BUILDING THE DIGITAL SINGLE MARKET CROSS BORDER DEMAND FOR CONTENT SERVICES

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1 Special Eurobarometer 366 BUILDING THE DIGITAL SINGLE MARKET CROSS BORDER DEMAND FOR CONTENT SERVICES REPORT Fieldwork: April - May 2011 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology and co-ordinated by Directorate-General for Communication. This document does not represent the point of view of the European Commission. The interpretations and opinions contained in it are solely those of the authors. Special Eurobarometer 366 / Wave TNS Opinion & Social

2 SPECIAL EUROBAROMETER XXX Title Special Eurobarometer 366 Building the Digital Single Market Cross border Demand for Content Services Conducted by TNS Opinion & Social at the request of the European Commission, Directorate-General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology Survey co-ordinated by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Communication ( Research and Speechwriting Unit) 1

3 Table of contents INTRODUCTION... 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ACCESS TO TECHNOLOGIES, CONTENT, AND SERVICES Technologies Content Services CONTENT SERVICES FROM ANOTHER COUNTRY ACCESSED IN THE HOME COUNTRY Use of foreign country services at home Interest in other EU country services at home Interest in other EU country services at home Interest in receiving content from specific EU countries at home Preparedness to pay for EU country services at home Interest in non-eu services at home Interest in receiving content from non-eu countries at home Interest in receiving content from specific non-eu countries at home Preparedness to pay for non-eu country services at home CONTENT SERVICES FROM THE HOME COUNTRY ACCESSED WHEN ABROAD Use of home country services when abroad Interest in home country services when abroad REASONS FOR DEMAND IN CROSS-BORDER CONTENT SERVICES Reasons for not accessing/no interest in accessing cross-border content Reasons for accessing/interest in accessing cross-border content Preferences for accessing/interest in accessing cross-border content ANNEXES Technical specifications Questionnaire Tables 2

4 INTRODUCTION This Eurobarometer Survey was conducted in the context of the Digital Agenda for Europe, a flagship initiative of the EU 2020 Strategy. The overall aim of the Digital Agenda for Europe is to deliver sustainable economic and social benefits from a Digital Single Market, based on fast and ultra-fast Internet and interoperable applications. Currently, Europe is still a patchwork of national online markets, and solvable problems prevent Europeans from enjoying the benefits of a Digital Single Market. Commercial and cultural content and services need to flow across borders, and this will be achieved by eliminating regulatory barriers and facilitating electronic payments, invoicing, dispute resolution and customer trust. The creation of attractive online content and services and its free circulation inside the EU and across its borders are fundamental to stimulate growth and create jobs. The Commission regularly receives complaints from the public with regard to the territorial limitations of content offers. Service operators from the audiovisual sector, e.g. VOD (video on demand) service providers, complain particularly about complicated rights clearance processes, which make it especially risky to set up innovative content offers. The objective of this survey is to gain a better understanding of the market for content distributed across borders in the European Union, including, in particular, the extent of use and interest in such content and the reason for the use and interest. The Eurobarometer Survey has been conducted among a representative sample of the general public across the EU. The fieldwork for this survey was carried out between 13 April and 2 May This report covers the 27 Member States. The results are presented for the EU27 and when significant the 15 old Member States and the 12 new Member States. Comparisons have been made with the survey conducted earlier in the year, in February/March on Internet access. The data have been weighted on individuals over 15 years of age or EU households depending on the nature of the question. The socio-demographic analysis focuses primarily on age, gender, education and ability to pay household bills. 1 Here referred to as the spring 2011 survey 3

5 The main themes addressed in this report are: The types of technology citizens use to access audiovisual content and the type of content they prefer to watch and listen to Current use of foreign content (by which is meant content transmitted from outside the country) and the barriers to use Interest in receiving foreign content, from which originating countries and willingness to pay Interest in receiving home content when abroad and willingness to pay Underlying reasons for interest or lack of interest in cross-border content and the preferred format for cross-border content In the course of this Eurobarometer survey, 26,825 European citizens aged 15 and above were interviewed by the TNS Opinion & Social network between 13 April and 2 May 2011 in all 27 European Union Member States 2. The methodology used is that of surveys as carried out by the Directorate General for Communication ( Research and Political Analysis Unit) 3. A technical note on the methodology for interviews conducted by the institutes within the TNS Opinion & Social network is annexed to this report. This note indicates the interview methods and the confidence intervals 4. As well as assessing opinion at EU and individual country level, the survey also provides demographic analysis to help understand how some sections of European society view access to and payment for creative content in the Single Market differently from others 5. Data released as part of this report do not constitute EU official statistical data within the meaning of the European Statistical Law of February 1997 (Council Regulation 322/97) EU official statistical data relating to the information society are available on Eurostat s web site at: ****** 2 Further information on the methodology used can be found in the technical note which specifies the interview methods as well as the intervals of confidence The results tables are included in the annex. It should be noted that the total of the percentages in the tables of this report may exceed 100% when the respondent can give several answers to the same question. 5 The results tables are included in the annex. It should be noted that the total of the percentages in the tables of this report may exceed 100% when the respondent has the possibility of giving several answers to the question. 4

6 In this report, countries are referred to by their official abbreviation. The abbreviations used in this report correspond to: ABBREVIATIONS EU27 European Union - 27 Member States BE CZ BG DE EE EL ES FR IE IT CY LT LV LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK Belgium Czech Republic Bulgaria Denmark Germany Estonia Greece Spain France Ireland Italy Republic of Cyprus Lithuania Latvia Luxembourg Hungary Malta The Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden The United Kingdom 5

7 Executive Summary DG INSFO commissioned this quantitative study in the context of the Digital Agenda for Europe. The findings are intended to inform DG INSFO about EU citizens current behaviour and their perceptions of their future behaviour in this arena in order to assist DG INSFO in the development of a Digital Single Market. The fieldwork was conducted in all 27 Member States between 13 April and 2 May The key findings are as follows: In terms of hardware use, TV ownership is almost universal and everyone watches or listens to audiovisual content through either a flat screen (56%) or traditional TV (50%). In addition, half of EU citizens also use a PC to listen to or watch audiovisual content. o The incidence of modern technology use is higher among the 15 old Member States, e.g. flat screen TVs, PCs, music players and Smartphones. o In the 12 new Member States the use of the traditional glass tube TV is higher than in the 15 old Member States (66% vs. 45%). Among the two-thirds who have Internet access at home (66%), broadband is the most popular means of accessing the Internet, with nine out of ten households accessing the Internet this way; the majority do so via a fixed telephone line. Broadband is the main mode of Internet connection in every Member State. Most EU citizens access audiovisual content using television services rather than Internet services (91% vs. 15%). Within television services, terrestrial services are used by most (45%), followed by cable (30%) and lastly satellite (24%). Overall, EU citizens are most interested in watching or listening to news services (71%), feature films (62%) and documentaries (59%) at home. There is least interest in cultural events (26%). Free-to-air services dominate with seven out of ten using them frequently or occasionally. Subscription services are used by three out of ten. In some Member States both free-to-air and subscriptions are used concurrently. o Use of pay services is largely limited by cost (48%) but also by the lack of programmes of interest (28%) notably, there is little difference in opinion between the old and new Member States. 6

8 Currently, one in six EU citizens (17%) watches or listens to foreign content at home. Most of those who do watch or listen do so occasionally (13%). o The incidence of watching or listening to foreign content is highest in Malta and Luxembourg (72% and 67% respectively) and lowest in Portugal and Greece (6% and 8% respectively). o Socio-demographically those watching or listening tend to be male, young, educated and from higher social groups. In addition, they tend to be daily users of the Internet. o Access to foreign content is higher among EU citizens living in another EU country (40%). One in five EU citizens is interested in receiving content from other EU countries when at home (19%). o Respondents in Malta (70%) and Luxembourg (53%) are the most interested and those in Portugal (5%) the least interested. o In terms of profile, they are like those who already use foreign content in that they are young, educated, from higher social groups and use the Internet every day. o They are mostly interested in receiving content from the UK, Germany, France, Spain and Italy. o Three in ten would be prepared to pay for content with respondents in the new Member States more willing to pay than their counterparts in the old Member States (42% vs. 27%). A slightly smaller proportion of EU citizens are interested in receiving content from non-eu countries when at home (16%). o Respondents are the most interested in Malta (51%) and the least interested in Portugal (3%). o Socio-demographically, those interested are similar to current users of foreign content and those interested in EU content; they are young, educated, from higher social groups and everyday Internet users. o There is most interest in content from North America and particularly the USA. o On average, four out of ten are prepared to pay for content from outside the EU again, those from the new Member States are slightly more willing to pay (46% vs. 36%). 23% are interested in content from either EU or Non-EU countries. Currently, one in five EU respondents watch or listen to home services when abroad (22%); most of whom also do so occasionally (17%). o Luxembourg respondents watch or listen to home content most (41%). o Socio-demographically, those watching or listening to home content are similar to those who use foreign content; they are young, educated and from higher social groups. 7

9 Interest in watching or listening to home content when abroad is highest in Lithuania (50%), Luxembourg (47%), and Latvia (45%). The main reason for not accessing foreign content is that the respondents perceive the programmes outside their own country as being of no interest to them (49%). The language barrier is the second main reason, and is expressed as a lack of programmes either dubbed (8%) or subtitled (7%) in an understandable language. Other reasons are the payments for cross-border programmes refused by the service provider (2%) and the cross-border programmes blocked from the home country (1%). In the new Member States the language barrier is more of a concern than in the old Member States, whereas in the old Member States the lack of interesting programmes is the dominant issue. In addition, a third of EU citizens do not have Internet access at home, which could be a physical barrier to accessing content. Among those who watch or listen to foreign content the main driver is cultural/linguistic interest. Furthermore, when those who are interested in receiving foreign content were asked about their preference of format for foreign content, the cultural/linguistic driver was the first option, with almost two-thirds preferring to keep the content in the original language (35% wanted subtitles and 28% simply want to keep the original language) and 20% wanting to see content dubbed. 8

10 1. Access to technologies, content, and services In this section, we look at access to technologies, content and services. The section begins by examining the different technologies used by the general public to access audiovisual content. Respondents with Internet access in their households were asked about the type of access they have. All respondents were then asked about the type of content they are particularly interested in, and then asked about the frequency with which they watch or listen to audiovisual content using services such as free to air, subscription, and pay per view or listen. Finally, those respondents that only occasionally or never use a pay service were asked their reasons. 1.1 Technologies QC1. Which of the following do you personally use at home to watch or listen to audiovisual content such as feature films, news, documentaries and music? - Almost everyone uses TV to watch or listen to audiovisual content - The three most common technologies through which audiovisual content is watched or listened to are flat screen TV (56%), personal computer (50%) and traditional TV (50%). Given that TV ownership is almost universal, at 98% 6, almost everyone uses a TV to watch or listen to audiovisual content at least some of the time. Recording devices are the next most popular, with standard DVD players, hi-fi/cd players and music players being used by between 40% and 20%. Smartphones and other channels are less popular, being used by one in ten or fewer. Base: Total number of respondents 6 D46. Which of the following goods do you have? Possible answers: Television; DVD player; Music CD player; Computer; An Internet connection at home; A car; An apartment/ a house which you have finished paying for; An apartment/ a house which you are paying for; None (SPONTANEOUS);. 9

11 - The incidence of use of new technologies to view or listen to audiovisual content is highest in Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands and Luxembourg - Using a PC is the most widespread, with half of all citizens using a PC to view or listen to content. Use is greatest in the Netherlands, where almost eight out of ten citizens use their PC, and lowest in Portugal and Romania with around three in ten citizens using a PC in this way. One in ten Europeans or less use Smartphone, Internet radio and tablet computer to watch or listen to audiovisual content. Use of a Smartphone to view or watch is most widespread in Luxembourg (24%), the Netherlands (23%), Denmark (21%), Sweden (21%) and the UK (21%), and is the lowest in Bulgaria (1%), Poland (2%), Portugal (2%) and Romania (2%). Internet radio use is greatest in Sweden and Luxembourg, with about one in five listening to the radio this way. Conversely, use is lowest in Greece, Portugal, the Czech Republic and Poland where less than one in twenty listens via Internet radio. The use of tablet computers is greatest in Cyprus (15%), the Netherlands (12%) and the UK (11%), and the lowest in Bulgaria, Hungary and Poland where one person in a hundred or less uses a tablet computer. 10

12 Base: Total number of respondents 11

13 The use of technology, and particularly newer technologies, is higher on average in the 15 old Member States. For example, there is a greater incidence of use of flat screen TVs, PCs, music players, Smartphones and so on. Conversely, among the 12 new Member States the use of a traditional glass tube TV is higher, with two thirds using this equipment. EU15 NMS12 Flat-Screen TV 61% 36% PC 53% 41% Traditional TV (Glass tube TV) 45% 66% Standard definition DVD player 42% 32% Hi-Fi/ CD Player 38% 16% Music player (MP3, ipod, etc.) 22% 12% Smartphone 12% 3% Internet radio 9% 6% Tablet computer 7% 2% High Definition Blue Ray Player 8% 2% Base: Total number of respondents 12

14 - Newer hardware technologies and services are used more by young, welleducated citizens from higher social groups - Socio-demographically, the type of hardware used to listen or watch audiovisual content appears to be driven by age, education and social class. Watching or listening via a traditional TV is more prevalent among people who are older (over 55 years), poorly educated and who position themselves in the lowest social groups. In contrast, those using newer types of hardware (such as a flat screen TV, PC etc.) tend to be younger (either 54 years and under or 39 years and under), well-educated (that is having completed their education at 20 years of age or older) or still studying, and to position themselves in the higher social groups. Base: Total number of respondents 13

15 QC3. How does your household access the Internet from home? - Broadband remains the most popular means of connecting to the Internet - 7 Among the two-thirds (66%) of EU citizens who have an Internet connection, broadband is the most popular means of access, with almost nine out of ten EU households accessing the Internet in this way. Most popular is using a fixed telephone line to access broadband; six out of ten EU households access the Internet this way (62%) as they did earlier this year in the spring survey 8. A relatively small proportion accesses their broadband connection via cable TV (19%). Less than one in ten access the Internet using a narrowband connection (8%), which is almost the same as the proportion who use the mobile phone network (7%). Less than one in twenty EU households use each of the other broadband connection types. Base: 66% of the total base (Respondents who have internet in their households) 8 The results of this survey are compared to those from the previous wave, 75.1 conducted at the beginning of this year. 14

16 - Broadband dominates in all Member States - Nine out of ten EU citizens access the Internet using a broadband connection. Relatively few use a narrowband connection (8%). Hungary and the Netherlands have the highest incidence of broadband access, with 97% and 96% of households respectively accessing the Internet this way. At the other extreme, Poland and Lithuania exhibit the lowest incidence of broadband access (77% and 78% respectively). However, Lithuania has the highest incidence of narrowband access (17%), along with Germany (17%). Equally, those with the highest incidence of broadband access are among those with the lowest incidence of narrowband access: specifically Malta, Denmark, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK, with an incidence of 3% or less. Compared to spring 2011, the greatest increases in broadband connection were seen in Bulgaria (+8 points) and Cyprus (+7), with the greatest decreases occurring in Poland and Finland (-4 in each country). In terms of narrowband, the proportion of narrowband users increased in Finland (+6), Poland (+5), Romania (+5) and Latvia (+4), while a declining proportion of households using narrowband was recorded in Belgium, Bulgaria, Ireland, Cyprus and Lithuania (-4 in each country). 15

17 Base: 66% of the total base (Respondents who have Internet access in their households) On average, the incidence of narrowband use is the same in the 15 old Member States (8%) and the 12 new Member States (10%), broadband use being higher in the 15 old Member States (91%) than in the 12 new Member States (82%). There are almost no socio-demographic differences distinguishing narrowband households from broadband households. The difference is in the household use of the Internet; those with a broadband connection tend to use the Internet more often (93% use it every day) while among narrowband households the incidence of accessing the Internet often/sometimes or never is higher than average. 16

18 QC4. How does your household access the Internet from home? - Most audiovisual content is watched or listened to via television services - The majority of EU citizens watch or listen to audiovisual content via television services (91%); terrestrial services are the most popular (45%), followed by cable (30%) and lastly satellite (24%). One in seven citizens (15%) also use Internet services to view or listen to audiovisual content. Base: Total number of respondents 17

19 - Peer-to-peer used by one in ten or less in every Member State - One in fifty citizens claims to use Internet peer-to-peer (a system in which a network of computers is configured to allow certain files, such as music files, to be shared). Peer-to-peer is most popular in Sweden, where one in ten use this service, followed by Estonia (9%) and the Netherlands (8%) The lowest use of this service is recorded in Portugal, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and Romania (1% each). In Poland, no one claims to use this kind of service. Base: Total number of respondents 18

20 In the 15 old Member States, the incidence of Internet use to view or listen to audiovisual content is higher (17%) than in the 12 new Member States (11%). There is a three-point difference in the use of TV to watch or listen to content in EU15 and NMS12 (91% and 93% respectively). The profile of those using Internet services is similar to that of those using the newer hardware technologies; they are more likely to be men, aged 39 years and under, welleducated or students, and from the higher social groups. Most citizens use a TV service and consequently the socio-demographic profile of any TV service is reflective of the population as a whole and does not show any particular demographic skews. However, the different TV services exhibit different profiles. Terrestrial TV is more commonly used by those over 55 years and the poorly educated, while the use of cable is most widespread among those aged under 39 years, who are well-educated and from higher social groups. The socio-demographic profile of satellite viewers is no different from that of the general population. Those using Internet services are more likely to be men, young (aged years and years), well-educated or students and from higher social groups. Base: Total number of respondents 19

21 1.2 Content QC2. At home, what kind of content are you particularly interested in watching or listening to? - Interest is greatest in news services, feature films and documentaries - At home, EU citizens report that they are most interested in watching or listening to news services (71%), followed by feature films (62%) and documentaries (59%). They are least interested in cultural events, with one in four (26%) stating they would be interested in this content. Base: Total number of respondents - Interest is highest in news services in most Member States - Interest in news services is greatest in Bulgaria, Estonia, Portugal, Spain, Romania and Sweden where more than eight out of ten expressed an interest. On the other hand, interest is lowest in the UK and France where around six out of ten were interested. Feature films are the second most popular type of content overall. Respondents in Italy and Austria are the most interested in watching or listening to feature films (81% and 80% respectively), whereas those in Portugal are the least interested (32%). Documentaries come a close third to feature films, with 59% expressing an interest. Respondents in Denmark and Sweden are the most interested (77% and 73% respectively), while those in Bulgaria (41%) and Romania (43%) are the least interested in documentaries. In 18 Member States, there is more interest in news services than in feature films or documentaries, while in three Member States interest in feature films is significantly greater than in news services or documentaries. In two Member States, there is significantly more interest in documentaries. 20

22 Base: Total number of respondents Interest is not consistent across the Member States. Of the top three content types, the 15 old Member States are more interested in documentaries than the 12 new Member States (62% vs. 48%), whereas the 12 new Member States have a slightly greater interest in news services than the 15 old Member States (76% vs. 70%). EU15 NMS12 News services 70% 76% Feature films 63% 61% Documentaries 62% 48% Base: Total number of respondents 21

23 - Profiles of those interested in news services and documentaries are similar - In terms of socio-demographics, there are some similarities between those who are particularly interested in news services and those who are interested in documentaries. Both are of most interest to those who are aged over 40 and well-educated. However, in addition the less well-educated are also likely to be interested in news services, which reflects the higher level of interest among those aged over 55. Interest in documentaries is greater among those who almost never have difficulties paying their bills and in the higher social groups. The profile of those who are particularly interested in feature films is quite different to that of respondents interested in news services and documentaries. Those interested in feature films are more likely to be younger (under 54 years and particularly under 39 years), students and those who have difficulties paying their bills most of the time or from time to time. Base: Total number of respondents 22

24 1.3 Services QC5. How often do you watch or listen to audiovisual content such as feature films, news, documentaries or music using any of the following services? - Free-to-air services are most popular - The majority of EU citizens make use of free-to-air TV services (72% frequently or occasionally). Three in ten use a subscription service (30% frequently or occasionally) while relatively few use pay per view or on-demand services (9% and 8% respectively). Base: Total number of respondents - Member States with a high incidence of free-to-air may also exhibit a high incidence of pay service use - The use of free-to-air TV services is highest in Finland and Malta, where around nine out of ten citizens use this service. Use is also relatively high in the UK, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Romania, Luxembourg, Poland and Portugal, where between 86% and 78% watch or listen to these services. Use is lowest in the Netherlands, Latvia and Hungary where fewer than half make use of such services. 23

25 Base: Total number of respondents 24

26 The highest use of subscription services is in Latvia (62%) followed by the UK (56%) and Malta (54%). The latter two countries also have a high number of users of free-to-air services (86% and 88% respectively). Subscription services are used least in Germany (8%), Austria (10%), Greece (11%) and Spain (12%). Base: Total number of respondents 25

27 Pay per view or listen is most common in Denmark (24%), followed by Slovakia (20%). In 18 Member States, it is used by 10% or less, and in ten Member States this falls to 5% or less. The use of pay per view or listen is lowest in Greece (2%), Malta (3%), Bulgaria (3%) and Romania (3%). Base: Total number of respondents 26

28 Citizens in the UK and Sweden watch or listen more to on-demand services with advertising (25% and 16% respectively). In the rest of the Member States, on-demand services are used by less than one in ten, with the lowest rate of use in Bulgaria, Greece and Romania where 1% of respondents said that they used such services. Greece consistently records the lowest use of all services apart from free-to-air. Base: Total number of respondents On average, the 12 new Member States use subscription sites more than the 15 old Member States (39% vs. 28% respectively): A subscription service, excluding free-toair EU15 NMS12 TV services on cable or IPTV Frequently 18% 25% Occasionally 10% 14% Never 70% 55% 2% 6% Base: Total number of respondents Conversely, use of on-demand services is higher among the old Member States, with more occasional use (7% compared to 3% on average in the 12 new Member States). 27

29 - Users of audio-visual content tend to be young, educated and socially advantaged - Socio-demographically, those downloading audiovisual content using these services tend to be young (downloading is most widespread among the group aged 15-24), students, well-educated and from groups higher on the social scale. They also tend to be frequent or daily Internet users. QC6. What is the main reason for not taking a pay service for audiovisual content or music? - Cost is the main reason for not using pay services - The main reason for not using a subscription or pay service is the cost; most citizens believe that it is too expensive (48%). In addition, for a further three in ten the main reason is that these services do not offer anything of interest (28%). Base: 96% of the total base (Respondents who occasionally or never use a subscription service or a pay per view or per listen) The reasons for not paying for services differ by country. Between 58% and 53% of respondents in Cyprus, Germany, Spain, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Greece and Italy were most likely to say that the cost of pay services is too high. By contrast, a quarter of respondents in Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden and Finland said that cost was the main reason for not using such services (between 22% and 25%). The perception that there are no programmes of interest on pay services is greatest in the UK (43%) closely followed by Sweden (40%), the Netherlands (39%), Slovenia (39%), Denmark (39%) and Luxembourg (39%). Respondents in Latvia are least likely to express this view (15%). 28

30 Base: 96% of the total base (Respondents who occasionally or never use a subscription service or a pay per view or per listen) In the 15 old Member States slightly more respondents say that there are no programmes of interest and that the services are too expensive. However, in the 12 new Member States a higher proportion of respondents admit that they don t know (15% compared to 4% in EU15). EU15 NMS12 No programmes of interest to you 29% 23% Those services are too expensive 49% 45% Other (SPONTANEOUS) 7% 6% None (SPONTANEOUS) 11% 11% 4% 15% Base: 96% of the total base (Respondents who occasionally or never use a subscription service or a pay per view or per listen) 29

31 Respondents for whom the main obstacle is the absence of programmes of interest tend to be older (aged 55 years and above), almost never have difficulties paying their bills, and from the higher social groups. Base: 96% of the total base (Respondents who occasionally or never use a subscription service or a pay per view or per listen) 30

32 2. Content services from another country accessed in the home country In this section, we ask about content services from another country that are accessed by respondents in their home country. The section begins by looking at the frequency watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from foreign countries while at home. All respondents are asked about their interest in watching or listening to content from other EU countries. Those who are interested are then asked about which EU countries they would be interested in receiving this content from, and whether they would be prepared to pay for this content. Then all respondents are asked about their interest in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from non-eu countries. Those that are interested and asked about the non-eu countries they are interested in receiving content from, and their preparedness to pay for this service. 2.1 Use of foreign country services at home QC8. Do you watch or listen to audiovisual content or music transmitted from foreign countries (including on the Internet) when you are in your home country? For example if you are Belgian, watching TV or video on-demand services from France when you are in Belgium. - One in six watch or listen to foreign content - 17% of respondents use services from a foreign country, with about one in twenty (4%) doing so frequently and 13% occasionally. 79% of respondents do not watch or listen to audiovisual content or music transmitted from foreign countries when in their home country. Base: Total number of respondents 31

33 - Respondents in Malta and Luxembourg use foreign content the most - It might be expected that migrants are likely to make greater use of these services. From the total EU sample in the survey, a small proportion (2% of all respondents) are EU citizens living in another EU country. This subgroup 9, express much higher levels of access to services from a foreign country (40%), with 13% using this service frequently and 27% occasionally. Watching and listening to content from other countries is most common in Malta and Luxembourg, where about seven out of ten people do so (72% and 67% respectively). The lowest incidence of watching or listening to foreign content is recorded in Portugal (6%) and Greece (8%). Base: Total number of respondents 9 The subgroup cannot be said to be representative of migrants as they need to be sufficiently fluent in the local country language to respond to the survey. 32

34 The following table shows the frequency of watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from foreign countries by the different types of content that citizens are interested in. The data show that the frequency with which citizens watch or listen to content from foreign countries is largely the same irrespective of the type of content they are interested in, with the proportion watching or listening frequently and occasionally being very similar for the different content types. Base: Total number of respondents 33

35 - Users of foreign content tend to be male, young and educated - Socio-demographically, those who watch or listen to content or music from foreign countries are more likely to be male, aged 39 years or younger, well-educated or students. In addition, they are comparatively heavy Internet users (25% use the Internet everyday) and tend to be particularly interested in watching and listening to music and cultural events. Base: Total number of respondents 34

36 2.2 Interest in other EU country services at home Interest in other EU country services at home QC10. Would you be interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content or music transmitted from other EU countries (including on the Internet) when you are in your home country? For example, if you are Belgian, watching TV or video on-demand services from France when you are in Belgium. - One in five are interested in watching or listening to content from other EU countries - Overall, 19% of Europeans are interested in receiving content from another EU country, with 15% interested in TV programmes, 3% in on-demand services and 2% in other types of content. 76% of EU citizens are not interested in watching or listening to content from other EU countries. While the survey did not look specifically at the usage of migrants, who might be expected to make greater use of these services, it is possible to examine the interest from a small subgroup (556 respondents) who are EU citizens living in another EU country. This subgroup, who need to be sufficiently fluent in the local country language to respond to the survey, express much higher levels of interest in services from another EU country (40%), with with 33% interested in TV programmes, 6% in on-demand services and 2% in other type of content 10. Base: Total number of respondents 10 Further analysis of this subgroup by country is not possible due to the small sample size. 35

37 - Respondents in Malta and Luxembourg are the most interested in foreign contents, and those in Portugal the least interested - The greatest levels of interest are expressed in Malta and Luxembourg (70% and 53% respectively). The least is found in Portugal, where 5% of respondents express an interest. Base: Total number of respondents 36

38 Socio-demographically, interest in watching or listening to content from other EU countries is more widespread among the young (39 years and younger), the welleducated, students and the higher social groups. This group is also likely to use the Internet more than average, with above-average levels of daily use. Base: Total number of respondents 37

39 2.2.2 Interest in receiving content from specific EU countries at home QC11. From which of the following list of EU countries would you be interested in receiving content? - Greatest interest in content from Western European countries - For respondents interested in receiving content from another EU country, the UK was the most popular country (42%), followed by Germany (30%), France (27%), Spain (23%) and Italy (21%). Citizens were less interested in content from other EU countries, with no more than 10% mentioning any other individual country. Base: 19% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from another EU country) 38

40 As can be seen from the following table, the cultural and linguistic connections between countries play a role in the particular countries they are interested in receiving content from: 75% of respondents from Ireland who expressed an interest in receiving content from another EU country indicated that they were most interested in content from UK (75%), similarly respondents in Belgium were most interested in content from France (67%), respondents from Luxembourg were interested in content from France (65%) and Germany (51%), Respondents from Austria who expressed an interest in receiving content from another EU country were mainly interested in content from Germany (78%) and, conversely, Germany from Austria (35%) and for respondents from Slovakia they were interested in content from the Czech Republic (61%). These linguistic links can also be seen between the Nordic countries, where Denmark chose Sweden (50%) as the third option when it comes to foreign content (after UK and Germany) and Sweden is interested in content from Denmark (35%, after the preference for content from UK, Germany and France). 39

41 QC11. Interest in receiving content from specific EU countries Top1 Top2 Top3 Total EU AT BE BG CY CZ DE EE EL ES FI FR HU IE IT LT LU LV MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK UK UK DE FR DE EL UK AT UK FI UK UK UK UK DE UK UK UK FR DE IT UK DE ES IT UK DE CZ ES DE UK NL UK UK SK FR DE DE DE FR SE ES UK DE ES DE DE UK UK BE UK UK ES DE AT UK FR FR IT UK IT IT DE UK SE UK FR DE DE DE AT ES FR FR BE LT FR DE FR FR DE FR UK DE DE 42% 78% 67% 51% 80% 42% 35% 76% 40% 52% 42% 55% 50% 49% 75% 42% 49% 65% 43% 81% 70% 29% 43% 49% 72% 52% 61% 32% 30% 29% 35% 43% 62% 41% 30% 55% 39% 43% 39% 51% 38% 34% 13% 33% 44% 51% 40% 78% 54% 28% 31% 40% 41% 44% 37% 31% 27% 24% 30% 37% 30% 26% 28% 50% 32% 39% 30% 42% 30% 31% 12% 24% 25% 41% 16% 14% 54% 14% 20% 31% 37% 41% 34% 19% *Total = Total respondents interested in receiving content from another EU country 40

42 There is also a high interest in the content across Latin countries: Portugal and Italy are interested in content from Spain and France, Romania in content from Italy, France and Spain, Spain in content from France and Italy. The countries citizens are interested in receiving content from vary both by country and between the old and new Member States. On average, respondents in the 15 old Member States are mainly interested in receiving content from the UK, followed by Germany, France and Spain. Respondents in the 12 new Member States are equally interested in receiving content from Germany and the UK followed by Italy. Country EU15 NMS12 UK 44% 34% Germany 29% 35% France 29% 19% Spain 25% 19% Italy 20% 25% Base: 19% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from another EU country) - Few similarities between the different national profiles - Respondents who are interested in receiving content from the UK are most likely to be younger respondents (aged years), the well-educated and students, and those from higher social groups. Base: 19% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from another EU country) 41

43 The socio-demographic profile of respondents interested in receiving content from Italy is different from that of people interested in receiving content from the UK. Interest in content from Italy is found in respondents aged and years, who finished their studies at the age of 15 or below and who position themselves as low on the social scale. Base: 19% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from another EU country) 42

44 2.2.3 Preparedness to pay for EU country services at home QC12. Would you be prepared to pay for such content services? - One-third of Europeans would pay to receive content from other EU countries - Of the people who are interested in receiving content from another EU country, about three in ten are prepared to pay for it (31% yes ); slightly more would prefer to pay per view than pay a subscription (17% vs. 14%). Almost two-thirds are not prepared to pay to receive content from another EU country (65%). Base: 19% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from another EU country) - Willingness to pay for EU content is higher in the 12 new Member States - Willingness to pay for EU content is greater in the 12 new Member States, where 42% are prepared to pay on average compared to 27% in the 15 old Member States. Consequently, the Member States most willing to pay are all new Member States, namely Slovakia (67%), Malta (54%) and Romania (50%). Conversely, those expressing the least willingness to pay are all old Member States, specifically Austria (16%), Germany (16%) and Spain (18%); added to which Germany and Austria are the most actively opposed to paying, with the highest proportion stating that they would not be prepared to pay for such services (81% and 79% respectively). 43

45 Base: 19% from the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from another EU country) The following table shows the types of EU services citizens are interested in by their willingness to pay for such services, in order to understand the connection between the service and payment type. Overall, most citizens who would be prepared to pay for EU content by subscription are mainly interested in TV programmes (85%). Among those who are prepared to pay per view or per listen 66% are interested in TV programmes. However, among those who would be interested in on-demand services, more people would pay per view or per listen (37%) than to pay a subscription (16%). 44

46 In addition, 82% of the 65% who are unwilling to pay for content from other EU countries expect TV programmes in particular to be free Base: 19% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from another EU country) Willingness to pay for content from other EU countries is greatest among those who are younger and socially more advantaged. Those who are prepared to pay for content from other EU countries, either as a subscription or per view/listen, are likely to be the younger respondents (aged years and year olds), those in higher social groups and those who use the Internet every day Base: 19% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from another EU country) 45

47 2.3 Interest in non-eu services at home Interest in receiving content from non-eu countries at home QC13. Would you be interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from a country outside the EU (including on the Internet) when you are in your home country? For example, watching TV on-demand services from the United States when you are in the UK. - 16% of Europeans interested in receiving non-eu content - In total 16% of respondents are interested in receiving content from outside Europe. This percentage includes the 12% who want to watch TV programmes and the 3% who are interested in on-demand services. 80% of EU citizens are not interested in receiving content from outside the EU, a percentage slightly higher than the percentage who were not interested in receiving content from another EU country (76%). Base: Total number of respondents 46

48 - Again, the most interest is recorded in Malta and the least in Portugal - Respondents in Malta are the most interested in non-eu content, with half of them expressing an interest (51%); they were also the most interested in content from other EU countries. Again, people in Portugal are the least interested with 3% expressing an interest, followed by respondents in the Czech Republic with 7%. Base: Total number of respondents 47

49 - Respondents interested in non-eu content resemble those interested in EU content - The socio-demographic profile of those who are interested in content from non-eu countries is similar to that of people who are interested in content from EU countries. They tend to be aged 39 years and under, well-educated and students, those from the higher social groups and those who use the Internet every day. Base: Total number of respondents 48

50 2.3.2 Interest in receiving content from specific non-eu countries at home QC14. Which of the following countries outside the EU would you be interested in receiving content from? - Most respondents are interested in content from North America - US content is the most popular non-eu content. From the respondents who are interested in watching or listening to content transmitted from countries outside Europe, six out of ten citizens would like to receive the content from the United States.. Australian and Canadian content rank second and third, with about one-fifth interested in content from these countries (22% and 19% respectively). Around one in ten or less are interested in content from any other country. Base: 16% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from a country outside the EU) 49

51 Interest in content from the USA was greatest in Denmark (84%), Malta (83%) and Ireland (81%). Portugal (42%) and Poland (43%) had the lowest levels of interest in US content. Interest in content from Australia was greatest in Sweden (40%), Ireland (38%) and the UK (31%), and lowest in Spain (9%) and Poland (10%). On average, the 15 old Member States are slightly more interested in content from the USA and Australia than the 12 new Member States. However, Canadian content seems to exercise an equal appeal to both new and old Member States. EU15 NMS12 USA 62% 55% Australia 23% 19% Canada 19% 18% Base: 16% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from a country outside the EU) The following table presents the total number of respondents who are interested in receiving content from EU and non-eu services, and the total percentage of those who are interested in receiving services from either EU or Non-EU services or from both. In total 23% of citizens across the EU are interested in receiving content from either EU or Non-EU services. The highest levels of interest at a country level are from respondents in Malta (75%), Luxemburg (57%) and Latvia (48%). 50

52 Interest in receiving content from EU and Non EU countries Total YES content from EU countries Total YES content from NON EU countries TOTAL YES content from EU and/or NON EU countries EU EU 15 NMS 12 AT 19% 16% 23% 19% 16% 23% 19% 14% 21% 27% 14% 29% BE 33% 17% 35% BG CY 17% 16% 20% 44% 31% 45% CZ 11% 7% 12% DE EE EL ES FI FR 14% 11% 18% 40% 34% 47% 41% 33% 45% 16% 11% 17% 18% 14% 20% 34% 30% 37% 22% 17% 25% HU 20% 17% 23% IE IT LT LU LV MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK UK 23% 20% 29% 17% 13% 19% 43% 39% 48% 53% 28% 57% 44% 41% 50% 71% 51% 75% 30% 20% 34% 17% 11% 17% 5% 3% 6% 23% 18% 25% 33% 29% 38% 34% 24% 38% 15% 10% 17% 17% 24% 30% Base: Total number of respondents 51

53 2.3.3 Preparedness to pay for non-eu country services at home QC15. Would you be prepared to pay for such content services? - Four out of ten are prepared to pay for non-eu content - 41% of respondents would be prepared to pay for services from non-eu countries, with 21% preferring to pay per view or per listen and 19% to pay a subscription. 58% of respondents are unwilling to pay for services from non-eu countries. Base: 16% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from a country outside the EU) Again, as in the case of preparedness to pay for EU content, respondents in Slovakia are the most prepared to pay, with three quarters saying they would be willing to pay. People in Sweden and Malta are the next most prepared to pay for non-eu content with about six out of ten agreeing that they would pay (59% and 58% respectively). 52

54 Respondents in Spain and Germany are the least prepared to pay for non-eu content, just as they were for EU content; 20% and 22% respectively say that they would pay for such services. Base: 16% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from a country outside the EU) - Again, new Member States are more willing to pay than old Member States - 46% of respondents in the 12 new Member States would pay for content compared to 36% in the 15 old Member States. In the NSM12 the Don t know rate is also higher than in EU15. EU15 NMS12 Yes, a subscription 17% 26% Yes, per view or per listen 21% 21% No 61% 47% 3% 7% Total 'Yes' 36% 46% Base: 16% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from a country outside the EU) 53

55 The following table shows the types of services citizens are interested in from non-eu countries by their willingness to pay for such services, in order to understand the connection between the service and payment type. The data are very similar to those seen in the case of citizens responses to content from other EU countries. Overall, it appears that subscriptions are associated with TV programmes and pay per view or listen is associated more with on-demand services. People who are prepared to pay for non-eu content by subscription are most interested in TV programmes (88%), with 16% being interested in on-demand services. Among those who are prepared to pay per view or listen, 65% are interested in TV programmes and 42% report an interest in on-demand services. 80% of those who are not prepared to pay for content expect TV programmes to be free from non-eu countries. Base: 16% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from a country outside the EU) 54

56 - Those who are more willing to pay are more financially well off - Those who are prepared to pay for non-eu content tend to be young (15-24 years) and from the higher social groups. Conversely, those who are not prepared to pay for such content are more likely to be older (over 40 years), financially stretched (with difficulties paying their bills most of the time ), from lower social groups and less well educated. Respondents who are prepared to pay for content are also slightly more likely to use the Internet every day. Base: 16% of the total base (Respondents who would be interested in receiving content transmitted from a country outside the EU) 55

57 3. Content services from the home country accessed when abroad In this section we ask about content service from the home country that are accessed by respondents when abroad. The section begins by looking at the frequency of watching or listening to audiovisual content from the home country while abroad. All respondents who considered the question applicable to them were asked about their interest in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from their home country when abroad. 3.1 Use of home country services when abroad QC7. Do you watch or listen to audiovisual content or music transmitted from your home country (including on the Internet) while you are abroad? For example if you are German, watching TV or video on-demand services from Germany when you are in Spain. - The use of home services when abroad is almost the same as the use of foreign content when at home - Excluding those who answered that the question was not appropriate (because they did not travel abroad or for another reason, 23% of the total base), 22% of respondents listen to home services when they are abroad, with 17% doing so occasionally and 5% frequently. 75% do not use these services when abroad. Base: 77% of the total base (Respondents who answered that the question was applicable to them) The following table shows the frequency of watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from home when abroad by the different types of content that citizens are interested in. 56

58 - Luxembourg respondents access home content when abroad most - Watching or listening to content from home while abroad is greatest in Luxembourg, where 41% of citizens do so. Luxembourg is also one of the countries in which watching and listening to content from other countries when at home is most common. The lowest incidence of watching or listening to home content when abroad is among respondents in the Czech Republic, Greece, and Slovakia where between 9% and 12% do so. Base: 77% of the total base (Respondents who answered that the question was applicable to them) 57

59 - Those accessing home content when abroad tend to be young, educated and socially advantaged, like those who access foreign content when at home - Those who watch/listen to content from home while abroad tend to be young (39 years and under), well-educated, students and in higher social groups. They also express a higher level of interest in music (26%) than for other content types. Respondents who watch or listen to home content when abroad overlap with those who watch or listen to foreign content when at home: 60% of those accessing home content from abroad also access foreign content at home. Base: 77% of the total base (Respondents who answered that the question was applicable to them) 58

60 3.2 Interest in home country services when abroad QC9. Would you be interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content or music transmitted from your home country (including on the Internet) when you are abroad? For example if you are German, watching TV or video ondemand services from Germany when you are in Spain. - Interest is greatest in TV programmes from home - 27% of those who considered the question applicable to them (80% of the total base) are interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content or music transmitted from their home country when they are abroad, with 20% interested in TV programmes, 4% in on-demand services and 3% in other services. 71% claim that they would not be interested in watching or listening to such content. These percentages are close to those of respondents interested in receiving content from other countries when at home (whether from EU countries or non-eu countries). Base: 80% of the total base (Respondents who answered that the question was applicable to them) 59

61 - Interest in accessing home services when abroad is greatest in Lithuania, Luxemburg and Latvia - Respondents from Lithuania (50%), Luxemburg (47%) and Latvia (45%) expressed the most interest in watching or listening to content from their home country when they are abroad. Interest is lowest in the Czech Republic (10%), Portugal (12%) and Slovakia (18%). Base: 80% of the total base (Respondents who answered that the question was applicable to them) 60

62 - Those interested in accessing home services when abroad are aged 39 years and under and position themselves in the higher social groups - Interest in accessing home services when abroad is more widespread among men and respondents aged 39 years and under, but in particular in the age group. It is also more widespread among the well-educated and students in particular, and in the higher social groups. In addition, those who are interested in receiving content from home when abroad are also more likely to be interested in watching or listening to content from other EU countries when at home. In most cases, an individual interested in receiving content tends to be interested in receiving content generally, whether from home or from other countries. Base: 80% of the total base (Respondents who answered that the question was applicable to them) 61

63 4. Reasons for demand in cross-border content services In this final section the reason for demand in cross-border content services was examined. Those that indicated that they do not watch or listen, and are not interested in watching or listening to, cross-border audiovisual content were asked their main reason for not accessing this content. Conversely, those respondents who indicated that they do watch or listen or would be interested in watching or listening to cross-border audiovisual content were asked their main reason for accessing this content. This group were also asked their preference how they wanted to receive content (for example subtitled, in the original language or dubbed). 4.1 Reasons for not accessing / no interest in accessing cross-border content QC16a. You indicated that you do not watch or listen and that you are not interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from foreign countries when you are in your home country or from your home country when you are abroad. Which of the following is your main reason for not taking content from another country? - Lack of interest in cross-border programmes is the main reason for not accessing foreign content - The main reason most citizens do not watch or listen to foreign content is that they perceive the programmes outside their own country are of no interest to them (49%), followed by the fact that programmes are not dubbed (8%) or subtitled (7%) in a language they understand. 12% of respondents are unable to provide reasons for not using foreign content, while 12% have other reasons for not accessing these programmes. Less than one in twenty cited security, payment refusal or blockage of content as the main reason for not using foreign content. Base: 38% off the total base (Respondents who do not watch or listen to, and are not interested in watching or listening to, audiovisual content transmitted from foreign countries) 62

64 In addition to the main reason for not watching or listening to foreign content, citizens were also asked for any other reasons. Overall there is little difference between all of the reasons cited and the main reason, with the lack of programmes of interest being the main reason (57%) followed by language issues (either programmes are not dubbed (19%) or subtitled (17%) in a language that is understood). In addition, almost one in ten are concerned about potential security issues (8%). Base: 38% of the total base (Respondents who do not watch or listen to, and are not interested in watching or listening to, audiovisual content transmitted from foreign countries) The impact of language is greatest among respondents in Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. In these countries there is a widespread perception both that there are no cross-border programmes dubbed in a language they can understand (with around four in ten citing this as a reason) and that there are no cross-border programmes subtitled in a language they can understand (between 35% and 30%). A high proportion of respondents in Greece also say that the lack of understandable subtitles is an obstacle to use (29%). At the other extreme, respondents from Luxembourg (where three languages are spoken) are the least likely to believe that language is an obstacle to cross-border use; none cited the lack of dubbed programmes and just 2% mentioned the lack of subtitled programmes. 63

65 Fear about Internet security issues is greatest in Austria, Belgium and Slovakia where one in five gave this as a reason for not using cross-border content. Base: 38% of the total base (Respondents who do not watch or listen to and are not interested in watching or listening to, audiovisual content transmitted from foreign countries) 64

66 - Lack of interest in the cross-border programmes is the main reason for not accessing these services in old Member States but in new Member States not being able to understand the content is also a reason - In old Member States the main reason for not using foreign content is the lack of interest in cross-border programmes. In new Member States, while a lack of interest in crossborder programmes is the primary reason this percentage is lower than in the EU15, 42%. The lack of dubbed and subtitled programmes also provides reasons for not using these services in NMS12 (30% and 24% respectively). EU15 NMS12 No cross-border programmes of interest to you 61% 42% No cross-border programmes dubbed in a 17% 30% language that you understand No cross-border programmes subtitled in a 15% 24% language that you understand You are afraid of possible Internet security 7% 9% issues Cross-border programmes are blocked in your 2% 4% home country Payments for cross-border programmes are 3% 7% refused by the service provider Other (SPONTANEOUS) 21% 13% 16% 24% Base: 38% of the total base (Respondents who do not watch or listen to, and are not interested in watching or listening to, audiovisual content transmitted from foreign countries) The lack of interest in cross-border programmes is widespread among Irish, British and Belgian respondents, with about three quarters saying that this is one of the reasons they do not watch or listen to foreign content. Conversely, Polish and Estonian respondents are the least likely to cite this as a reason, with 22% and 24% respectively feeling the same. 65

67 There are very few socio-demographic differences for each of the reasons for not watching or listening to cross-border content. The less well-educated (left school at 15 years) and those who have difficulties paying their bills from time to time are more likely to say that there are no programmes of interest to them. Language problems - the lack of both dubbed and subtitled programmes - are more widespread among those who have difficulties paying their bills from time to time. In addition, the lack of cross-border dubbed programmes is mentioned more often by lower social groups. Base: 38% of the total base (Respondents who do not watch or listen to and are not interested in watching or listening to, audiovisual content transmitted from foreign countries) 66

68 4.2 Reasons for accessing / interest in accessing cross-border content QC17a. You indicated that you watch or listen to audiovisual content or that you would be interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from another country. Which of the following would you say is your main reason for watching\listening or wanting content from another country? - Cultural/linguistic interest is the main reason for accessing foreign content - The main motivation for receiving or being interested in receiving foreign content is cultural/linguistic interest; almost half of the respondents claimed this is their main reason (49%). The second main reason, but cited by fewer respondents, is that they have a particular connection to the country they are receiving content from (15%), which is followed by recommendation from family or friends (10%) and professional interest (8%). Base: 36% of the total base (Respondents who watch or listen to audiovisual content or music or would be interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from another country) 67

69 Citizens were also asked to indicate all of the reasons they watch or listen to content from another country. Cultural/linguistic interest is the most popular motivation (63%); the next three reasons (recommendations from family or friends, home country or where you have lived and professional interest) all received similar levels of support, with about one in five stating that each was a reason for watching or listening to foreign content. Base: 36% of the total base (Respondents who watch or listen to audiovisual content or music or would be interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from another country) Cultural/linguistic interest is greatest in Cyprus (85%), Greece (82%) and France (81%), whereas in Romania this factor was cited least (44%). Nevertheless, cultural/linguistic interest remains the main reason for wanting to watch/listen to foreign content in Romania. In fact, in every Member State cultural / linguistic interest is the main reason for wanting to access foreign content. Recommendations from family or friends are most common in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Ireland where this reason is cited by about four in ten respondents. Respondents in France and Luxembourg are least influenced to watch or listen to foreign content by recommendations from family or friends (8% and 11% respectively). There seems to be less variation between Member States as to whether respondents are motivated to watch or listen because of a personal connection to a particular country. Nevertheless, this reason was mentioned most by respondents in Luxembourg (33%) and Greece (30%), and least by those in Malta (7%). 68

70 The Danish are most motivated by professional interest, with almost half watching or listening to foreign content as a result (49%). Conversely, the French are least likely to do so, with one in ten (9%) watching or listening to such content for professional reasons. Base: 36% of the total base (Respondents who watch or listen to audiovisual content or music or would be interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from another country) 69

71 - Cultural/linguistic interest is the main motivation in both old and new Member States - While the dominant reason for watching/listening to foreign content is the same in both old and new Member States (cultural/linguistic interest), the secondary reasons differ. In the 15 old Member States a similar proportion of respondents (between 23% and 19%) identify three reasons: content being from an individual s home country or a country where they have lived; recommendations from family or friends; and professional interest. However, in the 12 new Member States the influence of family and friends is more important (32%) followed by professional interest (25%) and finally the fact the content is from a country with which the respondent has a connection (16%). EU15 NMS12 Cultural/ linguistic interest 65% 57% Recommendations from family or friends 21% 32% It is your home country or a country 23% 16% where you have lived Professional interest 19% 25% Other (SPONTANEOUS) 19% 13% 8% 16% Base: 36% of the total base (Respondents who watch or listen to audiovisual content or music or would be interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from another country) - Those driven by different reasons are also demographically different - Respondents who choose to watch or listen to foreign content because of cultural/linguistic interest are slightly more likely to be aged 25-39, well-educated and students. Similarly, those with professional interest are also more likely to be aged and well-educated, added to which they are also more likely to be from higher social groups. Citizens motivated by a personal connection (because the content comes from their home country or a country where they have lived) and recommendations from family or friends are more likely to be less well-educated and to experience difficulties paying their bills to a greater or lesser extent. 70

72 Base: 36% of the total base (Respondents who watch or listen to audiovisual content or music or would be interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from another country) 71

73 4.3 Preferences for accessing/interest in accessing cross-border content QC18. How would you prefer receiving this content? - Almost two thirds (63%) would prefer to receive foreign content either in the original foreign language or subtitled - Citizens preferences as to how they would like to receive foreign content appear to reflect their reasons for being interested in foreign content in the first place. The majority of respondents would like to preserve the content in its original language in some way (either with subtitles, 35%, or simply in the original language, 28%). Given that the primary reason for watching/listening to foreign content is cultural/linguistic interest the desire to keep the content in the foreign language is understandable. One in five would like foreign content to be dubbed (20%). It is likely that this preference reflects the difficulty in understanding foreign content, where language issues were the second most common barrier to watching or listening to foreign content. Base: 36% of the total base (Respondents who watch or listen to audiovisual content or music or would be interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from another country) The preference for subtitled content is greatest in Denmark (68%), Estonia (68%), Sweden (63%), Cyprus (61%) and Finland (59%). At the other extreme, subtitled content is least popular in Austria and Malta, where around one in seven would prefer it. Ireland (49%), Luxembourg (49%) and Malta (45%) expressed the greatest preference for content in the original language. Respondents in Hungary were least likely to want to keep content in its original language (12%), and they also exhibited comparatively low levels of preference for subtitles (21%). 72

74 Dubbing foreign content is preferred most by respondents in Hungary (55%) and the Czech Republic (46%). Conversely, dubbing is least preferred by respondents in Denmark (1%), the Netherlands (2%), Finland (2%) and Sweden (3%), often the same respondents who prefer to keep content in its original language. Base: 36% of the total base (Respondents who watch or listen to audiovisual content or music or would be interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from another country) 73

75 - Higher preference for dubbing in new Member States - Broadly speaking, views as to how respondents would like to receive content were similar in both old and new Member States, with most preferring content to remain in the original language (and for content to be subtitled or viewed in the original language). However, on average more respondents prefer programmes to be dubbed in the NSM12 than in EU15 (28% vs. 18%). EU15 NMS12 Subtitled 36% 31% In the original language 29% 22% Dubbed 18% 28% It depends on the language 10% 8% (SPONTANEOUS) Other (SPONTANEOUS) 1% 1% 6% 10% Base: 36% of the total base (Respondents who watch or listen to audiovisual content or music or would be interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from another country) 74

76 - Typical respondents preferring subtitles are almost the socio-demographic opposite of those who prefer dubbed content - Respondents who prefer foreign content to be subtitled are most likely to be young (aged years), well-educated, students and in higher social groups. Those who would prefer foreign content to be dubbed tend to be older (over 55 years), less well-educated, have difficulties paying their bills most of the time and from lower social groups. Base: 36% of the total base (Respondents who watch or listen to audiovisual content or music or would be interested in watching or listening to audiovisual content transmitted from another country) 75

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