source: Based on Gal Mor, 3.6 Million Israelis Surf the Net, Ynet, January 3, 2006; Morag Ottens, Use of the internet among individuals and enterprises (Eurostat, December 2006), p. 6, (July 5, 2007). [ 2 ] 43

5 Business Use The TNS Teleseker survey of 2002 provides the most up to date information about business use of the Internet and online commerce in Israel. According to the survey, among businesses owning a computer, 75% use the Internet and 34% offer online marketing or make purchases or sales. 8 In 2006, 85% of the online trade was divided among 4 competing e-platforms: Nana shops, P1000, Allsale, and Walla!shops. Approximately 150 businesses use P1000 and a similar number use Nana shops. 9 The Zap website offering price comparisons included 793 participating stores in Allprice s index of online stores contains 649 businesses. 11 It appears the B2C market in Israel is relatively centralized and does not yet involve most of Israeli businesses. Because most of the online trading in Israel is currently done through e-platforms, a small number of businesses benefit from the ever-expanding trade. In addition to these platforms, other companies offer independent websites trading through customer-based and specialized sites, but they apparently represent a small percentage of the online market. Government Use In Israel, government use of the Internet is mostly through the e-government project of the Finance Ministry. A wide array of services is offered to Israeli citizens and businesses that seem to be satisfied with such offerings, which save money and time. 12 More important are state purchases: by publishing tenders online the government has saved approximately NIS 300 million since The use of the Internet for tenders has increased transparency, competition, fairness, and the ability of companies to compete for the tenders, as well as reducing administrative costs and improving relations between the government and its suppliers. 14 A wider use of the Internet for tenders is stymied because of tenuous local legal rulings that the Tender Law of 1992 does not cover online tenders, thus requiring the government to obtain special exemptions from the State Tenders Committee before using the Internet. 15 In addition, the government publishes tenders on various ministry websites and all tenders are published on the Israeli Governmental Advertising site, but usually a business cannot apply for the tender online. E-commerce and Small Businesses Small businesses have gradually been learning the importance of using the Internet and electronic technologies to advance their development. Most small businesses in developed countries have a computer and are connected to the Internet. 16 Nonetheless, exploiting these technologies is often more complicated and depends on the size of the business. The gap between small and large businesses in different fields grows as the technology in use becomes more complicated. Many small businesses and micro-enterprises hesitate to adopt e-commerce for sales or for purchases. Moreover, most small businesses selling on the Internet sell to consumers and not to other businesses. 17 Considering 44 [ 3 ]

6 the amount of e-commerce around the world, and the fact that most of it is business to business (B2B), it appears that small businesses are not managing to exploit the many advantages of this large and expanding market: Expanding markets beyond local areas and contacting new customers. Small businesses and businesses located in a country s periphery need these advantages more than other businesses. Increased contact with suppliers and customers. Increased marketing and publicity. Cost savings. Purchasing online brings with it considerable savings along with low administrative costs and a need to maintain lower stock levels, as well as publicizing competitive prices. Increased chance of business survival. E-commerce, when used as a market tool, may increase the rate of survival of small business in Israel, which at the moment is rather low for the first five years of operation. 18 Nonetheless, small businesses wishing to adopt e-commerce in Israel face several obstacles, such as: 1. Lack of administrative and technological expertise. Small businesses differ from medium and large businesses in the number of their employees assigned to technological issues and an inability to offer training to their employees. Small businesses often lack the strategic, administrative or operative understanding of e-technologies and need to hire other businesses to help them adopt these technologies, at additional cost Economic cost. Small businesses are often limited in their ability to raise funds and thus are more worried by the investments required to purchase and maintain technologies Security and customer trust. Consumer confidence is an important aspect of small business and online customers purchasing from a business they are not familiar with may lack this necessary confidence. 4. Lack of legal and regulatory clarity. Unresolved legal issues concerning contracts, trades and guarantees as regards e-commerce are a significant obstacle to adoption of e-commerce by small and medium sized enterprises. 21 In addition to which, as noted above, the State Tenders Law requires that the government attain special permission to publish tenders online. 5. Online means of payment. Use of credit cards is the most popular means of payment on the Internet, but several distortions and failures in the Israeli credit industry cause small businesses to be essentially held prisoner by the credit card clearing service companies. 22 Today there are two means of paying for e-commerce: the first is by means of online payment companies, which transfer funds securely. The leading firm of this type is PayPal, but Israelis do not usually have access to PayPal as it requires having a bank account in the U.S. 23 The second method is electronic bank transfers, which are especially [ 4 ] 45

7 relevant to B2B commerce and have onerous terms for small businesses. 6. Perception. Small businesses often believe incorrectly that e-commerce is not appropriate for their particular service or product. 24 Recommendations Encouraging technological development in traditional industries and in small businesses will help them attain economic sustainability and eliminate the duality in the Israeli economy, where significant growth occurs in the hightech sector and far less in traditional sectors. Moreover, because consumer, business and government use of e-commerce is on the rise, small businesses that do not modernize may find themselves left even further behind, without access to markets and customers, thus jeopardizing their existence. Therefore we recommend: 1. Training and increased awareness. Assistance provided to small businesses should be based on increasing awareness of the importance of e-commerce as well as the ability to use it. Small businesses should have the choice of whether to use the assistance to be provided by the Israel Small and Medium Enterprise Authority or private sector assistance (a voucher system could be used to facilitate this). In addition, an online program should be developed for promoting e-commerce with emphasis on how to establish a business and assess that business s ability to integrate technological changes. 2. Regular surveys. Regular surveys to be executed by the Central Bureau of Statistics are important in order to identify trends, plan ahead and rate Israel on international scales. 3. Consumer confidence. Consumer confidence is critical for the expansion of business by means of e-commerce. It would be very helpful to have a recognized seal of approval for Internet sites, allowing businesses to show that they are specially suited for Internet trade, and providing consumers with more confidence in their Internet purchases. For this purpose, the private sector is well suited and actually prepared, as such a seal of approval is already being used by the Emun Hatzibur consumer organization. 4. Regulation. The problems preventing increased use of the Internet for state tenders must be resolved. 5. The public sector as a model. Increased use of e-commerce by the government will increase transparency, confidence and competitiveness in state purchases. It will also encourage small businesses to adopt e- commerce as a means of dealing with the public sector. 6. Online payment systems. The Bank of Israel should allow the establishment of an Internet bank or banks that would offer inexpensive banking services to consumers at lower prices than the traditional banks. 46 [ 5 ]

8 Such a bank would reduce the centralization in the Israeli banking sector and increase the payment options available to those participating in e- commerce. Endnotes: 1 emarketer, E-Commerce Sales in Western Europe to Double in Three Years, press release, September 25, 2006, (July 1, 2007). 2 Stuart Kelly, Around the Markets: Web Stocks Rise Again in Australia, International Herald Tribune (July 14, 2006), (July 1, 2007). 3 TNS, Monitoring the Information Economy, 8th Factual Report (June 2005), com/06_bi/bmwa_english/faktenbericht_8/abbildungen/folie351.jpg (July 1, 2007). 4 The Economist Intelligence Unit, Israel: Overview of e-commerce (September 13, 2006), globaltechforum.eiu.com/index.asp?layout=rich_story&doc_id=9351&country_id=il&title=israel%3a+o verview+of+e%2dcommerce&channelid=4&categoryid=31&country=%country.u% (February 2, 2007). 5 TNS Teleseker, TIM Survey, Winter 2006/7, press release, January 23, Central Bureau of Statistics, Findings from the Household Expenditure Survey 2005, press release, July 26, 2006, p. 10, (July 5, 2007). 7 Gal Mor, 3.6 Million Israelis Surf the Net, Ynet, January 3, 2006 (Based on the TIM Survey 2006). 8 Gal Mor, 76 Percent of Israeli Businesses are Connected to the Net, Ynet, January 14, 2002; Gal Mor, 64% of the Computerized Businesses in Israel Use the Internet, Ynet, February 20, 2001 (based on the TIM Businesses Survey). 9 The Economist Intelligence Unit, Israel: Overview of e-commerce; Dani Alovich, P1000 manager, interview with author, March 21, 2007; Kobi Cohen, Nana Shops manager, interview with author, March 21, Zap Website, (July 5, 2007). 11 Allprice Website, (March 22, 2007). 12 Overview: The Governmental Payment Service, gov.il Newsletter, Issue no. 30, September Ministry of Finance, e-government Report 2005, (March 1, 2007). 14 Overview: Online Tenders Service: From Idea to Success, gov.il Newsletter, Issue no. 27, June Ministry of Finance, e-government Report OECD, ICT, E-Business and SMEs (Paris: OECD, 2004), p. 9, (February 22, 2007). 17 e-business The European e-business Report 2006/7 (Luxemburg: Office of Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007), p. 13, EBR06.pdf (July 5, 2007); Eurostat, Statistical Office of the European Communities, The internet and other computer networks and their use by European enterprises to do ebusiness (December 2006), p. 2, epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ity_offpub/ks-np /en/ks-np en.pdf (December 27, 2006). 18 Chiara Criscuolo, Kathryn Waldron, E-commerce and productivity, Economic Trends No. 600 (UK.: November 2003), p. 53, pdf (July 5, 2007); Israeli Small and Medium Enterprises Authority, and BDI Coface, Businesses Survival in Israel (July 2006), pp. 29, 32 38, (January 30, 2007). 19 e-business The European e-business Report, p Ibid. 21 OECD, ICT, E-Business and SMEs, pp Ministry of Finance, Accountant General, Committee Report on Market Failures in the Credit Card Sector (February 2007), (March 10, 2007). 23 PayPal Website, https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_display-approved-signup-countriesoutside (February 13, 2007). 24 OECD, ICT, E-Business and SMEs, p [ 6 ] 47

9 FELLOWS Koret PROGRAM Milken Institute תוכנית עמיתי קורת מכון מילקן בית מילקן, רחוב תל חי 13 ירושלים,

The Television Advertising Market: Off Limits to Small Business

The Television Advertising Market: Off Limits to Small Business July 2006 No. 16 Executive Summary The Television Advertising Market: Off Limits to Small Business Meytal Snir Koret-Milken Institute Fellow About the Koret-Milken Institute Fellows Program The Koret-Milken

More information

Government Programs to Assist Banks in Crisis: Creating an Early Warning System

Government Programs to Assist Banks in Crisis: Creating an Early Warning System November 2012 No. 55 Government Programs to Assist Banks in Crisis: Creating an Early Warning System Gila Weinberger Koret-Milken Institute Fellow About the Koret-Milken Institute Fellows Program The Koret-Milken

More information

Private-Equity Funding to Encourage Small Business Growth

Private-Equity Funding to Encourage Small Business Growth November 2012 No. 64 Private-Equity Funding to Encourage Small Business Growth Shir Kahanov Koret-Milken Institute Fellow About the Koret-Milken Institute Fellows Program The Koret-Milken Institute Fellows

More information

Executive Summary In light of the i2010 initiative, the Commission has adopted initiatives to further develop the Single European Information Space a Single Market for the Information Society. However,

More information

TOWARDS PUBLIC PROCUREMENT KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS. Paulo Magina Public Sector Integrity Division

TOWARDS PUBLIC PROCUREMENT KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS. Paulo Magina Public Sector Integrity Division TOWARDS PUBLIC PROCUREMENT KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Paulo Magina Public Sector Integrity Division 10 th Public Procurement Knowledge Exchange Platform Istanbul, May 2014 The Organization for Economic

More information

The. E-conomy.co.il. Impact of the internet on the Israeli economy. of McKinsey & Company is strictly prohibited

The. E-conomy.co.il. Impact of the internet on the Israeli economy. of McKinsey & Company is strictly prohibited The E-conomy.co.il Impact of the internet on the Israeli economy of McKinsey & Company is strictly prohibited 2 PREFACEPREF For the purpose of this report, we have chosen an extensive 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

More information

Finland must take a leap towards new innovations

Finland must take a leap towards new innovations Finland must take a leap towards new innovations Innovation Policy Guidelines up to 2015 Summary Finland must take a leap towards new innovations Innovation Policy Guidelines up to 2015 Summary 3 Foreword

More information

BULGARIA. Digital Transformation of Small and Medium Enterprises in. DELab UW Country Report April 2016. delab.uw.edu.pl delab@uw.edu.

BULGARIA. Digital Transformation of Small and Medium Enterprises in. DELab UW Country Report April 2016. delab.uw.edu.pl delab@uw.edu. Digital Transformation of Small and Medium Enterprises in DELab UW Country Report April 2016 delab.uw.edu.pl delab@uw.edu.pl DELAB raport B5 Bulgaria.indd 1 01/04/16 15:13 Authors: dr hab. Katarzyna Śledziewska

More information

e-commerce adoption and business impact: a progress report

e-commerce adoption and business impact: a progress report e-commerce adoption and business impact: a progress report Tony Clayton and Kathryn Waldron Economic Analysis and Satellite Accounts division, Office for National Statistics Room D4/19 1 Drummond Gate

More information

e-business in the Retail Sector Elena Gaboardi

e-business in the Retail Sector Elena Gaboardi e-business in the Retail Sector Elena Gaboardi 26-11-2002 e-business in Europe 2002, Brussels 1 Retail: a reshaped competitive scenario Increasing concentration (new stores and takeovers) Geographical

More information

E-commerce and Development Key Trends and Issues

E-commerce and Development Key Trends and Issues E-commerce and Development Key Trends and Issues Torbjörn Fredriksson Chief, ICT Analysis Section UNCTAD, Division on Technology and Logistics (torbjorn.fredriksson@unctad.org) Workshop on E-Commerce,

More information

E-commerce: The outlook for online B2C insurance in the Irish retail market.

E-commerce: The outlook for online B2C insurance in the Irish retail market. E-commerce: The outlook for online B2C insurance in the Irish retail market. Presented to the Society of Actuaries in Ireland Brian Heffernan FSAI Martin Ryan FSAI Introduction There are as many different

More information

European SME Export Report - FRANCE Export / import trends and behaviours of SMEs in France

European SME Export Report - FRANCE Export / import trends and behaviours of SMEs in France SOUS EMBARGO JUSQU AU 8 JUILLET A 8H00 European SME Export Report - FRANCE Export / import trends and behaviours of SMEs in France July 2015 European SME Export Report Small and medium-sized enterprises

More information

RETAILERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS CROSS- BORDER TRADE AND CONSUMER PROTECTION

RETAILERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS CROSS- BORDER TRADE AND CONSUMER PROTECTION Eurobarometer RETAILERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS CROSS- BORDER TRADE AND CONSUMER PROTECTION REPORT Fieldwork: September - October 2012 Publication: June 2013 This survey has been requested by the European Commission,

More information

Study on the Impact of E-Commerce on Tax and Accounting Activities

Study on the Impact of E-Commerce on Tax and Accounting Activities World Applied Sciences Journal 24 (4): 534-539, 2013 ISSN 1818-4952 IDOSI Publications, 2013 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.24.04.329 Study on the Impact of E-Commerce on Tax and Accounting Activities Claudiu

More information

What Proportion of National Wealth Is Spent on Education?

What Proportion of National Wealth Is Spent on Education? Indicator What Proportion of National Wealth Is Spent on Education? In 2008, OECD countries spent 6.1% of their collective GDP on al institutions and this proportion exceeds 7.0% in Chile, Denmark, Iceland,

More information

INFORMATION ECONOMY REPORT 2015: Unlocking The E-commerce Potential For Developing Countries

INFORMATION ECONOMY REPORT 2015: Unlocking The E-commerce Potential For Developing Countries INFORMATION ECONOMY REPORT 2015: Unlocking The E-commerce Potential For Developing Countries Torbjörn Fredriksson (torbjorn.fredriksson@unctad.org) Chief, ICT Analysis Section, UNCTAD Commonwealth Cybersecurity

More information

UNCITRAL legislative standards on electronic communications and electronic signatures: an introduction

UNCITRAL legislative standards on electronic communications and electronic signatures: an introduction legislative standards on electronic communications and electronic signatures: an introduction Luca Castellani Legal Officer secretariat International harmonization of e-commerce law Model Law on Electronic

More information

Digital Agenda Targets Progress report. Digital Agenda Scoreboard 2014

Digital Agenda Targets Progress report. Digital Agenda Scoreboard 2014 Digital Agenda Targets Progress report Digital Agenda Scoreboard 2014 1 NGA coverage: Fast broadband technologies capable of providing at least 30 Mbps are available to 64%, up from 54% a year ago Among

More information

relating to household s disposable income. A Gini Coefficient of zero indicates

relating to household s disposable income. A Gini Coefficient of zero indicates Gini Coefficient The Gini Coefficient is a measure of income inequality which is based on data relating to household s disposable income. A Gini Coefficient of zero indicates perfect income equality, whereas

More information

Digital Economy and Society Index 1 2015 2

Digital Economy and Society Index 1 2015 2 Digital Economy and Society Index 1 2015 2 Country Profile has an overall 3 of 0.53 and s 9 th out of the 28 Member States. Relative to last year, improved its s in most DESI dimensions. is 6 th among

More information

RIA: Benefits and Application

RIA: Benefits and Application RIA: Benefits and Application Scott Jacobs Managing Director, Jacobs and Associates WORKSHOP ON GOOD REGULATORY PRACTICE WTO, Geneva 18-19 MARCH 2008 1 The Golden Age of Regulation Regulation is a normal

More information

INNOBAROMETER 2015 - THE INNOVATION TRENDS AT EU ENTERPRISES

INNOBAROMETER 2015 - THE INNOVATION TRENDS AT EU ENTERPRISES Eurobarometer INNOBAROMETER 2015 - THE INNOVATION TRENDS AT EU ENTERPRISES REPORT Fieldwork: February 2015 Publication: September 2015 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General

More information

Powering Up the Network: A Report on Small Business Use of E-business Solutions in Canada

Powering Up the Network: A Report on Small Business Use of E-business Solutions in Canada Powering Up the Network: A Report on Small Business Use of E-business Solutions in Canada February 2010 Overview Canada is a world leader in many areas: energy, natural resources and the financial services

More information

Winning in the race for e-business

Winning in the race for e-business Winning in the race for e-business Lecture Four - Benchmarking global best practice Presentation to Sheffield University Management School MBA Students 6 March 2007 Prof. Jim Norton Senior Policy Adviser

More information

Future of European Consumer Finance A joint Eurofinas Roland Berger Survey

Future of European Consumer Finance A joint Eurofinas Roland Berger Survey Future of European Consumer Finance A joint Eurofinas Roland Berger Survey Highlights of 1st Edition Cascais 15 October 2015 118 companies participated to the first Eurofinas - Roland Berger Survey - representing

More information

RETAIL FINANCIAL SERVICES

RETAIL FINANCIAL SERVICES Special Eurobarometer 373 RETAIL FINANCIAL SERVICES REPORT Fieldwork: September 211 Publication: March 212 This survey has been requested by Directorate-General Internal Market and Services and co-ordinated

More information

Central and Eastern Europe Information Society Benchmarks

Central and Eastern Europe Information Society Benchmarks Central and Eastern Europe Survey Results Objective 2 Investing in People and Skills September 2004 2.A EUROPEAN YOUTH INTO THE DIGITAL AGE 2.A.1 Number of computers per 100 pupils in primary/secondary/tertiary

More information

EUF STATISTICS. 31 December 2013

EUF STATISTICS. 31 December 2013 . ESTIMATES OF EU TURNOVER VOLUMES. Turnover volumes by product, allocation and notification (Estimates of EU s, Millions of ) Estimate of the EU % on Turnover Significance of the sample on total turnover

More information

TOTAL --3 3.3 5.3. Magnaglobal; CCB; INDEC; CACE; IEMR; company reports; World Bank; World Trade Organization; AméricaEconomía; BCG analysis.

TOTAL --3 3.3 5.3. Magnaglobal; CCB; INDEC; CACE; IEMR; company reports; World Bank; World Trade Organization; AméricaEconomía; BCG analysis. Argentina s Economy ($s) 8 --1 Argentina 2 3 5 2.0 5 8 18 --3 3.3 28 Argentina Comparison of economy with 2.0 Public administration Manufacturing Wholesale and trade Real estate Agriculture, forestry,

More information

ICT MICRODATA LINKING PROJECTS. Brian Ring Central Statistics Office

ICT MICRODATA LINKING PROJECTS. Brian Ring Central Statistics Office ICT MICRODATA LINKING PROJECTS Brian Ring Central Statistics Office Some CSO Background CSO runs annual survey of enterprises and households integration work to date has focussed on data from enterprises

More information

Starting a Business in Israel

Starting a Business in Israel Starting a Business in Israel Inspiration Invention Innovation Content: Page 1. Business Entities....... 2 a. Company...... 2 b. Foreign Company (e.g. a branch)...... 2 c. Partnership...... 3 d. Self Employed......

More information

How does Internet Usage Change in Turkey? An Assessment on Internet Users

How does Internet Usage Change in Turkey? An Assessment on Internet Users How does Internet Usage Change in Turkey? An Assessment on Internet Users Ü. Barış Urhan Research Associate İrem Kızılca Research Associate TEPAV Evaluation Note February 2011 How does Internet Usage Change

More information

Digital Agenda for Europe Cartagena de Indias, September 1, 2015

Digital Agenda for Europe Cartagena de Indias, September 1, 2015 Digital Agenda for Europe Cartagena de Indias, September 1, 2015 Javier Huerta Bravo From the Digital Agenda (2010)... Commission ICT strategy for 2010-2020 Problems identified: Lack of investment in networks

More information

Investment Promotion Support Services

Investment Promotion Support Services Profile PM & Partner Marketing Consulting GmbH (PM&P) Frankfurt Munich Berlin www.pm-p.de 2 ABOUT PM&P PM&P Profile 3 PM & Partner Marketing Consulting GmbH (PM&P) is an independent consulting firm, consisting

More information

Monitoring the Information Economy

Monitoring the Information Economy Monitoring the Information Economy Prepared by: Dr. Sabine Graumann Florian Neinert Munich, April 2004 1 Germany s Positioning Top Positions worldwide No. 1 in Europe European Leadership Improvements Penetration

More information

Main Trends in B2C E-commerce in the Slovak Republic

Main Trends in B2C E-commerce in the Slovak Republic Ľ. Lesáková Main Trends in B2C E-commerce in the Slovak Republic Main Trends in B2C E-commerce in the Slovak Republic Ľubica Lesáková Matej Bel University, Faculty of Economics, Slovak Republic lubica.lesakova@umb.sk

More information

Investment and Investment Finance in Croatia, how can the EIB contribute? Dario Scannapieco and Debora Revoltella European Investment Bank

Investment and Investment Finance in Croatia, how can the EIB contribute? Dario Scannapieco and Debora Revoltella European Investment Bank Investment and Investment Finance in Croatia, how can the EIB contribute? Dario Scannapieco and Debora Revoltella European Investment Bank 24 March 2014 Outline EU and Croatia key challenges The Investment

More information

European SME Export Report. Export / import trends and behaviours of SMEs in Europe

European SME Export Report. Export / import trends and behaviours of SMEs in Europe European SME Export Report Export / import trends and behaviours of SMEs in Europe July 2015 < 2 > Introduction Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a fundamentally important role in Europe's

More information

BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN THE EU

BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN THE EU Flash Eurobarometer BUSINESS-TO-BUSINESS ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN THE EU REPORT Fieldwork: March-April 22 Publication: November 22 This survey has been requested by Directorate-General for Justice

More information

The Debt Management Office

The Debt Management Office The Debt Management Office Based on a client presentation October 2010 1 Outline The Debt Management Office Different institutional arrangements Internal organisation and operation Building a DMO What

More information

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT. Accompanying document to the

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT. Accompanying document to the COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Brussels, 04.08.2009 SEC(2009) 1104 COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Accompanying document to the COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE

More information

Will Bulgaria Remain a "Quiet Place" for Higher Education?

Will Bulgaria Remain a Quiet Place for Higher Education? Page 1 of 5 Will Bulgaria Remain a "Quiet Place" for Higher Education? Bulgarian higher education fails to compete successfully either within the EU or with the US. It is lagging behind in terms of available

More information

Global Privatization Trends in Healthcare and Health Insurance. Hank Kearney Global Health Access, LLC a PHM International company

Global Privatization Trends in Healthcare and Health Insurance. Hank Kearney Global Health Access, LLC a PHM International company Global Privatization Trends in Healthcare and Health Insurance Invest 2001 Dubai 3 April, 2001 Hank Kearney Global Health Access, LLC a PHM International company 2001 INVEST 2001 DUBAI HEALTH CARE & INSURANCE

More information

ARE THE POINTS OF SINGLE CONTACT TRULY MAKING THINGS EASIER FOR EUROPEAN COMPANIES?

ARE THE POINTS OF SINGLE CONTACT TRULY MAKING THINGS EASIER FOR EUROPEAN COMPANIES? ARE THE POINTS OF SINGLE CONTACT TRULY MAKING THINGS EASIER FOR EUROPEAN COMPANIES? SERVICES DIRECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION REPORT NOVEMBER 2011 EUROPEAN COMPANIES WANT WELL-FUNCTIONING POINTS OF SINGLE CONTACT

More information

E-BUSINESS IN SLOVENIAN SMES

E-BUSINESS IN SLOVENIAN SMES E-BUSINESS IN SLOVENIAN SMES dr. Viktorija Sulčič, viktorija.sulcic@fm-kp.si dr. Dušan Lesjak, dusan.lesjak@fm-kp.si ABSTRACT Small and the medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are socially and economically

More information

Eliminating Double Taxation through Corporate Integration

Eliminating Double Taxation through Corporate Integration FISCAL FACT Feb. 2015 No. 453 Eliminating Double Taxation through Corporate Integration By Kyle Pomerleau Economist Key Findings The United States tax code places a double-tax on corporate income with

More information

Annex 2C International comparisons of gas and electricity prices

Annex 2C International comparisons of gas and electricity prices Annex 2C International comparisons of gas and electricity prices Wholesale gas prices in the UK have risen between 23 and 24. This has caused industrial and domestic gas prices to increase and the gap

More information

OPPORTUNITIES FOR E-COMMERCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Lessons from the Information Economy Report 2015

OPPORTUNITIES FOR E-COMMERCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Lessons from the Information Economy Report 2015 OPPORTUNITIES FOR E-COMMERCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Lessons from the Information Economy Report 2015 Scarlett Fondeur Gil (scarlett.fondeur.gil@unctad.org) Economic Affairs Officer, ICT Analysis Section,

More information

RETAIL FINANCIAL SERVICES

RETAIL FINANCIAL SERVICES Special Eurobarometer 373 RETAIL FINANCIAL SERVICES REPORT Fieldwork: September 211 Publication: April 212 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General Internal Market

More information

Tentative Action Plan

Tentative Action Plan Republic of Serbia Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection Serbia and Montenegro Tentative Action Plan Draft 1 Belgrade, September 2005 Tentative Action Plan - Draft 1 Section 1 and 2 Information

More information

Investment Indicators and the Business Firms Dynamics

Investment Indicators and the Business Firms Dynamics Investment Indicators and the Business Firms Dynamics Virginia CUCU 1 ABSTRACT The paper regards the link between the population of enterprises carrying out economic activity and pursuing investment projects

More information

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 27 2013 Edition

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 27 2013 Edition (Cover page) The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 27 2013 Edition James Rogers & Cécile Philippe May 2013 Data provided by NEW DIRECTION Page 1 of 16 The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU

More information

APPENDIX A: COUNTRY REPORTS

APPENDIX A: COUNTRY REPORTS Austria The current conditions are that a should meet two out of the following three requirements: Balance sheet Number of Small < 7,3 mio. < 3,65 mio. 50 Medium-sized < 29,2 mio. < 14,6 mio. 250 *Austrian

More information

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2015

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2015 The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2015 James Rogers Cécile Philippe Institut Économique Molinari, Paris Bruxelles TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract 2 Background 2 Main Results 3 On average, a respite

More information

BUILDING THE DIGITAL SINGLE MARKET CROSS BORDER DEMAND FOR CONTENT SERVICES

BUILDING THE DIGITAL SINGLE MARKET CROSS BORDER DEMAND FOR CONTENT SERVICES Special Eurobarometer 366 BUILDING THE DIGITAL SINGLE MARKET CROSS BORDER DEMAND FOR CONTENT SERVICES REPORT Fieldwork: April - May 2011 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General

More information

The civil service human resource management reform application headquarters

The civil service human resource management reform application headquarters The civil service human resource management reform application headquarters Leading changes for the future Beginning to apply reform in civil service: For the future of us all ירושלים, תשרי תשע"ג, אוקטובר

More information

Government at a Glance 2015

Government at a Glance 2015 Government at a Glance 2015 Size of public procurement Strategic public procurement E-procurement Central purchasing bodies 135 Size of public procurement Public procurement refers to the purchase by governments

More information

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2014 Edition. James Rogers & Cécile Philippe May 2014. (Cover page) Data provided by

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2014 Edition. James Rogers & Cécile Philippe May 2014. (Cover page) Data provided by (Cover page) The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2014 Edition NEW DIRECTION Page 1 of 17 James Rogers & Cécile Philippe May 2014 New Direction aims to help shift the EU onto a different course

More information

HOW COMPANIES INFLUENCE OUR SOCIETY: CITIZENS VIEW

HOW COMPANIES INFLUENCE OUR SOCIETY: CITIZENS VIEW Flash Eurobarometer HOW COMPANIES INFLUENCE OUR SOCIETY: CITIZENS VIEW REPORT Fieldwork: October-November 2012 Publication: April 2013 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General

More information

EUROPEAN AREA OF SKILLS AND QUALIFICATIONS

EUROPEAN AREA OF SKILLS AND QUALIFICATIONS EUROPEAN AREA OF SKILLS AND QUALIFICATIONS REPORT Fieldwork: April - May 2014 Publication: June 2014 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Education and Culture

More information

State of the Israeli Technology Industry and the Future. Dr. Orna Berry Venture Partner, Gemini Israel Funds

State of the Israeli Technology Industry and the Future. Dr. Orna Berry Venture Partner, Gemini Israel Funds State of the Israeli Technology Industry and the Future Dr. Orna Berry Venture Partner, Gemini Israel Funds 2002 ICT GDP - NIS 33 billion 17% of business sector GDP. OECD highest - compared to 10-11% in

More information

Instruments to control and finance the building of healthcare infrastructure in other countries of the European Union

Instruments to control and finance the building of healthcare infrastructure in other countries of the European Union Summary and conclusions This report describes the instruments by which the respective authorities of eight important European Union members control the building, financing and geographical distribution

More information

The Economic Impact of Cloud Computing in the EU

The Economic Impact of Cloud Computing in the EU The Economic Impact of Cloud Computing in the EU Jerusalem March 19, 2012 Professor Federico Etro University of Venice Ca Foscari What will be the impact of cloud computing on business creation and on

More information

WIRTSCHAFT www.monitoring-ik-wirtschaft.de

WIRTSCHAFT www.monitoring-ik-wirtschaft.de M INFORMATIONS- KOMMUNIKATIONS- NITORING & WIRTSCHAFT www.monitoring-ik-wirtschaft.de Management Summary on behalf of A study by TNS Infratest Forschung GmbH Munich / Berlin, July 2007 I I. The German

More information

Jurisdiction and applicable law in electronic commerce

Jurisdiction and applicable law in electronic commerce International Chamber of Commerce The world business organization Policy statement Jurisdiction and applicable law in electronic commerce Prepared by the Electronic Commerce Project (ECP) s Ad hoc Task

More information

What Is the Total Public Spending on Education?

What Is the Total Public Spending on Education? What Is the Total Public Spending on Education? Indicator On average, OECD countries devote 12.9% of total public expenditure to, but values for individual countries range from less than 10% in the Czech

More information

臺 灣 大 學 師 資 培 育 中 心 教 育 系 列 演 講 ( 二 )

臺 灣 大 學 師 資 培 育 中 心 教 育 系 列 演 講 ( 二 ) 臺 灣 大 學 師 資 培 育 中 心 教 育 系 列 演 講 ( 二 ) 主 辦 單 位 : 國 立 臺 灣 大 學 師 資 培 育 中 心 協 辦 單 位 : 國 立 臺 灣 大 學 教 學 發 展 中 心 講 題 :California's Higher Education System - Its Successes and Troubles 演 講 人 : Dr. John Douglass

More information

E-Commerce and ICT Activity, 2012. 95% of businesses had broadband Internet and 82% had a website.

E-Commerce and ICT Activity, 2012. 95% of businesses had broadband Internet and 82% had a website. Statistical Bulletin E-Commerce and ICT Activity, 2012 Coverage: UK Date: 04 December 2013 Geographical Area: UK Theme: Business and Energy Key points E-commerce sales represented 18% of business turnover

More information

COMPANIES ENGAGED IN ONLINE ACTIVITIES

COMPANIES ENGAGED IN ONLINE ACTIVITIES Flash Eurobarometer 413 COMPANIES ENGAGED IN ONLINE ACTIVITIES SUMMARY Fieldwork: January-February 2015 Publication: May 2015 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General

More information

e-sens Electronic Simple European Networked Services Rome, 16.10.2015

e-sens Electronic Simple European Networked Services Rome, 16.10.2015 e-sens Electronic Simple European Networked Services Rome, 16.10.2015 e-sens Goal To improve the cross-border access of - citizens - businesses to public services in Europe by provision of interoperable

More information

Next generation insurance - insights into the behaviour and beliefs of the European consumer

Next generation insurance - insights into the behaviour and beliefs of the European consumer Next generation insurance - insights into the behaviour and beliefs of the European consumer Dr John Schoonbee, Chief Medical Officer, EMEA, Swiss Re IAA Colloquium 2015, Oslo, Norway, 7-10th June 2015

More information

Katy Taylor, European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE), London, UK

Katy Taylor, European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE), London, UK COMMENT EU member state contribution to alternative methods 1 Katy Taylor, European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE), London, UK Summary Article 47 of the new EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the

More information

The future of e-governmente

The future of e-governmente The future of e-governmente Professor Helen Margetts Director, School of Public Policy, UCL See www.ucl.ac.uk/spp www.governmentontheweb.org Oxford Internet Institute from October 2004 Professor Ingemar

More information

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2016

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2016 The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 28 2016 James Rogers Cécile Philippe Institut Économique Molinari, Paris Bruxelles TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract 2 Background 2 Main Results 3 On average, a respite

More information

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 27

The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 27 The Tax Burden of Typical Workers in the EU 27 James Rogers Cécile Philippe Institut Économique Molinari, Paris-Bruxelles TABLE OF CONTENTS Objective of the Study 2 Study Interest 2 Main Results 3 Definitions

More information

Errors and omissions in the balance of payments statistics a problem?

Errors and omissions in the balance of payments statistics a problem? Errors and omissions in the balance of payments statistics a problem? BY GUNNAR BLOMBERG, LARS FORSS AND INGVAR KARLSSON The authors work in the Monetary Policy Department. The balance of payments statistics

More information

THE ANALYSIS OF PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE PENETRATION DEGREE AND DENSITY IN EUROPE

THE ANALYSIS OF PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE PENETRATION DEGREE AND DENSITY IN EUROPE THE ANALYSIS OF PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE PENETRATION DEGREE AND DENSITY IN EUROPE Gheorghe Matei, Professor Ph.D University of Craiova Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Craiova, Romania

More information

VOLUNTARY HEALTH INSURANCE AS A METHOD OF HEALTH CARE FINANCING IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

VOLUNTARY HEALTH INSURANCE AS A METHOD OF HEALTH CARE FINANCING IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES VOLUNTARY HEALTH INSURANCE AS A METHOD OF HEALTH CARE FINANCING IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES Marta Borda Department of Insurance, Wroclaw University of Economics Komandorska St. No. 118/120, 53-345 Wroclaw, Poland

More information

Inventarisatie toepassing EU btw-regelgeving op hoveniersdiensten

Inventarisatie toepassing EU btw-regelgeving op hoveniersdiensten Inventarisatie toepassing EU btw-regelgeving op hoveniersdiensten Governments can stimulate citizens to contribute to ecological, social and economic goals. By using a reduced VAT-rate for private gardening

More information

Digital Heart of Europe: low pressure or hypertension? State of the Digital Economy in Central and Eastern Europe

Digital Heart of Europe: low pressure or hypertension? State of the Digital Economy in Central and Eastern Europe Digital Heart of Europe: low pressure or hypertension? State of the Digital Economy in Central and Eastern Europe Author: Jan Klesla Editors: Maria Staszkiewicz and Milan Zubíček ICT VALUE ADDED share

More information

Panel: How broadband policy can contribute to deploy secured and universal broadband access. Presentation:

Panel: How broadband policy can contribute to deploy secured and universal broadband access. Presentation: Panel: How broadband policy can contribute to deploy secured and universal broadband access Presentation: Initiatives to deploy broadband access in Europe Erik BOHLIN Chalmers University of Technology,

More information

Assisting Economic Transition: An RIA Strategy for Developing Countries

Assisting Economic Transition: An RIA Strategy for Developing Countries Assisting Economic Transition: An RIA Strategy for Developing Countries Scott Jacobs, Managing Director Jacobs and Associates At the Conference on REGULATORY IMPACT ASSESSMENT: STRENGTHENING REGULATION

More information

A new Eurobarometer Survey on young people reveals decreasing involvement in out-of-school activities

A new Eurobarometer Survey on young people reveals decreasing involvement in out-of-school activities EUROPEAN COMMISSION MEMO Brussels, 23 April 2015 A new Eurobarometer Survey on young people reveals decreasing involvement in out-of-school activities Over 13.000 young people between 15 and 30 were interviewed

More information

SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE ICTS

SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE ICTS SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE ICTS Evidence from the on-going work of the OECD Dr. Andrea de Panizza Dr. Piotr Stryszowski The views expressed are those of the author in his private capacity and do not

More information

Report on impacts of raised thresholds defining SMEs

Report on impacts of raised thresholds defining SMEs Knowledge creating results--- DG Internal Market Report on impacts of raised thresholds defining SMEs Impact assessment on raising the thresholds in the 4th Company Law Directive (78/660/EEC) defining

More information

CONSUMERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS CROSS- BORDER TRADE AND CONSUMER PROTECTION

CONSUMERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS CROSS- BORDER TRADE AND CONSUMER PROTECTION Eurobarometer CONSUMERS ATTITUDES TOWARDS CROSS- BORDER TRADE AND CONSUMER PROTECTION REPORT Fieldwork: September 2011 Publication: May 2012 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General

More information

ESG PRACTICES FOR PASSIVELY MANAGED EQUITY STRATEGIES SEPTEMBER 2014

ESG PRACTICES FOR PASSIVELY MANAGED EQUITY STRATEGIES SEPTEMBER 2014 ESG PRACTICES FOR PASSIVELY MANAGED EQUITY STRATEGIES SEPTEMBER 2014 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Mercer s ESG (environmental, social and governance) ratings have generally been well-integrated into the manager research

More information

Hiring and employment procedures for one-person-enterprises

Hiring and employment procedures for one-person-enterprises Flash Eurobarometer European Commission Hiring and employment procedures for one-person-enterprises Fieldwork: 2004 Publication: 2004 Flash Eurobarometer 163 - TNS Sofres / EOS Gallup Europe This survey

More information

ICT Industry in Europe. Outsourcing Fuels Business Growth

ICT Industry in Europe. Outsourcing Fuels Business Growth ICT Industry in Europe. Outsourcing Fuels Business Growth 1 CONTENTS Introduction... 3 Implications of owning own IT infrastructure Drivers to outsourcing IT nearshoring to pick up in 2014 Risks of outsourcing

More information

ENTREPRENEURSHIP MARKETS

ENTREPRENEURSHIP MARKETS STUDIES IN & ENTREPRENEURSHIP MARKETS Number 6 / January 2008 Bank Lending and Entrepreneurial Finance The Performance of Canadian Banks John Chant with Keith Godin Contents. Executive summary.... 3. Introduction...

More information

EuroCommerce position paper Online e-payments

EuroCommerce position paper Online e-payments EuroCommerce position paper Online e-payments 16 September 2011 EuroCommerce welcomes the opportunity to comment on online payment issues. We carried out a brief members' survey and consulted within the

More information

CYSPA launch event - Turkey

CYSPA launch event - Turkey CYSPA launch event - Turkey Rome, 09 June 2014 Ankara 17th February, 2015 Luigi REBUFFI CEO EOS CYSPA Coordination www.cyspa.eu CYSPA launch events 6 June 2014 - UK: London 9 June 2014 IT: Rome 30 June

More information

Proposal for a DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL

Proposal for a DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 9.12.2015 COM(2015) 635 final 2015/0288 (COD) Proposal for a DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on certain aspects concerning contracts for the online

More information

THE IMPACT OF E-COMMERCE ON SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES(SME) IN AUSTRALIA

THE IMPACT OF E-COMMERCE ON SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES(SME) IN AUSTRALIA THE IMPACT OF E-COMMERCE ON SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES(SME) IN AUSTRALIA Maruf Hasan and Indra Muljadi School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052,

More information

Online advertising in Europe surges 40% to 11 billion in 2007

Online advertising in Europe surges 40% to 11 billion in 2007 Online advertising in Europe surges 40% to 11 billion in 2007 European market closing the gap on the US Berlin 2 nd June 2008: The Interactive Advertising Bureau Europe (IAB Europe) has just released the

More information

English-Taught Master s Programs in Europe: A 2013 Update

English-Taught Master s Programs in Europe: A 2013 Update English-Taught Master s Programs in Europe: A 2013 Update Prepared by Megan Brenn-White and Elias Faethe September 2013 Institute of International Education A Briefing Paper from IIE s Center for Academic

More information

Digital Scoreboard 2016: Austria

Digital Scoreboard 2016: Austria Digital Scoreboard 2016: Austria Austria's performance in the DESI 2016 Austria ranks 12 among EU countries. It is part of the group of countries that are running ahead. Digital Scoreboard 2016 2 Connectivity:

More information

U.S. Trading Companies, 2012

U.S. Trading Companies, 2012 U.S. Trading Companies, 2012 Natalie Soroka Trade and Economic Analysis Industry and Analysis Department of Commerce International Trade Administration November 2014 U.S. Trading Companies: 2012 Highlights

More information